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देवकृतः mNs

Today we will look at the form देवकृतः  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 5.20.13.

एवं सुरोदाद्बहिस्तद्द्विगुणः समानेनावृतो घृतोदेन यथापूर्वः कुशद्वीपो यस्मिन्कुशस्तम्बो देवकृतस्तद्द्वीपाख्याकरो ज्वलन इवापरः स्वशष्परोचिषा दिशो विराजयति ।। ५-२०-१३ ।।
तद्द्वीपपतिः प्रैयव्रतो राजन्हिरण्यरेता नाम स्वं द्वीपं सप्तभ्यः स्वपुत्रेभ्यो यथाभागं विभज्य स्वयं तप आतिष्ठत वसुवसुदानदृढरुचिनाभिगुप्तस्तुत्यव्रतविविक्तवामदेवनामभ्यः ।। ५-२०-१४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
एवं सुरोदाद्बहिर्घृतोदेनावृतः कुशद्वीप इत्यन्वयः । स्वशष्पाणि स्वकोमलशिखास्तेषां रोचिषा ।। १३ ।। १४ ।।

Translation – Similarly, beyond the ocean of wine and twice as large, the Kuśadwīpa, which like the Śālmaladwīpa, (mentioned in passage 7 above), is encircled (on the other side) by an equally wide ocean of clarified butter. In that Dwīpa there is a clump of Kuśa grass, created by the Lord (Himself), which is responsible for the name of the Dwīpa, and which, like another (heatless) flaming fire, illuminates the quarters by the effulgence of its (tender) shoots (13). Its (first) ruler, O Parīkṣit, king Hiraṇyaretā by name, (the fourth) son of Priyavrata, divided his Dwīpa, in due proportion among his seven sons – Vasu, Vasudāna, Dṛḍharuci, Nābhigupta, Stutyavrata, Vivikta and Vāmadeva – and himself took to religious austerities (14).

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
(1) देवकृतः = देवेन कृतः – created by the Lord.
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया a third case affix is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘देव’ which denotes the agent of the action.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) देव टा + कृत सुँ । By 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ – A पदम् ending in a third case affix – denoting either the agent or the instrument of the action – variously compounds with (a syntactically related पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) a term ending in a कृत् affix (ref. 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘देव टा’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 (which prescribes the compounding) the term तृतीया (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from 2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन) ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘देव टा’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘देव टा + कृत सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) देव + कृत । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= देवकृत ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘देवकृत’ is masculine here since the latter member ‘कृत’ of the compound is used here in the masculine. (The entire compound is qualifying कुशस्तम्ब:।)

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(5) देवकृत + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) देवकृत + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) देवकृत: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ (used in step 2) been used in verses 7-12 of Chapter Seventeen of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – ‘कर्तृकरणे’ इति किम्‌? भिक्षाभिरुषित:। हेतावेषा तृतीया। Please explain.

3. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – कृता किम्‌? काष्ठै: पचतितराम्‌। Please explain.

4. What is the विग्रह-वाक्यम् of the अव्ययीभाव: compound यथाभागम् used in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I consider this entire universe (to be) created by the Lord.” Use the verbal root √मन् (मनँ ज्ञाने ४. ७३) for ‘to consider.’ Use the adjective ‘कृत्स्न’ for ‘entire.’

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Seeing (having seen) Ravana killed by Sri Rama, all the monkeys rejoiced.” Use the verbal root √हृष् (हृषँ तुष्टौ ४. १४२) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘प्र’ for ‘to rejoice.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix णिच् used in the form विराजयति?

2. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 7-3-103 बहुवचने झल्येत्‌ apply in the form सप्तभ्यः?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ (used in step 2) been used in verses 7-12 of Chapter Seventeen of the गीता?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ has been used in verses 7-12 of Chapter Seventeen of the गीता in the form विधिदृष्टः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विधिदृष्ट’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्)।

    अफलाङ्क्षिभिर्यज्ञो विधिदृष्टो य इज्यते |
    यष्टव्यमेवेति मनः समाधाय स सात्त्विकः || 17-11||

    विधिदृष्टः = विधिना दृष्टः।
    The derivation of the compound विधिदृष्टः is similar to that of the compound देवकृतः as shown in the post.

    2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – ‘कर्तृकरणे’ इति किम्‌? भिक्षाभिरुषित:। हेतावेषा तृतीया। Please explain.
    Answer: ‘कर्तृकरणे’ इति किम्‌? Why does the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ say कर्तृकरणे? It is to prevent compounding in examples such as भिक्षाभिरुषित: – (someone) stayed because of alms. The third case affix employed in भिक्षाभि: denotes neither the agent nor the instrument of the action. हेतावेषा तृतीया – It instead denotes the cause/reason.

