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मदान्धः mNs

Today we will look at the form मदान्धः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.14.5.

एवं मदान्ध उत्सिक्तो निरङ्‌कुश इव द्विपः । पर्यटन् रथमास्थाय कम्पयन्निव रोदसी ।। ४-१४-५ ।।
न यष्टव्यं न दातव्यं न होतव्यं द्विजाः क्वचित् । इति न्यवारयद्धर्मं भेरीघोषेण सर्वशः ।। ४-१४-६ ।।

No comments on these verses.

Gita Press translation – Thus blinded with the intoxication of power and proud like an elephant not governed by a goad, he mounted a chariot and touring (all over his vast dominion) and shaking heaven and earth as it were, banned all religious performances, proclaiming by beat of drum as follows: ‘You shall never perform sacrifices nor bestow gifts nor pour oblations into the sacred fire under any circumstance, O members of the twice born classes!’ (5-6)

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
(1) मदान्धः = मदेनान्धः – blinded with the intoxication (of power.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) मद टा + अन्ध सुँ । By 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ – A पदम् ending in a third case affix – denoting either the agent or the instrument of the action – variously compounds with (a syntactically related पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) a term ending in a कृत् affix (ref. 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: बहुलग्रहणं सर्वोपाधिव्यभिचारार्थम्‌। The mention of बहुलम्‌ in the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम् tells us that all conditions may be relaxed. तेन दात्रेण लूनवानित्यादौ न – hence no compounding is allowed in examples such as दात्रेण लूनवान् (someone) has cut off with a sickle, हस्तेन कुर्वन् making by hand, etc.
And conversely, we sometimes do see compounding taking place even when the condition कर्तृकरणे is not satisfied as in the current example where the third case affix used in मदेन denotes the हेतु: (cause/reason) and not the doer or the agent. But still compounding has taken place. The mention of बहुलम्‌ in this सूत्रम् may be used to justify such compounds.
The सूत्रम् 2-3-23 हेतौ justifies the third case affix used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मद’ which denotes the हेतु: (cause/reason) for the intoxication.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘मद टा’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 (which justifies the compounding) the term तृतीया (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from 2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन) ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘मद टा’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘मद टा + अन्ध सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) मद + अन्ध । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) मदान्ध । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ मदान्ध’ is masculine here since the latter member ‘अन्ध’ of the compound is used here in the masculine. (The entire compound is qualifying ‘he’ – वेनः।)

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(6) मदान्ध + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) मदान्ध + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(8) मदान्ध: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ (used in step 2) been used in verses 20-25 of Chapter Eighteen of the गीता?

2. Where has the कृत् affix ‘क’ been used in the verses?

3. In the verses can you spot two words in which the substitution ‘शतृँ’ (in place of ‘लँट्’) has been used?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ been used in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘तव्यत्’/’तव्य’ in the words यष्टव्यम्, दातव्यम् and होतव्यम् used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Seeing (having seen) Śrī Rāma, Śūrpaṇakhā became blinded by passion.’

Easy questions:

1. In the verses can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् which is always used only in the dual (no singular or plural)?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-71 लुङ्लङ्लृङ्क्ष्वडुदात्तः been used in the verses?

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