Home » 2012 (Page 2)

Yearly Archives: 2012

अभिहितम् nNs

Today we will look at the form अभिहितम् nNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 11.18.48.

वर्णाश्रमवतां धर्म एष आचारलक्षणः । स एव मद्भक्तियुतो निःश्रेयसकरः परः ।। ११-१८-४७ ।।
एतत्तेऽभिहितं साधो भवान्पृच्छति यच्च माम् । यथा स्वधर्मसंयुक्तो भक्तो मां समियात्परम् ।। ११-१८-४८ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
उक्तमर्थं संक्षिप्याह – य एव आचारलक्षणः पितृलोकप्राप्तिफलः स एव मद्भक्तियुतो मदर्पणेन कृतः ।। ४७ ।। प्रकरणार्थमुपसंहरति – एतच्च तेऽभिहितम्यथा भक्तो भूत्वा मां परं संप्राप्नुयादिति ।। ४८ ।।

Translation – This is the righteous course of those affiliated to a particular Varṇa (class of men) and Āśrama (stage in life), consisting of certain (definite) rules of conduct. The same Dharma, when characterized by devotion to Me (i.e., pursued as an offering to Me) proves to be of supreme value as a means to final beatitude (47). (Thus) I have told you, O good one, how a man wedded to his righteous course turns out to be a devotee and duly attains to Me, the Supreme. And this is what you asked Me (in particular) (48).

The प्रातिपदिकम् “हित” is derived from the verbal root √धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके ३. ११).

(1) धा + क्त । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा – The affix “निष्ठा” (ref.1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा) may be used following a verbal root when denoting an action in the past tense. Note: The affix ‘क्त’ has been used कर्मणि (to denote the object) here as per 3-4-70 तयोरेव कृत्यक्तखलर्थाः – The affixes having the designation “कृत्य”, the affix “क्त” and the affixes that have the sense of “खल्” (ref: 3-3-126) are only used to denote the action (भावः) or the object (कर्म)।

(2) धा + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ prevents the affix ‘त’ from taking the augment ‘इट्’ which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः

(3) हि + त । By 7-4-42 दधातेर्हिः – The term ‘हि’ is substituted in place of the (entire) verbal root √धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके ३. ११) when followed by an affix which is कित् (has ककार: as a इत्) and begins with a तकार:। As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire term “धा” is replaced by “हि”।

‘हित’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds get the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

‘हित’ has been compounded with the उपसर्ग: ‘अभि’ to give the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अभिहित’। Note: The compounding is authorized by the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः which we have not studied yet.

The विवक्षा is नपुंसकलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(4) अभिहित + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(5) अभिहित + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes “सुँ” and “अम्” that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel “अ” take “अम्” as their replacement. 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending मकारः of “अम्” from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(6) अभिहितम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix “अम्” there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Where has ‘हित’ been used with the उपसर्ग: ‘अभि’ in Chapter Two of the गीता?

2. From which other verbal root may the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हित’ be derived?

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-4-42 दधातेर्हिः (used in step 3), the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – श्तिपा निर्देशो धेटो निवृत्त्यर्थः। Please explain.

4. Can you spot the affix ‘ट’ in the verses?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-16 ग्रहिज्यावयिव्यधिवष्टिविचतिवृश्चतिपृच्छतिभृज्जतीनां ङिति च been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Sañjaya heard the Gītā narrated by Śrī Kṛṣṇa to Arjuna.” Use चतुर्थी विभक्ति: with ‘Arjuna.’

Easy questions:

1. In which अधिकार: does the सूत्रम् 7-4-42 दधातेर्हिः (used in step 3) occur?
(i) धातो: (ii) अङ्गस्य (iii) भस्य (iv) प्रत्यय:, परश्च।

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-106 तदोः सः सावनन्त्ययोः been used in the verses?

स्थापिताः mNp

Today we will look at the form स्थापिताः mNp from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 7.27.11.

तद्यथा नमुचिर्वृत्रो बलिर्नरकशम्बरौ । त्वद्बलं समवष्टभ्य मया दग्धास्तथा कुरु ।। ७-२७-९ ।।
न ह्यन्यो देवदेवेश त्वदृते मधुसूदन । गतिः परायणं चापि त्रैलोक्ये सचराचरे ।। ७-२७-१० ।।
त्वं हि नारायणः श्रीमान्पद्मनाभः सनातनः । त्वयेमे स्थापिता लोकाः शक्रश्चाहं सुरेश्वरः ।। ७-२७-११ ।।

Gita Press translation – Therefore, (even) as leaning on Your might I exterminated (the demons) Namuci, Vṛtra, Bali, Naraka and Śambara, lend me Your strength likewise (9). Indeed, there is no refuge, no ultimate resort either, other than You, O Ruler of the adored of gods, in all the three worlds comprising the mobile and the immobile creation, O Destroyer of the demon Madhu! (10) Indeed, You are the glorious and eternal Nārāyaṇa, who has a lotus sprung from His navel. By You were these worlds set up as well as I, Indra, as the ruler of gods (11).

The प्रातिपदिकम् “स्थापित” is derived from the verbal root √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७).

The धातुः “ष्ठा” has an initial षकारः in the धातु-पाठः। By 6-1-64 धात्वादेः षः सः, there is the substitution of सकारः in the place of the initial षकारः of a धातुः। And as per the न्यायः “निमित्तापाये नैमित्तिकस्याप्यपाय:” (when a cause is gone, its effect is also gone) the ठकार-आदेशः for the थकारः, which has come in by 8-4-41 ष्टुना ष्टुः, because of the presence of the षकारः, now reverts to the थकारः since the cause for the ठकारादेश: no longer exists. So we now have √स्था।

(1) स्था + णिच् । By 3-1-26 हेतुमति च – The affix “णिच्” is used after a root, when the operation of a causer – such as the operation of directing – is to be expressed.

