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पाञ्चाल mVs

Today we will look at the form पाञ्चाल mVs from महाभारतम् verse 1-195-19.

व्यास उवाच
अनृतान्मोक्ष्यसे भद्रे धर्मश्चैष सनातनः ।
न तु वक्ष्यामि सर्वेषां पाञ्चाल शृणु मे स्वयम् ॥ १-१९५-१९ ॥

Translation – O blessed one (Kuntī), you shall be saved from untruth. This is eternal virtue. But, O Pāñcāla (Drupada – a king of the territory Pañcāla), I will not speak (about this matter) to all. You alone listen to me (19).

पञ्चाला जनपदः, पञ्चालो नाम क्षत्रियः। पञ्चालानां राजा = पाञ्चालः – king (Drupada) of the territory Pañcāla, which is also the name of a kṣatriya.
Note: As a convention in the language, words (such as ‘पञ्चाल’) while denoting a territory are always used in the plural.

In the verses the विवक्षा is सम्बुद्धिः। Hence the form is (हे) पाञ्चाल।

(1) पञ्चाल आम् + अञ् । By 4-1-168 जनपदशब्दात्‌ क्षत्रियादञ् – To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant) the तद्धित: affix ‘अञ्’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् which ends in a sixth case affix and has as its base a word that denotes the name of a kṣatriya king, as well as the name of his country/territory.
As per the वार्तिकम् (under the सूत्रम् 4-1-168 जनपदशब्दात्‌ क्षत्रियादञ्) ’क्षत्रियसमानशब्दाज्जनपदात् तस्य राजन्यपत्यवत्’ – The same तद्धित: affix as is used to denote a descendant, may also be used to denote a king, when applied following a syntactically related पदम् which ends in a sixth case affix and has as its base a word that denotes the name of a country/territory, as well as the name of a kṣatriya.
Note: The सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says, तद्राजमाचक्षाणस्तद्राज इत्यन्वर्थसंज्ञासामर्थ्यात् – The above वार्तिकम् is inferred from the fact that the affixes ‘अञ्’ etc (prescribed by 4-1-168 etc) get the designation तद्राजाः (explained as तेषां राजानस्तद्राजाः) by the सूत्रम् 4-1-174 ते तद्राजाः, which implies that these affixes are also used to denote kings (of those countries/territories).
Note: The तत्वबोधिनी says, इह ‘4-2-125 अवृद्धादपि बहुवचनविषयात्’ इति प्राप्तो वुञ् बाध्यते – Here, the affix ‘अञ्’ stops the affix ‘वुञ्’ which would have been prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-125 अवृद्धादपि बहुवचनविषयात्।

(2) पञ्चाल आम् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: ‘पञ्चाल आम् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) पञ्चाल + अ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘अञ्’ is a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step.

(4) पाञ्चाल + अ । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘पाञ्चाल’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(5) पाञ्चाल् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= पाञ्चाल । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पाञ्चाल’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

धौम्येन mIs

Today we will look at the form धौम्येन mIs from महाभारतम् 3.3.14.

जनमेजय उवाच
कथं कुरूणामृषभः स तु राजा युधिष्ठिरः । विप्रार्थमाराधितवान्सूर्यमद्‌भुतदर्शनम् ।। ३-३-१३ ।।
वैशम्पायन उवाच
शृणुष्वावहितो राजञ्शुचिर्भूत्वा समाहितः । क्षणं च कुरु राजेन्द्र सम्प्रवक्ष्याम्यशेषतः ।। ३-३-१४ ।।
धौम्येन तु यथा पूर्वं पार्थाय सुमहात्मने । नामाष्टशतमाख्यातं तच्छृणुष्व महामते ।। ३-३-१४ ।।

Translation – Janamejaya said: For the sake of the Brāhmaṇas, how did that foremost of the Kurus, King Yudhiṣṭhira, worship the Sun of wonderful appearance? (13) Vaiśampāyana said: O king, (first) purify yourself and being composed listen with attention. O king of kings, make some leisure. I shall (then) tell you everything in detail (14). O highly intelligent one, listen to the one hundred and eight names (of the Sun), as they were told earlier by Dhaumya to the very high-souled Yudhiṣṭhira (son of Pṛthā) (15).

The above verses have previously appeared in the following post – नामाष्टशतम्-nNs

धूमस्य गोत्रापत्यम् (पुमान्) = धौम्यः – a (male) descendant (but not the son) of the sage Dhūma
In the verses the विवक्षा is तृतीया-एकवचनम्, hence the form used is धौम्येन।

(1) धूम ङस् + यञ् । By 4-1-105 गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, and which ends in a sixth case affix and has ‘गर्ग’ etc (listed in the गर्गादि-गण:) as its base, the तद्धित: affix ‘यञ्’ may be applied optionally to denote a descendant having the designation ‘गोत्र’ (ref: 4-1-162 अपत्यं पौत्रप्रभृति गोत्रम्‌।)
Note: The अनुवृत्तिः of गोत्रे comes down into the सूत्रम् 4-1-105 from the सूत्रम् 4-1-98 गोत्रे कुञ्जादिभ्यश्च्फञ्।
As per 4-1-162 अपत्यं पौत्रप्रभृति गोत्रम्‌ – The designation ‘गोत्र’ is assigned to a grandson/granddaughter onward when the intention is to express him/her as a descendant (अपत्यम्)।
As per the सूत्रम् 4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed and which ends in a sixth case affix the तद्धिता: affixes already prescribed (by the prior rules 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् etc), as well as those that are going to be prescribed (by the following rules 4-1-95 अत इञ् etc), may be optionally applied to denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant.)

