Home » 2013 » July » 02

Daily Archives: July 2, 2013

स्थायं स्थायम्

Today we will look at the form स्थायं स्थायम् ind from भट्टिकाव्यम् 5.51.

स्थायं स्थायं क्वचिद् यान्तं क्रान्त्वा क्रान्त्वा स्थितं क्वचित् । वीक्षमाणो मृगं रामश्चित्रवृत्तिं विसिष्मिये ।। ५-५१ ।।

Translation – Watching a deer of amusing movements going after stopping repeatedly in some place and stopping after walking repeatedly in some place, Śrī Rāma was amazed.

स्थायम् is derived from the verbal root √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७).

(1) स्था + णमुँल् । By 3-4-22 आभीक्ष्ण्ये णमुल् च – To denote repetition of action, the affix ‘णमुँल्’ or ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ may be used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same. Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of the entire prior सूत्रम् 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले comes down in to this सूत्रम् 3-4-22.
Note: The common agent of the actions स्थायम् (after stopping) and यान्तम् (going) is मृगम् (deer.) The earlier of the two actions is the action ‘stopping’ which is denoted by √स्था and hence √स्था takes the affix ‘णमुँल्’।

(2) स्था + अम् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) स्था युक् + अम् । By 7-3-33 आतो युक् चिण्कृतोः – A अङ्गम् ending in the letter ‘आ’ takes the augment युक् when followed by the affix चिण् or a कृत् affix which is either ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्)। 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ places the augment युक् at the end of the अङ्गम्।

(4) स्था य् + अम् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: The letter ‘उ’ in ‘युक्’ is उच्चारणार्थ: (for pronunciation only.)

= स्थायम् । ‘स्थायम्’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a ‘कृत्’ affix or a ‘तद्धित’ affix and so also compounds get the name प्रातिपदिकम्।
‘स्थायम्’ also gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-39 कृन्मेजन्तः – A term ending in a ‘कृत्’ affix ending in the letter ‘म्’ or एच् (‘ए’, ‘ओ’, ‘ऐ’, ‘औ’) is designated as an indeclinable.

(5) स्थायम् + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) स्थायम् । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

(7) स्थायम् स्थायम् । By 8-1-4 नित्यवीप्सयोः – To express repetition of action or pervasion of a thing by a property or action, a पदम् (ref. 1-4-14) is duplicated.
Note: The affix ‘णमुँल्’ or ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ is capable of expressing repetition of action only after duplication (by 8-1-4).

(8) स्थायं स्थायम् । By 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः


1. Where has 8-1-4 नित्यवीप्सयोः (used in step 7) been used for the last time in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-3-33 आतो युक् चिण्कृतोः (used in step 3) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – ञ्णितीति किम्? पानीयम्। Please explain.

3. What would have been the final form in this example if the affix ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ were to be used (instead of ‘णमुँल्’)?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment ‘मुँक्’ in वीक्षमाण:?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“After repeatedly reading the Gītā a person becomes purified.” Use the निष्ठा affix ‘क्त’ with the verbal root √पू (पूङ् पवने १. ११२१) to form a प्रातिपदिकम् meaning ‘purified.’

Advanced questions:

1. What are the two alternate forms for क्रान्त्वा? You will need to use the following सूत्रम् (which we have not studied) –
6-4-18 क्रमश्च क्त्वि – When followed by the affix ‘क्त्वा’ which begins with a letter of the ‘झल्’-प्रत्याहार:, the penultimate letter (the vowel ‘अ’) of a base (अङ्गम्) consisting of the verbal root √क्रम् (क्रमुँ पादविक्षेपे १. ५४५) is optionally elongated.

Easy questions:

1. From which verbal root is विसिष्मिये derived?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-70 उगिदचां सर्वनामस्थानेऽधातोः been used in the verses?

Recent Posts

July 2013