(2) स्था + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) स्था पुक् + इ । By 7-3-36 अर्त्तिह्रीव्लीरीक्नूयीक्ष्माय्यातां पुङ्णौ, the augment पुक् is added to the roots √ऋ (ऋ गतिप्रापणयोः १. १०८६, ऋ गतौ ३. १७), √ह्री (ह्री लज्जायाम् ३. ३), √व्ली (व्ली वरणे ९. ३७), √री (रीङ् श्रवणे ४. ३३, री गतिरेषणयोः ९. ३५), √क्नूय् (क्नूयीँ शब्द उन्दने च १. ५५८), √क्ष्माय् (क्ष्मायीँ विधूनने १. ५५९) and to a root ending in a आकार: when the causative affix “णि” follows. As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the “पुक्”-आगम: joins at the end of the अङ्गम् “स्था”।

(4) स्था प् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: The उकार: in “पुक्” is उच्चारणार्थ: (for pronunciation only.)

“स्थापि” gets धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः।

(5) स्थापि + क्त । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा – The affix “निष्ठा” (ref.1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा) may be used following a verbal root when denoting an action in the past tense. Note: The affix ‘क्त’ has been used कर्मणि (to denote the object) here as per 3-4-70 तयोरेव कृत्यक्तखलर्थाः – The affixes having the designation “कृत्य”, the affix “क्त” and the affixes that have the sense of “खल्” (ref: 3-3-126) are only used to denote the action (भावः) or the object (कर्म)।

(6) स्थापि + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) स्थापि + इट् त । By 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः, an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: beginning with a letter of the वल्-प्रत्याहारः gets the augment “इट्”। 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ places the “इट्”-आगमः at the beginning of the प्रत्यय:।

(8) स्थापि + इ त । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(9) स्थाप् + इत । By 6-4-52 निष्ठायां सेटि – The affix ‘णि’ is elided when followed by a निष्ठा affix (ref. 1-1-26) which has taken the augment ‘इट्’।

“स्थापित” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्।

(10) स्थापित + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(11) स्थापित + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकारः of “जस्” from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(12) स्थापितास् । 6-1-102 प्रथमयो: पूर्वसवर्ण: – When an अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(13) स्थापिताः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-52 निष्ठायां सेटि (used in step 9) been used in Chapter Five of the गीता?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘ल्यु’ in the verses?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-32 दादेर्धातोर्घः been used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् is used for the elision of the affix ‘हि’ in the form कुरु?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Śrī Rāma established Vibhīṣaṇa on the throne of Laṅkā.” Use the neuter (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सिंहासन’ for ‘throne.’

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I parked my car in front of your house.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-109 दश्च been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot a यकार-लोप: (elision of the letter ‘य्’) in the verses?

दत्तम् nNs

Today we will look at the form दत्तम् nNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 8.22.16.

प्रह्राद उवाच
त्वयैव दत्तं पदमैन्द्रमूर्जितं हृतं तदेवाद्य तथैव शोभनम् । मन्ये महानस्य कृतो ह्यनुग्रहो विभ्रंशितो यच्छ्रिय आत्ममोहनात् ।। ८-२२-१६ ।।
यया हि विद्वानपि मुह्यते यतस्तत्को विचष्टे गतिमात्मनो यथा । तस्मै नमस्ते जगदीश्वराय वै नारायणायाखिललोकसाक्षिणे ।। ८-२२-१७ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
त्वयैवेति । नह्यैन्द्रं पदमेतदीयं त्वयाऽपहृतं किंतु स्वीयमेव पुनः स्वीकृतं तच्च शोभनमेव कृतम् । तत्र हेतुः – मन्य इति । यद्यस्माच्छ्रीरेव यदात्ममोहनं तस्माद्विभ्रंशितः ।। १६ ।। मोहनत्वमेवाह – यया श्रिया विद्वानपि यतः संयतोऽपि मुह्यति तत्तस्यां सत्यां कोऽन्यः पुमानात्मनो गतिं तत्त्वं यथावद्विचष्टे पश्यति । तस्मै महाकारुणिकाय ।। १७ ।।

Gita Press translation – It was by You alone that this exalted position of Indira (the lord of paradise) was conferred (on him as a reward for the Viśwajit sacrifice performed by him to propitiate You) and it has likewise been taken away by You today. (In other words You have only accepted what was Yours). I consider that alone (which You have been pleased to do) to be good (for him). Indeed a great favour has been done to him in that he has been deprived of (his) fortune, which is (so) instrumental in infatuating the soul (16). Who can truly perceive the essential nature of his self despite such wealth, under the influence of which even a learned and self-controlled man falls a prey to delusion. Hail to that Lord in You, the Lord who has His abode in water, the undisputed Ruler of the universe and the Witness of all the worlds (17).

The प्रातिपदिकम् “दत्त” is derived from the verbal root √दा (डुदाञ् दाने ३. १०).