(2) धूम ङस् + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘धूम ङस् + य’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) धूम + य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘यञ्’ is a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step.

(4) धौम + य । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘धौम’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(5) धौम् + य । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= धौम्य । The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धौम्य’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

(6) धौम्य + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(7) धौम्य + इन । By 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः – Following a अङ्गम् ending in the letter ‘अ’, the affixes ‘टा’, ‘ङसिँ’ and ‘ङस्’ are replaced respectively by ‘इन’, ‘आत्’ and ‘स्य’। As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire affix ‘टा’ is replaced.

(8) धौम्येन । By 6-1-87 आद्‍गुणः

We can similarly derive the following –
१) पुलस्तेर्गोत्रापत्यम् (पुमान्) = पौलस्त्यः (रावणः) – a (male) descendant (but not the son) of (the sage) Pulasti
२) शकलस्य गोत्रापत्यम् (पुमान्) = शाकल्यः – a (male) descendant (but not the son) of Śakala
३) मुद्गलस्य गोत्रापत्यम् (पुमान्) = मौद्गल्यः – a (male) descendant (but not the son) of Mudgala
४) यज्ञवल्कस्य गोत्रापत्यम् (पुमान्) = याज्ञवल्क्यः – a (male) descendant (but not the son) of Yajñavalka

नामाष्टशतम् nNs

Today we will look at the form नामाष्टशतम् nNs from महाभारतम् 3.3.14.

जनमेजय उवाच
कथं कुरूणामृषभः स तु राजा युधिष्ठिरः । विप्रार्थमाराधितवान्सूर्यमद्‌भुतदर्शनम् ।। ३-३-१३ ।।
वैशम्पायन उवाच
शृणुष्वावहितो राजञ्शुचिर्भूत्वा समाहितः । क्षणं च कुरु राजेन्द्र सम्प्रवक्ष्याम्यशेषतः ।। ३-३-१४ ।।
धौम्येन तु यथा पूर्वं पार्थाय सुमहात्मने । नामाष्टशतमाख्यातं तच्छृणुष्व महामते ।। ३-३-१४ ।।

Translation – Janamejaya said: For the sake of the Brāhmaṇas, how did that foremost of the Kurus, King Yudhiṣṭhira, worship the Sun of wonderful appearance? (13) Vaiśampāyana said: O king, (first) purify yourself and being composed listen with attention. O king of kings, make some leisure. I shall (then) tell you everything in detail (14). O highly intelligent one, listen to the one hundred and eight names (of the Sun), as they were told earlier by Dhaumya to the very high-souled Yudhiṣṭhira (son of Pṛthā) (15).

(1) अष्टौ/अष्ट च शतं च = अष्टशतम् – (Eight + hundred =) hundred and eight.

(2) अष्टन् जस् + शत सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) अष्टन् जस् + शत सुँ । Note: Since ‘अष्टन् जस्’ denotes a smaller number (compared to ‘शत सुँ’) it is placed in the prior position as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) सङ्ख्याया अल्पीयस्याः पूर्वनिपातो वक्तव्यः – In a compound the term which denotes a smaller number is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘अष्टन् जस् + शत सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) अष्टन् + शत । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Now the ending letter (’न्’) of ‘अष्टन्’ would be replaced by the letter (‘आ’) as per the सूत्रम् 6-3-47 द्व्यष्टनः संख्यायामबहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः – When followed by the final member of a compound, (the final letter of) the term ‘द्वि’ as well as ‘अष्टन्’ takes the substitution ‘आ’ provided the compound is not a बहुव्रीहि: compound and the final member of the compound denotes a number other than ‘अशीति’।
But this operation is blocked by the वार्तिकम् – प्राक् शतादिति वक्तव्यम् – The substitution ‘आ’ (in place of ‘द्वि’/’अष्टन्’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 6-3-47 द्व्यष्टनः संख्यायामबहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः as well as the substitution ‘त्रयस्’ (in place of ‘त्रि’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 6-3-48 त्रेस्त्रयः is restricted to those compounds whose final members denote numbers less than a hundred. Hence the substitution does not apply in the present example.

Note: Now ‘अष्टन्’ has the पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(5) अष्टशत । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

(6) Now we form the षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः compound नाम्नामष्टशतम् = नामाष्टशतम्  – hundred and eight of names.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(7) नामन् आम् + अष्टशत सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(8) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘नामन् आम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘नामन् आम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound, a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘नामन् आम् + अष्टशत सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(9) नामन् + अष्टशत । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।
Note: Now ‘नामन्’ gets the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(10) नाम + अष्टशत । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

Now as per 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्, this elision of the letter ‘न्’ (done by 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य) to arrive at the form ‘नाम’ should not be visible to any prior rule (in the अष्टाध्यायी)। But 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति limits the authority of 8-2-1 and says that the elision of the letter ‘न्’ (done by 8-2-7) is not visible only to those rules that are in the four categories mentioned below – others do see the elision of the letter ‘न्’।
The four categories are:
1. सुँब्विधौ – rules relating to सुँप् affixes
2. स्वरविधौ – rules relating to accents (in the वेद:)
3. सञ्ज्ञाविधौ – rules that give names or designations
4. कृति तुँग्विधौ – rules that prescribe a तुँक् augment in connection with a कृत् affix.

