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मुखाम्बुजम् nAs

Today we will look at the form मुखाम्बुजम्  nAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 8.5.45.

स त्वं नो दर्शयात्मानमस्मत्करणगोचरम् । प्रपन्नानां दिदृक्षूणां सस्मितं ते मुखाम्बुजम् ।। ८-५-४५ ।।
तैस्तैः स्वेच्छाधृतै रूपैः काले काले स्वयं विभो । कर्म दुर्विषहं यन्नो भगवांस्तत्करोति हि ।। ८-५-४६ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
सस्मितं मुखाम्बुजं दिदृक्षूणां नोऽस्मच्चक्षुरादिकरणगोचरं यथा भवत्येवं चात्मानं दर्शय ।। ४५ ।। भक्तेच्छानुवर्तित्वं च तव बहुशो दृष्टमेवेत्याह – तैस्तैरिति । यन्नो दुर्विषहमशक्यं कर्म तद्भगवान्स्वयमेकरोति हि ।। ४६ ।।

Gita Press translation – Such as You are, be pleased to reveal Yourself – in such a way as to come within the range of our senses (of perception) – to us, that have resorted to You (for protection) and are eager to behold Your smiling lotus-like countenance (45). For, through diverse forms assumed at His own sweet will from time to time, O Lord, the Almighty Himself (in You) does that work which is beyond our capacity (46).

(1) मुखमम्बुजमिव = मुखाम्बुजम् – A countenance (beautiful) as a lotus.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) मुख सुँ + अम्बुज सुँ । By 2-1-56 उपमितं व्याघ्रादिभिः सामान्याप्रयोगे – A सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् which denotes that which is to be compared optionally compounds with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to ‘व्याघ्र’ etc – provided both the सुबन्त-पदे refer to the same item and the common attribute is not mentioned – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।
Note: उपमेयमुपमितम् – The word उपमितम् used in this सूत्रम् stands for उपमेयम् – that which is to be compared.
Note: व्याघ्रादिराकृतिगण: – The व्याघ्रादि-गण: (list of terms ‘व्याघ्र’ etc.) is a आकृतिगण: – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence the compound मुखमम्बुजमिव = मुखाम्बुजम् is justified even though अम्बुजम् may not be specifically listed in the व्याघ्रादि-गण:

(3) As per 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् the term ‘मुख सुँ’ – which denotes that which is to be compared – gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-56 (which prescribes the compounding) the term उपमितम् ends in the nominative case. And hence the term ‘मुख सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.
Note: ‘मुख सुँ + अम्बुज सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) मुख + अम्बुज । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) मुखाम्बुज । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मुखाम्बुज’ is neuter since the latter member ‘अम्बुज’ of the compound is neuter. The compound declines like वन-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(6) मुखाम्बुज + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(7) मुखाम्बुज + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. Note: 7-1-24 is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) मुखाम्बुजम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-56 उपमितं व्याघ्रादिभिः सामान्याप्रयोगे been used in verses 10-20 of Chapter Two of the गीता?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘सन्’ in the verses?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दुर्विषह’ (seen in the form दुर्विषहम् (नपुंसकलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?

4. In which word in the verses has the verbal root √पद् (पदँ गतौ ४. ६५) been used?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the seventh case affix used in the form काले in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
Śrī Rāma said to Lakṣmaṇa – “I long (desire) to see Sītā’s lotus-like countenance.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘उ’ used in the form करोति?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-105 अतो हेः been used in the verses?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-56 उपमितं व्याघ्रादिभिः सामान्याप्रयोगे been used in verses 10-20 of Chapter Two of the गीता?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 2-1-56 उपमितं व्याघ्रादिभिः सामान्याप्रयोगे has been used in the form पुरुषर्षभ (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पुरुषर्षभ’, सम्बुद्धिः) in the following verse of the गीता –

    यं हि न व्यथयन्त्येते पुरुषं पुरुषर्षभ |
    समदुःखसुखं धीरं सोऽमृतत्वाय कल्पते || 2-15||

    The विग्रहः of the compound is –
    पुरुष ऋषभ इव = पुरुषर्षभ:।

    The derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पुरुषर्षभ’ is similar to that of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पुरुषव्याघ्र’ as shown in the following post – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2015/06/15/पुरुषव्याघ्र-mvs
    Except that after step 4 of the derivation, we have to use 6-1-87 आद्‍गुणः and 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः to give पुरुष + ऋषभ = पुरुषर्षभ as the final compound प्रातिपदिकम्।

    2. Can you spot the affix ‘सन्’ in the verses?
    Answer: The affix ‘सन्’ occurs in the form दिदृक्षूणाम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ’दिदृक्षु’, पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्)।

    The प्रातिपदिकम् ’दिदृक्षु’ is derived from the desiderative form of the verbal root √दृश् (दृशिँर् प्रेक्षणे १. ११४३).

    Please see answer to question 5 in the following comment for derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ’दिदृक्षु’ – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2014/02/27/ब्रह्मावर्तम्-mas/#comment-34947

    In the masculine gender the प्रातिपदिकम् ’दिदृक्षु’ declines like गुरु-शब्द:। षष्ठी-बहुवचनम् is दिदृक्षूणाम्।

    3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दुर्विषह’ (seen in the form दुर्विषहम् (नपुंसकलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?
    Answer: The कृत् affix ‘खल्’ is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दुर्विषह’।

    दु:खेन विसह्यते = दुर्विषहम् – that which is difficult to bear = unbearable.