(1) दा + क्त । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा – The affix “निष्ठा” (ref.1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा) may be used following a verbal root when denoting an action in the past tense. Note: The affix ‘क्त’ has been used कर्मणि (to denote the object) here as per 3-4-70 तयोरेव कृत्यक्तखलर्थाः – The affixes having the designation “कृत्य”, the affix “क्त” and the affixes that have the sense of “खल्” (ref: 3-3-126) are only used to denote the action (भावः) or the object (कर्म)।

(2) दा + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ prevents the affix ‘त’ from taking the augment ‘इट्’ which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः

(3) दथ् + त । By 7-4-46 दो दद् घोः – The term ‘दथ्’ is substituted in place of the (entire) verbal root √दा which has the घु-सञ्ज्ञा (ref. 1-1-20 दाधा घ्वदाप्), when followed by an affix which is कित् (has ककार: as a इत्) and begins with a तकार:। As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire term “दा” is replaced by “दथ्”।

(4) दत्त । By 8-4-55 खरि च – A झल् letter is replaced by a चर् letter when a खर् letter follows.

“दत्त” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds get the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is नपुंसकलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(5) दत्त + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) दत्त + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes “सुँ” and “अम्” that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel “अ” take “अम्” as their replacement. 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending मकारः of “अम्” from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(7) दत्तम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix “अम्” there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. In the last verse of which chapter of the गीता has the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दत्त’ been used?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-4-46 दो दद् घोः (used in step 3), the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – घो: किम्? दात:। Please explain. Hint: दात: is derived from the verbal root √दा (दाप् लवने २. ५४).

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-4-46 दो दद् घोः (used in step 3), the काशिका says – द इति किम्? धीत:। Please explain. Hint: धीत: is derived from the verbal root √धे (धेट् पाने १. १०५०).

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-29 स्कोः संयोगाद्योरन्ते च been used in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Who gave you this book?” Use चतुर्थी विभक्ति: with ‘you.’

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“This book was given to me by my teacher.” Use चतुर्थी विभक्ति: with ‘me.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-77 अचि श्नुधातुभ्रुवां य्वोरियङुवङौ been used in the commentary?

2. Where has the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘इदम्’ been used in the verses?

दृढैः mIp

Today we will look at the form दृढैः mIp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 7.6.9.

को गृहेषु पुमान्सक्तमात्मानमजितेन्द्रियः । स्नेहपाशैर्दृढैर्बद्धमुत्सहेत विमोचितुम् ।। ७-६-९ ।।
को न्वर्थतृष्णां विसृजेत्प्राणेभ्योऽपि य ईप्सितः । यं क्रीणात्यसुभिः प्रेष्ठैस्तस्करः सेवको वणिक् ।। ७-६-१० ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
ननु यौवने गृहासक्तोऽपि पश्चाद्विरक्तः सन् क्षेमं यास्यतीत्याशङ्क्य तदसंभवं दर्शयन्कौमार एवाचरेदित्येतदुपपादयति – को गृहेष्विति सप्तभिः ।। ९ ।। यमर्थमसुभिः क्रीणाति प्राणहानिमङ्गीकृत्यापि साधयति तस्करादिः । तस्मिन्नर्थे तृष्णां को नु विसृजेत् ।। १० ।।

Gita Press translation – What man whose senses have not (yet) been conquered can hope to liberate his own self, attached to his home and bound with the powerful cords of affection? (9) Who indeed can give up the thirst for wealth, which is coveted more than life itself and which is a thief as well as a servant and a merchant purchased even in exchange for his most beloved life? (10)

(1) By 7-2-20 दृढः स्थूलबलयोः – The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दृढ’ is given as a ready-made form (derived by adding the निष्ठा affix ‘क्त’ to the verbal root √दृह् (दृहँ वृद्धौ १. ८३४) or √दृन्ह् (दृहिँ वृद्धौ १. ८३५)) in the sense of ‘stout’ or ‘strong.’

क्तस्येडभाव:। तस्य ढत्वम्। हस्य लोप:। इदितो नलोपश्च। (from सिद्धान्तकौमुदी) The following four operations are implied in the form ‘दृढ’ –
(i) Absence of the augment ‘इट्’ (which would have been done by 7-2-35) for the affix ‘क्त’
(ii) A substitution of a ढकार: in place of the तकार: of the affix ‘क्त’
(iii) An elision of the हकार: of √दृह् or √दृन्ह् and
(iv) In case of √दृन्ह् – an elision of the नकार: (prescribed by 7-1-58) of the verbal root.

“दृढ” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, तृतीया-बहुवचनम्

(2) दृढ + भिस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(3) दृढ + ऐस् । By 7-1-9 अतो भिस ऐस् – Following a अङ्गम् ending in a अकार:, the affix “भिस्” is replaced by “ऐस्”। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकारः of “ऐस्” from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(4) दृढैस् । By 6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि

(5) दृढैः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दृढ’ been used in Chapter Six of the गीता?

2. In the absence of the सूत्रम् 7-2-20 दृढः स्थूलबलयोः what would have been the final form in this example?

3. Can you spot the affix ‘क’ in the verses?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-133 ण्वुल्तृचौ been used in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् is used for the अभ्यास-लोप: in the form ईप्सितः?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Had your resolve been strong (which clearly it wasn’t), you would have attained success.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘निश्चय’ for ‘resolve’ and the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सिद्धि’ for ‘success.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix ‘श’ in the verses?

2. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“There is only one temple in this town.” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नगर’ for ‘town’ and the अव्ययम् ‘एव’ for ‘only.’

स्थितः mNs

Today we will look at the form स्थितः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.27.12.