(11) Since 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः does not fall in any of the above four categories, it does see the elision of the letter ‘न्’ and hence applies to give नाम + अष्टशत = नामाष्टशत। (This would not have been possible if we did not have 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति limiting the application of 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्)।

Note: As a convention in the language, the number शतम् (hundred) – as well as compound numbers (like अष्टशतम्) ending in शतम् – are always used in the neuter (even when they’re adjectives to non-neuter terms.) They are used in the singular except (as in the present example) when used as just numbers (not adjectives) they may be used in the dual/plural also.
For example – शतं नरा: = hundred men, शतं नार्य: = hundred women, शतं कुटुम्बानि = hundred families. (नराणां/नारीणां/कुटुम्बानां) शतम् = hundred (of men/women/families), (नराणां/नारीणां/कुटुम्बानां) द्वे शते = two hundred (of men/women/families), (नराणां/नारीणां/कुटुम्बानां) त्रीणि शतानि = three hundred (of men/women/families) etc.

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the द्वन्द्वः compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अष्टशत’ is neuter since the final member ‘शत’ of the compound is neuter. Similarly, the तत्पुरुषः compound (नामाष्टशत) is neuter since the final member ‘अष्टशत’ of the compound is neuter.

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(12) नामाष्टशत + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(13) नामाष्टशत + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(14) नामाष्टशतम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. In which other compound (besides नामाष्टशतम्) used in the verses does the सूत्रम् 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति find application?

2. In which word in the verses has the कृत् affix खश् been used?

3. What type of compound is अद्‌भुतदर्शनम् as used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:

4. From which verbal root are the forms अवहितः and समाहितः derived?

5. Which सूत्रम् blocks the augment इट् in the form भूत्वा?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should recite with devotion the hundred and eight names of Lord Viṣṇu every day.”

Easy questions:

1. Why is शृणुष्व a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (irregular grammatical usage)?

2. In which word in the verses has the future tense affix लृँट् been used?

वाय्वग्नी mNd

Today we will look at the form वाय्वग्नी  mNd from महाभारतम् 5.61.18.

अश्विनावथ वाय्वग्नी मरुद्भिः सह वृत्रहा । धर्मश्चैव मया द्विष्टान्नोत्सहन्तेऽभिरक्षितुम् ।। ५-६१-१८ ।।
यदि ह्येते समर्थाः स्युर्मद्‌द्विषस्त्रातुमञ्जसा । न स्म त्रयोदश समाः पार्था दुःखमवाप्नुयुः ।। ५-६१-१९ ।।
नैव देवा न गन्धर्वा नासुरा न च राक्षसाः । शक्तास्त्रातुं मया द्विष्टं सत्यमेतद्‌ ब्रवीमि ते ।। ५-६१-२० ।।

Translation – The two Aświns (celestial physicians), Vāyu (the wind-god), Agni (the fire-god), Indra (the slayer of Vṛtra) with the Maruts and Dharma himself would not dare protect them whom I dislike (18). Indeed if they (mentioned above) had been truly capable of protecting my enemies then the sons of Pṛthā (Kuntī) would not have suffered for thirteen years (19). I speak the truth when I tell you that neither the gods nor the Gandharvas nor the Asuras nor the Rākṣasas are capable of protecting my enemy (20).

(1) अग्निश्च वायुश्च = वाय्वग्नी or अग्निवायू – (the deities) Vāyu and Agni.

(2) वायु सुँ + अग्नि सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) वायु सुँ + अग्नि सुँ । Note: ‘वायु’ and ‘अग्नि’ both have two syllables. Both have the घि-सञ्ज्ञा। Hence as per 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ as well as 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि either term could be placed in the prior position. In the present example ‘वायु सुँ’ is placed in the prior position.
Note: ‘वायु सुँ + अग्नि सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) वायु + अग्नि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Now as per the सूत्रम् 6-3-26 देवताद्वन्द्वे च, (the ending letter of) ‘वायु’ should have taken the substitution ‘आनँङ्’ because here ‘वायु’ is the penultimate member of a द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms denote names of deities. But this substitution is blocked by the following वार्तिकम् – वायुशब्दप्रयोगे प्रतिषेध: – The substitution ‘आनँङ्’ (prescribed by 6-3-26) is prohibited if the द्वन्द्व: compound contains ‘वायु’ as the final or prior member.

(5) वाय्वग्नि । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वाय्वग्नि’ is masculine since the final member ‘अग्नि’ of the compound is masculine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members.

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा ।

(6) वाय्वग्नि + औ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) वाय्वग्नी । By 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः – When an अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

Questions:

1. Which कृत् affix is used to construct the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘देव’ (used in the form देवा: (पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) in the verses)?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने been used in the verses?

3. Which compound used in the verses is a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound?

4. Can you spot the affix ‘क्विँप्’ in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of the affix ‘तुमुँन्’ in the form त्रातुम् used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“May the fire-god and the wind-god always protect all of us.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-111 श्नसोरल्लोपः been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot the augment ‘ईट्’ in the verses?

युधिष्ठिरकिरीटिनोः mGd

Today we will look at the form युधिष्ठिरकिरीटिनोः mGd from महाभारतम् 1.2.273.