    3. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – कृता किम्‌? काष्ठै: पचतितराम्‌। Please explain.
    Answer: कृता किम्‌? Why does पाणिनि: specify कृता in the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌? Consider the example काष्ठै: पचतितराम्‌। There is no कृत् affix in पचतितराम्‌। Hence no compounding takes place even though the third case affix used in काष्ठै: does denote the करणम् (the instrument of the action.)

    4. What is the विग्रह-वाक्यम् of the अव्ययीभाव: compound यथाभागम् used in the verses?
    Answer: The विग्रह-वाक्यम् of the अव्ययीभाव: compound यथाभागम् is as follows –
    भागमनतिक्रम्य = यथाभागम् – not transgressing the portion. Hence it means ‘in due proportion’.

    The derivation of the अव्ययीभाव: compound यथाभागम् is similar to that of the अव्ययीभाव: compound यथोक्तम् as shown in the answer to question 1 in the following comment – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2014/12/22/यथाविधि-ind/#comment-35145

    5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “I consider this entire universe (to be) created by the Lord.” Use the verbal root √मन् (मनँ ज्ञाने ४. ७३) for ‘to consider.’ Use the adjective ‘कृत्स्न’ for ‘entire.’
    Answer: इदम् कृत्स्नम् जगत् देवकृतम् (अहम्) मन्ये = इदं कृत्स्नं जगद्देवकृतं मन्ये।

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “Seeing (having seen) Ravana killed by Sri Rama, all the monkeys rejoiced.” Use the verbal root √हृष् (हृषँ तुष्टौ ४. १४२) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘प्र’ for ‘to rejoice.’
    Answer: रावणम् श्रीरामहतम् दृष्ट्वा सर्वे वानराः प्रजहृषुः = रावणं श्रीरामहतं दृष्ट्वा सर्वे वानराः प्रजहृषुः।

    Easy questions:
    1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix णिच् used in the form विराजयति?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-1-26 हेतुमति च prescribes the affix णिच् used in the form विराजयति – derived from the verbal root √राज् (राजृँ दीप्तौ १. ९५६) as follows.

    The विवक्षा is लँट्, प्रथम-पुरुषः, कर्तरि प्रयोगः (हेतुमति), एकवचनम्।
    राज् + णिच् । By 3-1-26 हेतुमति च – The affix ‘णिच्’ is used after a verbal root, when the operation of a causer – such as the operation of directing – is to be expressed.
    = राज् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = राजि । ‘राजि’ gets the धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः।
    राजि + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्।
    = राजि + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = राजि + तिप् । By 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्ताऽतांझथासाथाम्ध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्, 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्।
    = राजि + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = राजि + शप् + ति । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्।
    = राजि + अ + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = राजे + अ + ति । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः।
    = राजयति । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः।

    ‘वि’ is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे, 1-4-80 ते प्राग्धातोः।)
    वि + राजयति = विराजयति ।

    2. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 7-3-103 बहुवचने झल्येत्‌ apply in the form सप्तभ्यः?
    Answer: The form सप्तभ्यः is derived from the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सप्तन्’। The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे चतुर्थी-बहुवचनम्।

    सप्तन् + भ्यस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा……..। Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘भ्यस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
    = सप्त भ्यस् । The ending letter ‘न्’ of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सप्तन्’ (which has पद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 1-4-17 स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने) is dropped by 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य। Now as per 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्, this नकार-लोपः (done by 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य) to arrive at the form ‘सप्त’ is not visible to any prior rule (in the अष्टाध्यायी)।
    Note: 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति limits the authority of 8-2-1 and says that the नकार-लोपः (done by 8-2-7) is not visible only to those rules that are in the four categories mentioned below – others will see the नकार-लोपः।
    The four categories are:
    1. सुँब्विधौ – rules relating to सुँप् affixes
    2. स्वरविधौ – rules relating to accents (in the वेद:)
    3. सञ्ज्ञाविधौ – rules that give names or designations
    4. कृति तुँग्विधौ – rules that prescribe a तुँक् augment in connection with a कृत्-प्रत्यय:।
    Since the सूत्रम् 7-3-103 बहुवचने झल्येत्‌ prescribes a सुँब्विधिः, the नकार-लोपः done by 8-2-7 remains असिद्धः in the eyes of 7-3-103 बहुवचने झल्येत्‌। Hence the सूत्रम् 7-3-103 sees the अङ्गम् as ‘सप्तन्’ (and not as ‘सप्त’)| Therefore the सूत्रम् 7-3-103 (which requires the अङ्गम् to end in the letter ‘अ’) does not apply.

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