यथा जलस्थ आभासः स्थलस्थेनावदृश्यते । स्वाभासेन तथा सूर्यो जलस्थेन दिवि स्थितः ।। ३-२७-१२ ।।
एवं त्रिवृदहङ्कारो भूतेन्द्रियमनोमयैः । स्वाभासैर्लक्षितोऽनेन सदाभासेन सत्यदृक् ।। ३-२७-१३ ।।
भूतसूक्ष्मेन्द्रियमनोबुद्ध्यादिष्विह निद्रया । लीनेष्वसति यस्तत्र विनिद्रो निरहङ्क्रियः ।। ३-२७-१४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अहंकारोपहितेन शुद्धब्रह्मप्रतिपत्तिं सदृष्टान्तमाह – यथेति । जले स्थित आभासः सूर्यप्रतिबिम्बो यदा गृहान्तर्वर्तिभित्तौ स्फुरति तदा गृहकोणस्थितैः पुरुषैर्भित्त्यादौ स्थले स्थितेन स्वाभासेन सूर्यप्रतिबिम्बेन यथा प्रथमं जलस्थ आभासोऽवदृश्यते लक्ष्यते, गगनस्थस्य गृहमध्ये प्रतिबिम्बायोगात् । चार्थे तथाशब्दः । यथा चेत्यर्थः । यथाजलस्थेन दिवि स्थितः सूर्यो लक्ष्यते ।। १२ ।। एवं भूतेन्द्रियमनोमयैः देहेन्द्रियमनोभिरवच्छिन्नैः स्वाभासैरात्मप्रतिबिम्बैस्त्रिवृत्त्रिगुणोऽहंकारः सतो ब्रह्मण आभासो यस्मिंस्तेन रूपेण लक्षितः । अहंकारस्थाभासं विना विषयाभासानुत्पत्तेः । अनेन चाहंकारेण सदाभासवता सत्यदृक् परमार्थज्ञप्तिरूप आत्मा लक्षित इत्यर्थः ।। १३ ।। इदानीं सुषुप्तिसाक्षित्वेन शुद्धात्मप्रतिपत्तिमनुभवतो दर्शयति त्रिभिः । भूतादिष्वसत्यसत्तुल्येऽव्याकृते निद्रया लीनेषु सत्सु यस्तत्र तदा विनिद्रो निरहंक्रियस्तमात्मानं प्रतिपद्यत इति तृतीयेनान्वयः ।। १४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Just as a reflection of the sun in water (existing in a pot in a corner of some house) is discovered (by the inmates of the house) with the help of a reflection of that reflection on a wall of the house, and the sun in the heavens can be seen with the help of its own reflection in water, even so the threefold (Sāttvika, Rājasika and Tāmasika) ego (which reflects the Spirit) is revealed through its reflections on the body, the Indriyas and the mind and through the ego, which contains a reflection of the Spirit, is seen God, who is possessed of true wisdom, is absolutely free from egotism and keeps awake even when the subtle elements (in the shape of sound etc.), the Indriyas, the mind and the intellect etc., get merged in the Unmanifest (Primordial Matter) on account of sleep (during the state of deep slumber) (12-14).

The प्रातिपदिकम् “स्थित” is derived from the verbal root √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७).

The धातुः “ष्ठा” has an initial षकारः in the धातु-पाठः। By 6-1-64 धात्वादेः षः सः, there is the substitution of सकारः in the place of the initial षकारः of a धातुः। And as per the न्यायः “निमित्तापाये नैमित्तिकस्याप्यपाय:” (when a cause is gone, its effect is also gone) the ठकारादेश: for the थकारः, which has come in by 8-4-41 ष्टुना ष्टुः, because of the presence of the षकारः, now reverts to the थकारः since the cause for the ठकारादेश: no longer exists. So we now have √स्था।

(1) स्था + क्त । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा – The affix “निष्ठा” (ref.1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा) may be used following a verbal root when denoting an action in the past tense. Note: The affix ‘क्त’ has been used कर्तरि (to denote the agent) here as per 3-4-72 गत्यर्थाकर्मकश्लिषशीङ्स्थासवसजनरुहजीर्यतिभ्यश्च – When following one of the verbal roots listed below, the affix “क्त” may be used in the active voice (कर्तरि) as well as in the passive voice (भावकर्मणो:) –
(i) any verbal root used in the sense of motion (गत्यर्थ:)
(ii) any verbal root used intransitively (अकर्मक:)
(iii) the verbal roots √श्लिष् (श्लिषँ आलिङ्गने ४. ८३), √शी (शीङ् स्वप्ने २. २६), √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७), √आस् (आसँ उपवेशने २. ११), √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०), √जन् (जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४), √रुह् (रुहँ बीजजन्मनि प्रादुर्भावे च १. ९९५) and √जॄ (जॄष् वयोहानौ ४. २५)।
Note: The verbal roots listed in (iii) are intransitive. But when used with a उपसर्ग: they may become transitive. In that case they would not be covered by (ii). This is the reason for listing them separately in (iii).

(2) स्था + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ prevents the affix ‘त’ from taking the augment ‘इट्’ which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः

(3) स्थि + त । By 7-4-40 द्यतिस्यतिमास्थामित्ति किति – A इकार: is substituted in place of the final letter of the verbal roots √दो (दो अवखण्डने ४. ४३), √सो (षो अन्तकर्मणि ४. ४२), √मा (मा माने २. ५७, माङ् माने शब्दे च ३. ७, माङ् माने ४. ३७, मेङ् प्रणिदाने १. १११६) and √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७) when followed by an affix which is कित् (has ककार: as a इत्) and begins with a तकार:।

“स्थित” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds get the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(4) स्थित + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(5) स्थित + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(6) स्थितः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-40 द्यतिस्यतिमास्थामित्ति किति been used for the last time in the गीता?