अतः परं कर्णपर्व प्रोच्यते परमाद्भुतम् । सारथ्ये विनियोगश्च मद्रराजस्य धीमतः ।। १-२-२६९ ।।
आख्यातं यत्र पौराणं त्रिपुरस्य निपातनम् । प्रयाणे परुषश्चात्र संवादः कर्णशल्ययोः ।। १-२-२७० ।।
हंसकाकीयमाख्यानं तत्रैवाक्षेपसंहितम् । वधः पाण्ड्यस्य च तथा अश्वत्थाम्ना महात्मना ।। १-२-२७१ ।।
दण्डसेनस्य च ततो दण्डस्य च वधस्तथा । द्वैरथे यत्र कर्णेन धर्मराजो युधिष्ठिरः ।। १-२-२७२ ।।
संशयं गमितो युद्धे मिषतां सर्वधन्विनाम् । अन्योन्यं प्रति च क्रोधो युधिष्ठिरकिरीटिनोः ।। १-२-२७३ ।।

Gita Press translation – After this is outlined the most wonderful Parva named after Karṇa. In it is described the appointment of the wise Śalya (the ruler of the inhabitants of Madra) as the charioteer (of Karṇa) (269). Then is narrated the well-known legend of the destruction of Tripura as well as the interchange of strong words between Karṇa and Śalya on their setting out for battle (270). Then it told the story of the swan and the crow as an insulting allusion (to Karṇa) followed by an account of the death of Pāṇḍya at the hands of the high-souled Aśwathāma as well as the death of Danḍasena and then of Danḍa. In this same Parva (named after Karṇa) is the narration of a duel between Karṇa and Yudhiṣṭhira (the king of virtue) – witnessed by all the archers – in which the former put the life of the latter in danger. Then comes the (display of) anger of Yudhiṣṭhira and Arjuna towards each other. (271-273)

(1) युधिष्ठिरश्च किरीटी च = युधिष्ठिरकिरीटिनौ – Yudhiṣṭhira and Arjuna.

(2) युधिष्ठिर सुँ + किरीटिन् सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) युधिष्ठिर सुँ + किरीटिन् सुँ । As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌, ‘किरीटिन्’ should have been placed in the prior position in this compound because ‘युधिष्ठिर’ has four syllables while ‘किरीटिन्’ has only three. But since ‘युधिष्ठिर’ is the name of the elder brother while ‘किरीटिन्’ refers to the younger brother (Arjuna), ‘युधिष्ठिर सुँ’ is placed in the prior position as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) भ्रातुर्ज्यायस: – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the name of an elder brother is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘युधिष्ठिर सुँ + किरीटिन् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) युधिष्ठिर + किरीटिन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= युधिष्ठिरकिरीटिन् ।

The विवक्षा is षष्ठी-द्विवचनम् ।

(5) युधिष्ठिरकिरीटिन् + ओस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘ओस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(6) युधिष्ठिरकिरीटिनोः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. In which compound in the verses has the affix टच् been used?

2. Can you spot a term which is used as a कर्मप्रवचनीय: in the verses?

3. Which सूत्रम् justifies the formation of the compound सर्वधन्विनाम् (षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses?

4. From which verbal root is the form वधः derived?

5. In which word in the verses has the गण-सूत्रम् (in the धातुपाठः, below the गण-सूत्रम् ‘घटादयो मित:’) – जनीजॄष्क्नसुरञ्जोऽमन्ताश्च been used?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Both Yudhiṣṭhira and Arjuna were devotees of Śrī Kṛṣṇa.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the सम्प्रसारणम् in the form उच्यते?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-134 अल्लोपोऽनः been used in the verses?

वस्त्राभरणदातारः mNp

Today we will look at the form वस्त्राभरणदातारः mNp from महाभारतम् 13.23.91.

वस्त्राभरणदातारो भक्तपानान्नदास्तथा । कुटुम्बानां च दातार: पुरुषाः स्वर्गगामिनः ।। १३-२३-९१ ।।
सर्वहिंसानिवृत्ताश्च नराः सर्वसहाश्च ये । सर्वस्याश्रयभूताश्च ते नराः स्वर्गगामिनः ।। १३-२३-९२ ।।
मातरं पितरं चैव शुश्रूषन्ति जितेन्द्रियाः । भ्रातॄणां चैव सस्नेहास्ते नराः स्वर्गगामिनः ।। १३-२३-९३ ।।

Translation – Those men who distribute clothes and ornaments, as also meals, drinks and food, and who help (others’) families, go to heaven (91). Those men who have abstained from all sorts of injury or harm, who endure everything, and who support all others, go to heaven (92). Those men who, with their senses controlled, serve their parents and who are affectionate towards their brothers, go to heaven (93).

(1) वस्त्राणि चाभरणानि च = वस्त्राभरणानि – clothes and ornaments

(2) वस्त्र जस् + आभरण जस् । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) वस्त्र जस् + आभरण जस् । As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌, ‘आभरण जस्’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound because ‘आभरण’ begins with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’ while ‘वस्त्र’ does not. But since ‘वस्त्र’ has only two syllables while ‘आभरण’ has three syllables, ‘वस्त्र जस्’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.
2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ being a later rule in the अष्टाध्यायी has greater force than the prior rule 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌। Therefore ‘वस्त्र जस्’ is placed in the prior position in this compound.

