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आत्महितम् nAs

Today we will look at the form आत्महितम्  nAs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 6.59.107.

द्वाभ्यामूर्ध्वं तु मासाभ्यां भर्तारं मामनिच्छतीम् । मम त्वां प्रातराशार्थे सूदाश्छेत्स्यन्ति खण्डश: ।। ५-२२-९ ।।
तां भर्त्स्यमानां सम्प्रेक्ष्य राक्षसेन्द्रेण जानकीम् । देवगन्धर्वकन्यास्ता विषेदुर्विकृतेक्षणाः ।। ५-२२-१० ।।
ओष्ठप्रकारैरपरा नेत्रैर्वक्त्रैस्तथापराः । सीतामाश्वासयामासुस्तर्जितां तेन रक्षसा ।। ५-२२-११ ।।
ताभिराश्वासिता सीता रावणं राक्षसाधिपम् । उवाचात्महितं वाक्यं वृत्तशौटीर्यगर्वितम् ।। ५-२२-१२ ।।

Gita Press translation – “My cooks will mince you for my morning repast in case you do not wish to have me for your husband even after two months (from now) (9).” Gazing on that daughter of Janaka being threatened by Rāvaṇa (the lord of ogres), those daughters of gods and Gandharvas ( who had been forcibly borne away like Sītā) grew melancholy with troubled eyes (10). Some (of them) reassured by the expression of their lips and others by their eyes and faces Sītā who was menaced (as above) by that ogre (11). Restored to confidence by them, Sītā addressed to Rāvaṇa, the suzerain lord of ogres, the following reply, which was in his own interest and which was full of pride for her (own) morality as well as for her husband’s valor (12).

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
(1) आत्महितम् = आत्मने हितम् – for (one’s) own benefit/interest.
Note: The fourth case affix used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आत्मन्’ is justified by the following वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-13 चतुर्थी सम्प्रदाने) हितयोगे चतुर्थी वाच्या – A fourth case affix (‘ङे’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which is in connection with the word ‘हित’ (beneficial.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) आत्मन् ङे + हित सुँ । By 2-1-36 चतुर्थी तदर्थार्थबलिहितसुखरक्षितैः – A पदम् ending in a fourth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् denoting that which is for the purpose of that which is denoted by the पदम् ending in the fourth case affix, and so also with a (syntactically related) पदम् (formed by adding a सुँप् affix to) ‘अर्थ’ or ‘बलि’ or ‘हित’ or ‘सुख’ or ‘रक्षित’ and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

See question 1.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘आत्मन् ङे’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-36 (which prescribes the compounding) the term चतुर्थी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘आत्मन् ङे’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘आत्मन् ङे + हित सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) आत्मन् + हित । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: ‘आत्मन्’ has पद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्यय-लोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम् – When an affix (in this case ‘ङे’) takes लोपः (elision), the operations that were ordained by that affix are still carried out.

(5) आत्महित । By 8-2-7 नलोप: प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आत्महित’ is neuter here since the latter member ‘हित’ of the compound is used here in the neuter. (The entire compound is qualifying वाक्यम्।)

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(6) आत्महित + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(7) आत्महित + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. Note: 7-1-24 is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) आत्महितम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.


1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-1-36 चतुर्थी तदर्थार्थबलिहितसुखरक्षितैः (used in step 2) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – तदर्थेन प्रकृतिविकृतिभाव एव गृह्यते। बलिरक्षितग्रहणाज्ज्ञापकात्‌। Please explain.

2. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a fifth case affix in द्वाभ्याम् and मासाभ्याम् used in the verses?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नेत्र’ used in the form नेत्रै: (तृतीया-बहुवचनम्) in the verses?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ been used in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Say that which is beneficial for everyone.” Form a compound for ‘beneficial for everyone’ = सर्वस्मै हितम्।

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“This seat is reserved for the teacher.” Form a compound for ‘reserved for the teacher’ = गुरवे रक्षितम्।

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘स्य’ in the form छेत्स्यन्ति?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-40 कृञ् चानुप्रयुज्यते लिटि been used in the verses?

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