2. In the absence of 7-4-40 द्यतिस्यतिमास्थामित्ति किति, which सूत्रम् would have applied in step 3? Hint: That सूत्रम् would have prescribed a ईकारादेश:।

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-4 सुपि स्थः been used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the नकारादेश: in the form लीनेषु?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Worship the Lord situated in your heart.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Sītā was seen by Śrī Hanumān who was situated on the branch of a tree.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix ‘श’ in the commentary?

2. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“There is no other way.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पथिन्’ for ‘way.’

क्षामाम् fAs

Today we will look at the form क्षामाम् fAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.23.5.

कालेन भूयसा क्षामां कर्शितां व्रतचर्यया । प्रेमगद्गदया वाचा पीडितः कृपयाब्रवीत् ।। ३-२३-५ ।।
कर्दम उवाच
तुष्टोऽहमद्य तव मानवि मानदायाः शुश्रूषया परमया परया च भक्त्या । यो देहिनामयमतीव सुहृत्स्वदेहो नावेक्षितः समुचितः क्षपितुं मदर्थे ।। ३-२३-६ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
व्रतचर्यया कर्शितां तत्रापि भूयसा कालेनातिक्षामामित्यर्थः ।। ५ ।। सुहृत्प्रियः । मदर्थे क्षपयितुं नावेक्षितो न गणितः । समुचितः श्लाघ्योऽपि मत्सेवासक्तयोपेक्षित इत्यर्थः ।। ६ ।।

Gita Press translation – Nay, having served him for a long time, she had grown weak and emaciated on account of her religious observances. Kardama (the foremost of celestial sages) was, therefore, oppressed with a feeling of commiseration for her and spoke to her in accents faltering with love (5). Kardama said: O daughter of Manu, you have shown great respect to me and I am pleased today with your most faithful service and supreme devotion. You ungrudgingly wasted your body for my sake (in my service) – body which is extremely dear to all living beings and deserves every attention (6).

The प्रातिपदिकम् “क्षाम” is derived from the verbal root √क्षै (क्षै क्षये १. १०६१).

(1) क्षा + क्त । By 6-1-45 आदेच उपदेशेऽशिति – The ending एच् (“ए”, “ओ”, “ऐ”, “औ”) letter of a धातु: in the धातु-पाठ: is replaced by a आकार:, but not in the context where a शकार: which is a इत् follows. By 3-2-102 निष्ठा – The affix “निष्ठा” (ref.1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा) may be used following a verbal root when denoting an action in the past tense. Note: The affix ‘क्त’ has been used कर्तरि (to denote the agent) here as per 3-4-72 गत्यर्थाकर्मकश्लिषशीङ्स्थासवसजनरुहजीर्यतिभ्यश्च – When following one of the verbal roots listed below, the affix “क्त” may be used in the active voice (कर्तरि) as well as in the passive voice (भावकर्मणो:) –
(i) any verbal root used in the sense of motion (गत्यर्थ:)
(ii) any verbal root used intransitively (अकर्मक:)
(iii) the verbal roots √श्लिष् (श्लिषँ आलिङ्गने ४. ८३), √शी (शीङ् स्वप्ने २. २६), √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७), √आस् (आसँ उपवेशने २. ११), √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०), √जन् (जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४), √रुह् (रुहँ बीजजन्मनि प्रादुर्भावे च १. ९९५) and √जॄ (जॄष् वयोहानौ ४. २५)।
Note: The verbal roots listed in (iii) are intransitive. But when used with a उपसर्ग: they may become transitive. In that case they would not be covered by (ii). This is the reason for listing them separately in (iii).

(2) क्षा + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ prevents the affix ‘त’ from taking the augment ‘इट्’ which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः

(3) क्षा + म । By 8-2-53 क्षायो मः – A मकार: is the replacement in place of a तकार: of a निष्ठा affix (ref. 1-1-26) which immediately follows the verbal root √क्षै (क्षै क्षये १. १०६१).

“क्षाम” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) क्षाम + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌ – The प्रातिपदिकानि “अज” etc. and प्रातिपदिकानि ending in अकारः get the टाप् affix in the feminine gender.

(5) क्षाम + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) क्षामा । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

The विवक्षा is स्त्रीलिङ्गे, द्वितीया-एकवचनम्

(7) क्षामा + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending मकार: of “अम्” from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) क्षामाम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix “अम्” there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-16 अज्झनगमां सनि been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘क’ in the verses?

3. Can you spot the affix ‘क’ in the commentary?

4. Which कृत्य-प्रत्यय: has been used in the commentary?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Śrī Hanumān saw Sītā who had grown weak on account of grief.” As in the verse, use तृतीया विभक्ति: to express the meaning of ‘on account of.’

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The study of grammar was never neglected by me.” Use a प्रातिपदिकम् from the commentary for ‘to be neglected.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment ‘अट्’ in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् is used for the ह्रस्वादेश: (short substitute in the place of a long vowel) in the form मानवि?

पक्वानाम् nGp

Today we will look at the form पक्वानाम् nGp from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 2.105.17.

यथा फलानां पक्वानां नान्यत्र पतनाद्भयम् । एवं नरस्य जातस्य नान्यत्र मरणाद्भयम् ।। २-१०५-१७ ।।
यथाऽऽगारं दृढस्थूणं जीर्णं भूत्वावसीदति । तथावसीदन्ति नरा जरामृत्युवशंगताः ।। २-१०५-१८ ।।

Gita Press translation – As no fear from any quarter other than a fall awaits ripe fruits, so no fear from any quarter other than death awaits a man come into the world (17). (Even) as a house (though) supported by stout pillars collapses on getting old, so men fallen into the clutches of old age and death breathe their last (18).