Note: ‘वस्त्र जस् + आभरण जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) वस्त्र + आभरण । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) वस्त्राभरण । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

Now we form the षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः compound वस्त्राभरणदातारः।

(6) वस्त्राभरणानां दाता = वस्त्राभरणदाता – who distributes clothes and ornaments

(7) वस्त्राभरण आम् + दातृ सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

Note: By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘वस्त्राभरण आम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘वस्त्राभरण आम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘वस्त्राभरण आम् + दातृ सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(8) वस्त्राभरण + दातृ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= वस्त्राभरणदातृ ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वस्त्राभरणदातृ’ is masculine since the final member ‘दातृ’ of the compound is used here in the masculine. (The entire compound is qualifying पुरुषाः।)

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् ।

(9) वस्त्राभरणदातृ + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। Note: The affix ‘जस्’ has the सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा here as per 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य। This allows 7-3-110 and 6-4-11 to apply below in steps 11 and 12 respectively.

(10) वस्त्राभरणदातृ + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘जस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(11) वस्त्राभरणदातर् + अस् । By 7-3-110 ऋतो ङिसर्वनामस्थानयोः – The ending short letter ‘ऋ’ of a अङ्गम् gets a गुणः replacement, when followed by the affix ‘ङि’ (सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) or an affix with the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्। By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if a अण् letter (‘अ’, ‘इ’, ‘उ’) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a ‘रँ’ (‘र्’, ‘ल्’) letter. Hence ‘ऋ’ is replaced by ‘अर्’।

(12) वस्त्राभरणदातार् + अस् । By 6-4-11 अप्तृन्तृच्स्वसृनप्तृनेष्टृत्वष्टृक्षत्तृहोतृपोतृप्रशास्तॄणाम् – When a सर्वनामस्थानम् affix that is not a सम्बुद्धिः follows, the penultimate vowel of ‘अप्’, of words ending in affixes ‘तृन्’ and ‘तृच्’ and of the words ‘स्वसृ’, ‘नप्तृ’, ‘नेष्टृ’, ‘त्वष्टृ’, ‘क्षत्तृ’, ‘होतृ’, ‘पोतृ’ and ‘प्रशास्तृ’ is elongated. (This सूत्रम् applies in the present situation because ‘दातृ’ ends in the affix ‘तृच्’)।

(13) वस्त्राभरणदातारः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-78 सुप्यजातौ णिनिस्ताच्छील्ये been used in the verses?

2. Which compound used in the verses is a पञ्चमी-तत्पुरुष: compound?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to construct the form दातारः?

4. What type of compound is जितेन्द्रियाः as used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘स’ in the compound सस्नेहा:?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“King Janaka gave his (own) daughter Sītā – adorned with clothes and ornaments – to Śrī Rāma.”

Easy questions:

1. Why is शुश्रूषन्ति a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (irregular grammatical usage)?

2. In which word(s) in the verses has the सूत्रम् 6-4-3 नामि been used?

इन्द्रविष्णुसमौ mAd

Today we will look at the form इन्द्रविष्णुसमौ  mAd from महाभारतम् 5.59.11.

श्यामौ बृहन्तौ तरुणौ शालस्कन्धाविवोद्गतौ । एकासनगतौ दृष्ट्वा भयं मां महदाविशत् ।। ५-५९-१० ।।
इन्द्रविष्णुसमावेतौ मन्दात्मा नावबुध्यते । संश्रयाद् द्रोणभीष्माभ्यां कर्णस्य च विकत्थनात् ।। ५-५९-११ ।।
निदेशस्थाविमौ यस्य मानसस्तस्य सेत्स्यते । संकल्पो धर्मराजस्य निश्चयो मे तदाभवत् ।। ५-५९-१२ ।।
सत्कृतश्चान्नपानाभ्यामासीनो लब्धसत्क्रियः । अञ्जलिं मूर्ध्नि संधाय तौ संदेशमचोदयम् ।। ।। ५-५९-१३ ।।

Translation – Having seen the two young men (Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna) of black complexion and large stature rising like the trunks of Śala trees, seated on the same seat, a great fear seized me (10). Owing to his reliance on Droṇa and Bhīṣma and owing to the boasting of Karṇa, the one (Duryodhana) of dim intellect does not understand that these two are like Indra and Viṣṇu (11). At that time I was convinced that the mental resolve of Yudhiṣṭhira (the king of virtue) –  who has these two under his command – is bound to bear fruit  (12). Entertained with food and drink and being seated with honor, I placed my clasped hands on my head and conveyed to them your message (13).

(1) इन्द्रश्च विष्णुश्च = इन्द्रविष्णू – Indra and Viṣṇu

(2) इन्द्र सुँ + विष्णु सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) इन्द्र सुँ + विष्णु सुँ । As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि, ‘विष्णु सुँ’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound because ‘विष्णु’ has the designation ‘घि’ (as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि) while ‘इन्द्र’ does not. But as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌, ‘इन्द्र सुँ’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound because ‘इन्द्र’ begins with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’ while ‘विष्णु’ does not.
The सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌ being a later rule in the अष्टाध्यायी has greater force than the earlier rule 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि। Hence when in a द्वन्द्व: compound there is one term which has the designation ‘घि’ and another which beings with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’, the term which beings with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’ is placed in the prior position. Therefore ‘इन्द्र सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in this compound.