    The form ’दुर्विषह’ is derived from the verbal root √सह् (षहँ मर्षणे १. ९८८) – preceded by the उपसर्गः ’वि’ – in composition with ‘दुर्’/’दुस्’ as follows:
    दुर्/दुस् वि सह् + खल् । By 3-3-126 ईषद्‌दु:सुषु कृच्छ्राकृच्छ्रार्थेषु खल् – The affix खल् is used following a verbal root when in composition with either ‘ईषत्’ or ‘दुर्’/’दुस्’ or ‘सु’ used in the sense of ‘difficulty’ or ‘ease.’
    Note: As per the सूत्रम् 3-4-70 तयोरेव कृत्यक्तखलर्थाः the affix ‘खल्’ – as well as any other affix in the meaning of ‘खल्’ – is only used to denote the action (भावः) or the object (कर्म)
    Note: In the सूत्रम् 3-3-126 ईषद्‌दु:सुषु कृच्छ्राकृच्छ्रार्थेषु खल्, the term ईषद्‌दु:सुषु ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence ‘दुर्/दुस्’ gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌।
    = दुर्/दुस् वि सह् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = दुर्/दुस् वि षह् + अ । By 8-3-59 आदेशप्रत्यययोः।
    = दुर्/दुस् विषह।
    Now we form the compound between ‘दुर्/दुस्’ (which is the उपपदम्) and ‘विषह’ using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्। Note: The उपपदम् ‘दुर्/दुस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् as per the सूत्रम् 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् (which prescribes the compounding) the term उपपदम् ends in the nominative case. And hence ‘दुर्/दुस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌।
    = दुर्/दुरुँ विषह । By 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः।
    = दुर् + विषह । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = दुर्विषह ।
    ‘दुर्विषह’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। It is used in the neuter gender here since it is qualifying the neuter noun कर्म। It declines like ‘वन’-शब्दः। प्रथमा-एकवचनम् is दुर्विषहम्।

    4. In which word in the verses has the verbal root √पद् (पदँ गतौ ४. ६५) been used?
    Answer: The verbal root √पद् (पदँ गतौ ४. ६५) has been in the word प्रपन्नानाम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ’प्रपन्न’, पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्)।

    Please see answer to question 4 in the following comment for derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ’प्रपन्न’ – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2014/04/14/रमया-fis/#comment-35041

    In the masculine gender the प्रातिपदिकम् ’प्रपन्न’ declines like राम-शब्द:। षष्ठी-बहुवचनम् is प्रपन्नानाम्।

    5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the seventh case affix used in the form काले in the verses?
    Answer: The seventh case affix used in the form काले (पुंलिङ्ग -प्रातिपदिकम् ’काल’, सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) is prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-3-36 सप्तम्यधिकरणे च।

    In the present example, ’काल’ (time) is the कारकम् (participant in the action) which denotes the location/support – via the agent भगवान् (the Lord) – of the action करोति (does) subsisting in the agent. Hence ‘काल’ gets the designation अधिकरणम् (location) by the सूत्रम् 1-4-45 आधारोऽधिकरणम् – That कारकम् (participant in the action) which denotes the location/support – via the agent/object – of an action subsisting in the agent/object is called अधिकरणम् (location.)
    And hence the term ‘काल’ takes a seventh case affix as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-36 सप्तम्यधिकरणे च – A seventh case affix (‘ङि’, ‘ओस्’, ‘सुप्’) is used to denote अधिकरणम् (location), provided it has not been expressed otherwise.

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    Śrī Rāma said to Lakṣmaṇa – “I long (desire) to see Sītā’s lotus-like countenance.”
    Answer: सीतायाः मुखाम्बुजम् दिदृक्षे इति श्रीरामः लक्ष्मणम् उवाच = सीताया मुखाम्बुजं दिदृक्ष इति श्रीरामो लक्ष्मणमुवाच।

    Easy questions:
    1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘उ’ used in the form करोति?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-1-79 तनादिकृञ्भ्य उः prescribes the affix ‘उ’ used in the form करोति – derived from the verbal root√कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०).

    Please see answer to question 5 in the following comment for derivation of the form करोति – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/04/24/अस्राक्षीत्-3as-लुँङ्/#comment-3666

    2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-105 अतो हेः been used in the verses?
    Answer: The The सूत्रम् 6-4-105 अतो हेः has been used in the form दर्शय – derived from the causative form of the verbal root √दृश् (दृशिँर् प्रेक्षणे १. ११४३).

    The विवक्षा is लोँट्, हेतुमति, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, मध्यम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।
    दृश् + णिच् । By 3-1-26 हेतुमति च।
    = दृश् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = दर्श् + इ । By 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च, 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः।
    = दर्शि । ‘दर्शि’ gets the धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः।

    दर्शि + लोँट् । By 3-3-162 लोट् च।
    = दर्शि + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = दर्शि + सिप् । By 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्, 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्।
    = दर्शि + सि। अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = दर्शि + हि । By 3-4-87 सेर्ह्यपिच्च। ‘हि’ inherits the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा as per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ। This allows 3-1-68 to apply below.
    = दर्शि + शप् + हि । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्।
    = दर्शि + अ + हि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः ।
    = दर्शे + अ + हि । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः|
    = दर्शय + हि । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः।
    = दर्शय । By 6-4-105 अतो हेः – There is an elision of the affix ‘हि’ when it follows an अङ्गम् ending in the letter ‘अ’।

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