The प्रातिपदिकम् “पक्व” is derived from the verbal root √पच् (डुपचँष् पाके १. ११५१).

(1) पच् + क्त । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा – The affix “निष्ठा” (ref.1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा) may be used following a verbal root when denoting an action in the past tense. Note: ‘पक्व’ has been used in this verse in a special type of usage called a कर्मकर्तरि प्रयोग: where the object (in this case फलानि) is turned into a subject and the verb (in this case √पच्) which is transitive is turned in to intransitive as a result.

(2) पच् + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ prevents the affix ‘त’ from taking the augment ‘इट्’ which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः। See question 2.

(3) पक् + त । By 8-2-30 चोः कुः – The consonants of the च-वर्ग: (“च्”, “छ्”, “ज्”, “झ्”, “ञ्”) get the consonants of the क-वर्ग: (“क्”, “ख्”, “ग्”, “घ्”, “ङ्”) as a replacement when they occur at the end of a पदम् or when they are followed by a झल् letter.

(4) पक् + व । By 8-2-52 पचो वः – A वकार: is the replacement in place of a तकार: of a निष्ठा affix (ref. 1-1-26) which immediately follows the verbal root √पच् (डुपचँष् पाके १. ११५१).

“पक्व” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is नपुंसकलिङ्गे षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्।

(5) पक्व + आम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending मकारः of “आम्” from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(6) पक्व + नुँट् आम् । By 7-1-54 ह्रस्वनद्यापो नुट्, the affix “आम्” takes the augment नुँट् when it follows a प्रातिपदिकम् which either ends in a short vowel or has the नदी-संज्ञा or ends in the feminine affix “आप्”। By the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the ‘नुँट्’-आगम: joins at the beginning of “आम्”।

(7) पक्व + नाम् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) पक्वानाम् । By 6-4-3 नामि – The ending vowel of an अङ्गम् gets elongated if followed by the term “नाम्”।

Questions:

1. Where has the verbal root √पच् (डुपचँष् पाके १. ११५१) been used in Chapter Fifteen of the गीता?

2. Among the monosyllabic verbal roots which end in a चकार:, which others (besides √पच्) are अनुदात्तोपदेशा: in the धातुपाठ:?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-42 रदाभ्यां निष्ठातो नः पूर्वस्य च दः been used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘सीद’ in the forms अवसीदति and अवसीदन्ति?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Even though I’m not old my hair is grey (cooked.)”

Advanced question:

1. The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जात’ is derived from the verbal root √जन् (जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४). In the ‘अङ्गस्य’ अधिकार:, can you find a सूत्रम् which prescribes the आकारादेश: in ‘जात’? Hint: पाणिनि: specifically mentions the verbal root √जन् in the सूत्रम्।

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used for the substitute ‘स्य’ in the form नरस्य and जातस्य?

2. From which सूत्रम् does the अनुवृत्ति: of ‘दीर्घ:’ come in to the सूत्रम् 6-4-3 नामि (used in step 8)?

शुष्कैः nIp

Today we will look at the form शुष्कैः mIp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 8.11.37.

सोऽयं प्रतिहतो वज्रो मया मुक्तोऽसुरेऽल्पके । नाहं तदाददे दण्डं ब्रह्मतेजोऽप्यकारणम् ।। ८-११-३६ ।।
इति शक्रं विषीदन्तमाह वागशरीरिणी । नायं शुष्कैरथो नार्द्रैर्वधमर्हति दानवः ।। ८-११-३७ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
दण्डं लगुडतुल्यं कुलिशम् । ब्रह्मतेजो दधीचेः सामर्थ्यम् ।। ३६ ।। ३७ ।।

Gita Press translation – (When) hurled by me at this puny Asura, the same thunderbolt has been rendered ineffectual! A (mere) staff, I shall no more handle it; though embodying the (spiritual) energy of a Brāhmaṇa (the sage Dadhīci), it is unavailing (now)” (36). To Śakra, who was thus sorrowing, an incorporeal voice said, “This demon can be killed neither with dry nor with wet things” (37).

The प्रातिपदिकम् “शुष्क” is derived from the verbal root √शुष् (शुषँ शोषणे ४. ८०).

(1) शुष् + क्त । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा – The affix “निष्ठा” (ref.1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा) may be used following a verbal root when denoting an action in the past tense. Note: The affix ‘क्त’ has been used कर्तरि (to denote the agent) here as per 3-4-72 गत्यर्थाकर्मकश्लिषशीङ्स्थासवसजनरुहजीर्यतिभ्यश्च – When following one of the verbal roots listed below, the affix “क्त” may be used in the active voice (कर्तरि) as well as in the passive voice (भावकर्मणो:) –
(i) any verbal root used in the sense of motion (गत्यर्थ:)
(ii) any verbal root used intransitively (अकर्मक:)
(iii) the verbal roots √श्लिष् (श्लिषँ आलिङ्गने ४. ८३), √शी (शीङ् स्वप्ने २. २६), √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७), √आस् (आसँ उपवेशने २. ११), √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०), √जन् (जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४), √रुह् (रुहँ बीजजन्मनि प्रादुर्भावे च १. ९९५) and √जॄ (जॄष् वयोहानौ ४. २५)।
Note: The verbal roots listed in (iii) are intransitive. But when used with a उपसर्ग: they may become transitive. In that case they would not be covered by (ii). This is the reason for listing them separately in (iii).