Note: ‘इन्द्र सुँ + विष्णु सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) इन्द्र + विष्णु । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= इन्द्रविष्णु ।

Now we form the तत्पुरुषः compound इन्द्रविष्णुसमौ।

(5) इन्द्रविष्णुभ्यां समौ or इन्द्रविष्ण्वो:  समौ = इन्द्रविष्णुसमौ – like Indra and Viṣṇu

(6) इन्द्रविष्णु भ्याम् + सम सुँ । By 2-1-31 पूर्वसदृशसमोनार्थकलहनिपुणमिश्रश्लक्ष्णैः – A पदम् ending in a third case affix optionally compounds with (a syntactically related पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) any one of the following and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष: –
i) ‘पूर्व’ (prior)
ii) ‘सदृश’ (like/similar)
iii) ‘सम’ (equal to)
iv) ‘ऊनार्थ’ – ‘ऊन’ (less) or any of its synonyms
v) ‘कलह’ (quarrel)
vi) ‘निपुण’ (skillful)
vii) ‘मिश्र’ (mixed)
viii) ‘श्लक्ष्ण’ (gentle/polished.)
Note: By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘इन्द्रविष्णु भ्याम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-31 (which prescribes the compounding) the term तृतीया (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from 2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन) ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘इन्द्रविष्णु भ्याम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

or

(6) इन्द्रविष्णु ओस् + सम सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: By the सूत्रम् 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – ‘इन्द्रविष्णु ओस्’ (which ends in a sixth case affix) gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 षष्ठी (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘इन्द्रविष्णु ओस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘इन्द्रविष्णु भ्याम् + सम सुँ’ / ‘इन्द्रविष्णु ओस् + सम सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(7) इन्द्रविष्णु + सम । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= इन्द्रविष्णुसम ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘इन्द्रविष्णुसम’ is masculine since the final member ‘सम’ of the compound is used here in the masculine. (The entire compound is qualifying श्रीकृष्णार्जुनौ।)

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-द्विवचनम् ।

(8) इन्द्रविष्णुसम + औट् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(9) इन्द्रविष्णुसम + औ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(10) इन्द्रविष्णुसमौ । By 6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि । Note: 6-1-104 नादिचि stops 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः।

Questions:

1. In which other compound (besides ‘इन्द्रविष्णु’) in the verses has the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌ (used in step 3) been applied?

2. Can you spot a द्वितीया-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?

3. In which compound in the verses has the affix ‘टच्’ been used?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ई’ in the form आसीन:?

5. In which word in the verses has the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) been used?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In prowess, Sugrīva and (Śrī) Hanumān were equal to Indra and Vāyu.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix ‘श’ in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘श्यन्’ in the form अवबुध्यते?

असत्कृत्य ind

Today we will look at the form असत्कृत्य  ind from महाभारतम् 13.53.12.

यदा तौ निर्विकारौ तु लक्षयामास भार्गवः । तत उत्थाय सहसा स्नानशालां विवेश ह ।। १३-५३-११ ।।
कॢप्तमेव तु तत्रासीत् स्नानीयं पार्थिवोचितम् । असत्कृत्य च तत् सर्वं तत्रैवान्तरधीयत ।। १३-५३-१२ ।।
स मुनिः पुनरेवाथ नृपतेः पश्यतस्तदा । नासूयां चक्रतुस्तौ च दम्पती भरतर्षभ ।। १३-५३-१३ ।।

Translation – However when Bhṛgu’s son noticed that the two of them were (still) undisturbed, he rose up all of a sudden and entered the bathing chamber (11). The various articles proper for bathing such as were fit for a king’s use, were ready there in advance. Having disrespected (i.e. having ignored) all those articles, the sage once again disappeared right there even as the king watched. (Even) then, O chief of Bharatas, that royal pair did not show any intolerance (towards him) (12-13).

Note: In the usage मुनिरन्तरधीयत above, the object (‘मुनि’) on which the verbal activity (of concealing) is found, has turned into a subject and the verb (√धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके ३. ११) preceded by the उपसर्गः ‘अन्तर्’) which is transitive has turned in to intransitive as a result. This is called a कर्मकर्तरि प्रयोगः। But this agent (‘मुनि’) is treated as if it were the कर्म (object) as per the सूत्रम् 3-1-87 कर्मवत्‌ कर्मणा तुल्यक्रियः – When the agent of a given action behaves in the same way as does the object, the agent is treated as if it were the object. (For the agent to be treated as if it were the object, the action of the agent must be identical with the action located within the object.) This allows for the use of the affix ‘यक्’ (by 3-1-67 सार्वधातुके यक् which has the अनुवृत्तिः of भावकर्मणोः from the prior सूत्रम्) and a आत्मनेपदम् affix (‘त’) – as per 1-3-13 भावकर्मणोः – in the form अन्तरधीयत।

(1) अनादरं कृत्वा = असत्कृत्य – having disrespected.

असत्कृत्य is derived from the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) preceded by the term ‘असत्’ (‘असत्’ itself is a नञ्-तत्पुरुषः compound derived as न सत् = असत्)।
‘असत्’ gets the designation गति: here as per 1-4-63 आदरानादरयोः सदसती – The terms ‘सत्’ and ‘असत्’ when denoting ‘respect’ and ‘disrespect’ respectively get the designation ‘गति’ provided they are used in conjunction with a verb.

