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Daily Archives: July 13, 2015

पर्णशालाम् fAs

Today we will look at the form पर्णशालाम् fAs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 2.99.18.

जगत्यां पुरुषव्याघ्र आस्ते वीरासने रतः । जनेन्द्रो निर्जनं प्राप्य धिङ्मे जन्म सजीवितम् ।। २-९९-१५ ।।
मत्कृते व्यसनं प्राप्तो लोकनाथो महाद्‍युतिः । सर्वान्कामान्परित्यज्य वने वसति राघवः ।। २-९९-१६ ।।
इति लोकसमाक्रुष्टः पादेष्वद्य प्रसादयन् । रामं तस्य पतिष्यामि सीताया लक्ष्मणस्य च ।। २-९९-१७ ।।
एवं स विलपंस्तस्मिन्वने दशरथात्मजः । ददर्श महतीं पुण्यां पर्णशालां मनोरमाम् ।। २-९९-१८ ।।
सालतालाश्वकर्णानां पर्णैर्बहुभिरावृताम् । विशालां मृदुविस्तीर्णां कुशैर्वेदिमिवाध्वरे ।। २-९९-१९ ।।

Gita Press translation – “Having reached a lonely place Śrī Rāma (a tiger among men), a ruler of the people, sits delighted on the (bare) ground in the posture of a hero (with his left foot placed on his right knee). Woe be to my birth along with my life! (15) ‘Fallen in adversity (in the shape of being deprived of his inheritance and exiled) on my account, Śrī Rāma (a scion of Raghu), the protector of the world, who is possessed of great splendor, is dwelling in a forest having completely given up all enjoyments.’ (16) Reviled thus, by the world I shall fall at the feet of Śrī Rāma, Sītā and Lakṣmaṇa today with a view of propitiating them.”(17) Wailing as aforesaid, the celebrated Bharata (son of Daśaratha) beheld in that forest a large and holy hut of leafy twigs pleasing to the mind and thatched with abundant leaves of sāl, palmyra and Aśwakarṇa trees, and (thus) appearing (from a distance) like an extensive altar softly overspread with blades of Kuśa grass in a sacrificial performance (18-19)

(1) पर्णनिर्मिता शाला = पर्णशाला – hut made of leafy twigs.
Note: पर्णनिर्मिता itself is a तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound explained as follows – पर्णैर्निर्मिता = पर्णनिर्मिता – constructed of leafy twigs. The compound पर्णनिर्मिता is then used in the following derivation –

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) पर्णनिर्मिता सुँ + शाला सुँ । By 2-1-57 विशेषणं विशेष्येण बहुलम्‌ – A सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting a qualifier (adjective) variously compounds with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् which denotes that which is qualified – provided both the सुबन्त-पदे refer to the same item – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘पर्णनिर्मिता सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-57 (which prescribes the compounding) the term विशेषणम्‌ ends in the nominative case. Hence the adjective ‘पर्णनिर्मिता सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘पर्णनिर्मिता सुँ + शाला सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) पर्णनिर्मिता + शाला । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) पर्णशाला । By the वार्तिकम् – शाकपार्थिवादीनां सिद्धये उत्तरपदलोपस्‍योपसंख्‍यानम् – In order to explain compounds like शाकपार्थिव:, an additional provision is made to allow for the elision of the latter member of a compound (which itself is the prior member of the final compound.) In the present example the latter member ‘निर्मिता’ of the compound ‘पर्णनिर्मिता’ is elided in order to explain the compound ‘पर्णशाला’।
Note: A compound composed using this वार्तिकम् is referred to as a शाकपार्थिवादिसमास: or a मध्यमपदलोपिसमास:।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पर्णशाला’ is feminine since the latter member ‘शाला’ of the compound is feminine. The compound declines like रमा-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(6) पर्णशाला + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(7) पर्णशालाम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.


1. Can you spot a शाकपार्थिवादिसमास: (मध्यमपदलोपिसमास:) in verses 37-41 of Chapter Four of the गीता?

2. What is the विग्रह-वाक्यम् (explanatory sentence) for the compound पुरुषव्याघ्र:?

3. Which वार्त्तिकम् justifies the use of a second case affix in the form जन्म (and सजीवितम्) used in the verses?

4. What kind of compound is लोकसमाक्रुष्टः?
i. अव्ययीभाव:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. तृतीया-तत्पुरुष:
iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-126 लक्षणहेत्वोः क्रियायाः been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In the olden time many people lived in huts made of leafy twigs.” Use the अव्ययम् ‘पुरा’ for ‘in the olden time.’

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the affix ‘शप्’ taken the ‘लुक्’ elision?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-33 स्यतासी लृलुटोः been used in the verses?

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