(2) शुष् + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ prevents the affix ‘त’ from taking the augment ‘इट्’ which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः। The affix “क्त” is a कित्। Hence 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च from applying.

(3) शुष् + क । By 8-2-51 शुषः कः – A ककार: is the replacement in place of a तकार: of a निष्ठा affix (ref. 1-1-26) which immediately follows the verbal root √शुष् (शुषँ शोषणे ४. ८०).

“शुष्क” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is नपुंसकलिङ्गे, तृतीया-बहुवचनम्

(4) शुष्क + भिस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकारः of “भिस्” from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(5) शुष्क + ऐस् । By 7-1-9 अतो भिस ऐस् – Following a अङ्गम् ending in a अकार:, the affix “भिस्” is replaced by “ऐस्”।

(6) शुष्कैस् । By 6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि

(7) शुष्कैः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. In the absence of 8-2-51 शुषः कः which सूत्रम् would have applied after step 2?

2. Which सूत्रम् requires the use of आत्मनेपदम् in the form आददे?

3. In which प्रातिपदिकम् in the verses has 6-4-37 अनुदात्तोपदेशवनतितनोत्यादीनामनुनासिकलोपो झलि क्ङिति been used?

4. From which verbal root is the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मुक्त’ derived? Can you recall a सूत्रम् in which पाणिनि: specifically mentions this verbal root?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I think that your statement is baseless (dry).” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वाद’ for ‘statement.’

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“What is gone is gone. Tell me what should be done now.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used for the substitution ‘अय्’ in the form अयम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘इदम्’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्)?

2. In the verses, can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् which ends in ‘च्’?

 

दीनः mNs

Today we will look at the form दीनः mNs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 2.103.3.

जघान बलिनं रामः सहस्रनयनात्मजम् । वालिनं मेरुसङ्काशं पर्याप्तं तन्निदर्शनम् ।। ६-९४-१७ ।।
ऋष्यमूके वसंश्चैव दीनो भग्नमनोरथः । सुग्रीवः प्रापितो राज्यं पर्याप्तं तन्निदर्शनम् ।। ६-९४-१८ ।।
धर्मार्थसहितं वाक्यं सर्वेषां रक्षसां हितम् । युक्तं विभीषणेनोक्तं मोहात्तस्य न रोचते ।। ६-९४-१९ ।।
विभीषणवचः कुर्याद्यदि स्म धनदानुजः । श्मशानभूता दुःखार्ता नेयं लङ्का भविष्यति ।। ६-९४-२० ।।

Gita Press translation – Rāma (also) killed the mighty Vālī, sprung from the loins of Indra (the thousand-eyed god), who resembled Mount Meru (in size). His example (too) should have been sufficient (to serve) as an eye-opener (to Rāvaṇa) (17). Living disconsolate on Mount Ṛṣyamūka, his ambitions dashed to pieces, Sugrīva too was restored to the throne. That example (too) should have proved sufficient (to make Rāvaṇa realize the greatness of Rāma) (18). “The reasonable advice tendered by Vibhīṣaṇa, which was not only in consonance with righteousness but rebounded to the (wordly) interest of Rāvaṇa, nay, which was conducive to the good of all the ogres, did not find favor with Rāvaṇa due to his folly (19). Had Rāvaṇa (the younger half-brother of Kubera) followed the advice of Vibhīṣaṇa, this (city of) Laṅkā would not have been afflicted with sorrow and turned a crematorium (20).

The प्रातिपदिकम् “दीन” is derived from the verbal root √दी (दीङ् क्षये ४. २९).

(1) दी + क्त । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा – The affix “निष्ठा” (ref.1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा) may be used following a verbal root when denoting an action in the past tense. Note: The affix ‘क्त’ has been used कर्तरि (to denote the agent) here as per 3-4-72 गत्यर्थाकर्मकश्लिषशीङ्स्थासवसजनरुहजीर्यतिभ्यश्च – When following one of the verbal roots listed below, the affix “क्त” may be used in the active voice (कर्तरि) as well as in the passive voice (भावकर्मणो:) –
(i) any verbal root used in the sense of motion (गत्यर्थ:)
(ii) any verbal root used intransitively (अकर्मक:)
(iii) the verbal roots √श्लिष् (श्लिषँ आलिङ्गने ४. ८३), √शी (शीङ् स्वप्ने २. २६), √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७), √आस् (आसँ उपवेशने २. ११), √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०), √जन् (जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४), √रुह् (रुहँ बीजजन्मनि प्रादुर्भावे च १. ९९५) and √जॄ (जॄष् वयोहानौ ४. २५)।
Note: The verbal roots listed in (iii) are intransitive. But when used with a उपसर्ग: they may become transitive. In that case they would not be covered by (ii). This is the reason for listing them separately in (iii).

(2) दी + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ prevents the affix ‘त’ from taking the augment ‘इट्’ which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः। The affix “क्त” is a कित्। Hence 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः from applying.

(3) दी + न । By 8-2-45 ओदितश्च – A नकार: is the replacement in place of a तकार: of a निष्ठा affix (ref. 1-1-26) which immediately follows a verbal root which has ओकार: as a इत्। Note: As per स्वादय ओदितः। गण-सूत्रम् (in the दिवादि-गण: of the धातुपाठ:) – The verbal roots (listed in order in the धातु-पाठ:) beginning with √सू (षूङ् प्राणिप्रसवे ४. २७) and ending with √व्री (व्रीङ् वृणोत्यर्थे ४. ३५) are considered to have ओकार: as a इत्। Hence √दी (दीङ् क्षये ४. २९) is considered to have ओकार: as a इत्। This allows 8-2-45 to apply here.