Note: Besides accent considerations, the purpose of assigning the designation ‘गति’ is to facilitate compound formation prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः which in turn allows for the substitution ‘ल्यप्‌’ (in place of ‘क्त्वा’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ (in step 5.)

Note: Since the term ‘असत्’ has the designation ‘गति’ here it also gets the निपात-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-56 प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः and hence the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-37 स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम्।

(2) कृ + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले – The affix ‘क्त्वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same. In the present example the later action (having the same agent – ‘the sage’) is अन्तरधीयत (‘disappeared.’)

(3) अलौकिक-विग्रह: –

असत् + कृ क्त्वा । By 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः – The indeclinable ‘कु’, terms having the designation ‘गति’ (ref. 1-4-60 गतिश्च etc) as well as the terms ‘प्र’ etc. (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः) invariably compound with a syntactically related term and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of नित्यम् (invariably) comes down from the prior सूत्रम् 2-2-17 नित्यं क्रीडाजीविकयोः।

(4) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘असत्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 (which prescribes the compounding) the term कुगतिप्रादयः ends in the nominative case. Hence the term ‘असत्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘असत् + कृ क्त्वा’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

(5) असत् + कृ ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ – When the affix ‘क्त्वा’ occurs at the end of a compound, it is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ provided the prior member of the compound is a अव्‍ययम् other than ‘नञ्’ (ref. 2-2-6).

Note: As per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ, the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) inherits the property of being a कित् (having the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) affix with the designation of कृत् (by 3-1-93) and आर्धधातुकम् (by 3-4-114.)

(6) असत् + कृ य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

Note: 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः from applying.

(7) असत् + कृ तुँक् य By 6-1-71 ह्रस्वस्य पिति कृति तुक् – When followed by a कृत् affix which is a पित् (has the letter ‘प्’ as a इत्), a short vowel takes the augment ‘तुँक्’। As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the augment ‘तुँक्’ joins after the short vowel ‘ऋ’।

(8) असत् + कृ त् य । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

= असत्कृत्य ।

‘असत्कृत्य’ gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः with the help of 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ। This allows 2-4-82 to apply below.

(9) असत्कृत्य + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(10) असत्कृत्य । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

Questions:

1. In which other word (besides असत्कृत्य) has the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) been used in the verses?

2. Consider the example – सत्कृत्वा कार्यं गतः। Why doesn’t the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) take place here?

3. Which सूत्रम् is used to justify the use of the affix ‘अनीयर्’ used to construct the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्नानीय’ (which appears in the form स्नानीयम् (नपुंसकलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?

4. Can you spot the कृत् affix ‘अ’ in the verses?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-38 षष्ठी चानादरे been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Having disrespected (ignored) the words of his wife, Vālī set out to fight with Sugrīva.” Use the verbal root √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७) preceded by the उपसर्गः ‘प्र’ for ‘to set out.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment ‘ईट्’ in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-66 घुमास्थागापाजहातिसां हलि been used in the verses?

अब्राह्मणः mNs

Today we will look at the form अब्राह्मणः mNs from महाभारतम् 1.92.13.

ययातिरुवाच
नास्मद्विधो ब्राह्मणो ब्रह्मविच्च प्रतिग्रहे वर्तते राजमुख्य । यथा प्रदेयं सततं द्विजेभ्यस्तथाददं पूर्वमहं नरेन्द्र ।। १-९२-१२ ।।
नाब्राह्मणः कृपणो जातु जीवेद्याच्ञापि स्याद्ब्राह्मणी वीरपत्नी । सोऽहं नैवाकृतपूर्वं चरेयं विधित्समानः किमु तत्र साधु ।। १-९२-१३ ।।

Translation – Yayāti said: O best of kings! A Brāhmaṇa, and that too only one who knows the Veda, accepts gifts; not men (Kṣatriyas) like us. O king! Previously I myself have always engaged in charity towards Brāhmaṇas, as it should be done (12). One who is not a Brāhmaṇa should never live a wretched life (accepting charity.) And solicitation is (like) the wife of a Brāhmaṇa who has conquered the world by (his) knowledge. (Meaning that – only such a Brāhmaṇa should engage in accepting charity.) I should never perform an action which has not been done before. Why indeed, desirous as I am of doing virtuous deeds there (in the land of karma)? (Meaning that – I should not perform such an action.) (13) 

(1) न ब्राह्मण: = अब्राह्मण: – Not a Brāhmaṇa.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) नञ्‌ + ब्राह्मण सुँ । By 2-2-6 नञ्‌ – The negation particle नञ्‌ (meaning ‘not’) optionally compounds with a सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।
Note: The negation particle नञ्‌ belongs to the चादि-गणः (referenced in 1-4-57 चादयोऽसत्त्वे)। Hence it gets the designation निपात: by 1-4-56 प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः and the designation अव्ययम् by 1-1-37 स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम्।
Note: तत्सादृश्यमभावश्च तदन्यत्वं तदल्पता । अप्राशस्त्यं विरोधश्च नञर्था: षट् प्रकीर्तिता: ॥ The negation particle नञ्‌ may convey any of the following senses –
i) तत्सादृश्यम् – similarity to that which is being negated.
ii) अभाव: – absence of that which is being negated.
iii) तदन्यत्वम् – different from that which is being negated.
iv) तदल्पता – smallness of that which is being negated.
v) अप्राशस्त्यम् – non-praiseworthiness.
vi) विरोध: – opposite of that which is being negated.
In the present example the negation particle नञ्‌ conveys the sense of तत्सादृश्यम् – similarity to that which is being negated. अब्राह्मण: refers to one who is different from yet similar to a Brāhmaṇa. Hence the compound refers to a man and not an animal or an inanimate object.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term नञ् gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-6 (which prescribes the compounding) the term नञ् ends in the nominative case. Hence the term नञ् is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

(4) न + ब्राह्मण सुँ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: ‘न + ब्राह्मण सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(5) न + ब्राह्मण । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(6) अब्राह्मण । By 6-3-73 नलोपो नञः – The letter ‘न्’ of the negation particle नञ्‌ is elided when followed by a final member of a compound.

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अब्राह्मण’ is masculine since the latter member ‘ब्राह्मण’ of the compound is masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(7) अब्राह्मण + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(8) अब्राह्मण + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(9) अब्राह्मण: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-2-6 नञ्‌ (used in step 2) been used for the first time in the गीता?

2. Where else (besides in अब्राह्मण:) has नञ्‌ been used in the verses?

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-2-6 नञ्‌ the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – इह ‘नलोपो नञः’ इत्यत्र विशेषणार्थो ञकारः। तत्फलं च नैकधेत्यत्रालोपः। Please explain.

4. The वृत्ति: of the सूत्रम् 6-3-73 नलोपो नञः (used in step 6) in the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – नञो नस्‍य लोप: स्यादुत्तरपदे। Commenting on this the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – ‘अलुगुत्तरपदे’ इत्यधिकारादिति भावः। Please explain.

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-54 सनि मीमाघुरभलभशकपतपदामच इस् been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One who is not Rudra should not drink poison.” Construct a तत्पुरुष: compound for ‘one who is not Rudra’ = न रुद्र:।

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ए’ in the form वर्तते?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-80 अतो येयः been used in the verses?

कृताकृतम् nNs

Today we will look at the form कृताकृतम् nNs from महाभारतम् 12.175.20.

तं पुत्रपशुसम्पन्नं व्यासक्तमनसं नरम् । सुप्तं व्याघ्रो मृगमिव मृत्युरादाय गच्छति ।। १२-१७५-१८ ।।
सञ्चिन्वानकमेवैनं कामानामवितृप्तकम् । व्याघ्रः पशुमिवादाय मृत्युरादाय गच्छति ।। १२-१७५-१९ ।।
इदं कृतमिदं कार्यमिदमन्यत्कृताकृतम् । एवमीहासुखासक्तं कृतान्तः कुरुते वशे ।। १२-१७५-२० ।।

Translation – Like a tiger takes away its prey, death takes away that man who endowed with sons and cattle has his mind engrossed (in worldly pursuits) (18). Like a tiger takes away a beast, death takes away this man who is ever a despicable hoarder not satiated with objects of desire (19). The terminator (death) brings under its control the one who is attached to the happiness that accrues from the gratification of desire and is (still) thinking, ‘This has been done; this is to be done; this has been partly done.’

(1) कृतं च तदकृतम् = कृताकृतम् – (Something which is) done and not-done.
Note: How can the same thing be at the same time done and not-done? एकदेशकरणात् कृतम्। एकदेशान्तरस्याकरणात्तदेवाकृतम् – When a part of something is done but another part of it is not-done then we say that the same thing is done and at the same time not-done.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) कृत सुँ + अकृत सुँ । By 2-1-60 क्तेन नञ्विशिष्टेनानञ् – (नञ्मात्राधिकेन नञ्‍रहितं समस्यत इति सूत्रार्थः।) A सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to a प्रातिपदिकम् ending in the affix ‘क्त’ optionally compounds with a सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् which refers to the same item and is identical to the prior पदम् – the only difference being that while the latter पदम् has the additional negation particle ‘नञ्’ (ref. 2-2-6 नञ्‌) the prior पदम् does not – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-72 येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य, the term क्तेन (used in the सूत्रम् 2-1-60 क्तेन नञ्विशिष्टेनानञ्) is interpreted as क्तान्तेन।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘कृत सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-60 (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनञ् ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘कृत सुँ’ (which does not contain the negation particle ‘नञ्’) is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘कृत सुँ + अकृत सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) कृत + अकृत । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) कृताकृत । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कृताकृत’ is neuter since the latter member ‘अकृत’ of the compound is used in the neuter here. The compound declines like वन-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(6) कृताकृत + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(7) कृताकृत + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) कृताकृतम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-1-60 क्तेन नञ्विशिष्टेनानञ्, the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – नञ्मात्राधिकेन नञ्‍रहितं समस्यत इति सूत्रार्थः। तेनेह न – सिद्धं च तदभुक्तम्। Please explain.

2. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् the तत्त्वबोधिनी quotes a वार्तिकम् which states – ‘नुडिडधिकेनापि’ इति वाच्यम्। The two examples given are अशितानशितम् and क्लिष्टाक्लिशितम्। Please explain.

3. Can you spot a सम्प्रसारणम् in the verses?

4. Which कृत् affix is used to form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ईहा’ (seen in the compound ईहासुखासक्तम् in the verses)?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The construction of our new house is partly done.” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘निर्माण’ for ‘construction.’

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In the war with the demons, the army of monkeys was partly destroyed.” Form a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘partly destroyed’ = नष्टं च तदनष्टम्।

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘छ्’ in the form गच्छति?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘उ’ in the verses?

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