“दीन” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(4) दीन + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(5) दीन + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(6) दीनः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. In Chapter Fourteen of the गीता, can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् in which the गण-सूत्रम् (in the दिवादि-गण: of the धातुपाठ:) स्वादय ओदितः (used in step 3) could be used?

2. In which other प्रातिपदिकम् (besides ‘दीन’) in the verses has the सूत्रम् 8-2-45 ओदितश्च been used?

3. In the verses, can you spot a उपपद-समास: (which is part of a bigger compound) in which the affix ‘ड’ has been used?

4. Can you spot the affix ‘ल्यु’ in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् is used for the कवर्गादेश: in the form जघान?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
‘I notice that you are dejected.’ Paraphrase to ‘That you are dejected is noticed by me.’ Use the verbal root √लक्ष् (लक्षँ आलोचने १०. २१९, लक्षँ दर्शनाङ्कनयोः १०. ६) for ‘to notice.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-110 यः सौ been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot the augment ‘सुँट्’ in the verses?

क्षीणः mNs

Today we will look at the form क्षीणः mNs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 6.65.7.

विक्लवानां ह्यबुद्धीनां राज्ञां पण्डितमानिनाम् । रोचते त्वद्वचो नित्यं कथ्यमानं महोदर ।। ६-६५-५ ।।
युद्धे कापुरुषैर्नित्यं भवद्भिः प्रियवादिभिः । राजानमनुगच्छद्भिः सर्वं कृत्यं विनाशितम् ।। ६-६५-६ ।।
राजशेषा कृता लङ्का क्षीणः कोशो बलं हतम् । राजानमिममासाद्य सुहृच्चिह्नममित्रकम् ।। ६-६५-७ ।।

Gita Press translation – Your advice, (even) while it is being tendered, would undoubtedly appeal at all times to kings who are cowardly and devoid of intellect and account themselves wise, O Mahodara! (5) All undertakings have always been marred by you people, who are cowards in combat, utter pleasing words and say ditto to the kings (during deliberations) (6). The king alone is left in Laṅkā (which has been divested of its population), its exchequer depleted, and army destroyed. (Nay) having found access to this king, enemies masquerading as friends have gathered round him (7).

The प्रातिपदिकम् “क्षीण” is derived from the verbal root √क्षि (क्षि क्षये १. २६९, क्षि निवासगत्योः ६. १४३).

(1) क्षि + क्त । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा – The affix “निष्ठा” (ref.1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा) may be used following a verbal root when denoting an action in the past tense. Note: The affix ‘क्त’ has been used कर्तरि (to denote the agent) here as per 3-4-72 गत्यर्थाकर्मकश्लिषशीङ्स्थासवसजनरुहजीर्यतिभ्यश्च – When following one of the verbal roots listed below, the affix “क्त” may be used in the active voice (कर्तरि) as well as in the passive voice (भावकर्मणो:) –
(i) any verbal root used in the sense of motion (गत्यर्थ:)
(ii) any verbal root used intransitively (अकर्मक:)
(iii) the verbal roots √श्लिष् (श्लिषँ आलिङ्गने ४. ८३), √शी (शीङ् स्वप्ने २. २६), √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७), √आस् (आसँ उपवेशने २. ११), √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०), √जन् (जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४), √रुह् (रुहँ बीजजन्मनि प्रादुर्भावे च १. ९९५) and √जॄ (जॄष् वयोहानौ ४. २५)।
Note: The verbal roots listed in (iii) are intransitive. But when used with a उपसर्ग: they may become transitive. In that case they would not be covered by (ii). This is the reason for listing them separately in (iii).

(2) क्षि + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ prevents the affix ‘त’ from taking the augment ‘इट्’ which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः। The affix “क्त” is a कित्। Hence 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः from applying.

(3) क्षी + त । By 6-4-60 निष्ठायामण्यदर्थे – (The final vowel) of a अङ्गम् consisting of the verbal root √क्षि (क्षि क्षये १. २६९, क्षि निवासगत्योः ६. १४३) is elongated when followed by a निष्ठा affix which is used in a non-passive sense. As per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending इकार: of the अङ्गम् is elongated.

(4) क्षी + न । By 8-2-46 क्षियो दीर्घात्‌ – A नकार: is the replacement in place of a तकार: of a निष्ठा affix (ref. 1-1-26) which immediately follows the verbal root √क्षि (क्षि क्षये १. २६९, क्षि निवासगत्योः ६. १४३) (the final vowel of) which has been elongated.

(5) क्षी + ण । By 8-4-2 अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेऽपि

“क्षीण” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(6) क्षीण + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) क्षीण + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(8) क्षीणः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘क्षीण’ been used in Chapter Nine of the गीता?

2. To highlight the importance of the term ‘अण्यदर्थे’ in the सूत्रम् 6-4-60 निष्ठायामण्यदर्थे (used in step 3), the तत्त्वबोधिनी gives the counter-example कामेन क्षितम्। Please explain.

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-83 आत्ममाने खश्च been used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘णिनिँ’ in ‘प्रियवादिन्’?

5. Can you spot the affix ‘क्यप्’ in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“A man whose sins have been exhausted is not born again.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used for the एकारादेश: (letter ‘ए’ as a substitute) in the form रोचते?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-109 दश्च been used in the verses?

Recent Posts

September 2020
M T W T F S S
 123456
78910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
282930  

Topics