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Daily Archives: June 25, 2015

सर्वनारीणाम् fGp

Today we will look at the form सर्वनारीणाम् fGp from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 2.118.11.

सावित्री पतिशुश्रूषां कृत्वा स्वर्गे महीयते । तथावृत्तिश्च याता त्वं पतिशुश्रूषया दिवम् ।। २-११८-१० ।।
वरिष्ठा सर्वनारीणामेषा च दिवि देवता । रोहिणी न विना चन्द्रं मुहूर्तमपि दृश्यते ।। २-११८-११ ।।
एवंविधाश्च प्रवराः स्त्रियो भर्तृदृढव्रताः । देवलोके महीयन्ते पुण्येन स्वेन कर्मणा ।। २-११८-१२ ।।

Gita Press translation – Having rendered service to her husband (all her life), Sāvitrī (the celebrated wife of Prince Satyavān) is (now) greatly respected in heaven; nay, conducting yourself in the same way, you (too) have virtually ascended to heaven through service to your husband (10). (By virtue of her devotion to her spouse) this Rohiṇī (the most favorite consort of the moon-god, presiding over a constellation of the same name), the most excellent of all women and (now) dwelling in heaven as a deity, is not seen (in the heavens) without the moon even for a while (11). Nay, steadfast in their vow of fidelity to their husband, (more) such exalted women are highly respected in the realm of gods by virtue of their meritorious action (12).

(1) सर्वाश्च ता नार्यः = सर्वनार्यः – all women.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) सर्वा जस् + नारी जस् । By 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन – A सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् which either i) denotes an action which naturally precedes in time or ii) is (composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) ‘एक’/‘सर्व’/’जरत्’/’पुराण’/’नव’/’केवल’ optionally compounds with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् – provided both the सुबन्त-पदे refer to the same item – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘सर्वा जस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-49 (which prescribes the compounding) the term पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘सर्वा जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘सर्वा जस् + नारी जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) सर्वा + नारी । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) सर्व + नारी । By 6-3-42 पुंवत्‌ कर्मधारयजातीयदेशीयेषु – A feminine adjective which does not end in the feminine affix ‘ऊङ्’ (ref. 4-1-66 ऊङुतः etc) and is formed from a masculine base denoting the same meaning becomes masculine-like when it is either the prior member of a कर्मधारय: compound or is followed by the affix ‘जातीय’ (ref. 5-3-69 प्रकारवचने जातीयर्) or ‘देशीय’ (ref. 5-3-67 ईषदसमाप्तौ कल्पब्देश्यदेशीयरः)।

= सर्वनारी ।

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सर्वनारी’ is feminine since the latter member ‘नारी’ of the compound is feminine.

The विवक्षा is षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्।

(6) सर्वनारी + आम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of ‘आम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
Note: ‘सर्वनारी’ gets the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-3 यू स्त्र्याख्यौ नदी – A term ending in long ‘ई’ or long ‘ऊ’ gets the सञ्ज्ञा ‘नदी’ if it is used exclusively in the feminine gender. This allows 7-1-54 to apply in the next step.

(7) सर्वनारी + नुँट् आम् । By 7-1-54 ह्रस्वनद्यापो नुँट् – The affix ‘आम्’ takes the augment ‘नुँट्’ when it follows a प्रातिपदिकम् which either ends in a short vowel or has the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा or ends in the feminine affix ‘आप्’। As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ this augment attaches to the beginning of the affix ‘आम्’।

(8) सर्वनारी + नाम् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(9) सर्वनारीणाम् । By 8-4-2 अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेऽपि – The letter ‘न्’ is replaced by ‘ण्’ when either ‘र्’ or ‘ष्’ precedes, even if intervened by a letter of the अट्-प्रत्याहार: or by a letter of the क-वर्ग: or प-वर्गः or the term ‘आङ्’ or ‘नुँम्’ (अनुस्वारः) either singly or in any combination.


1. In which word(s) in the verses has the सूत्रम् 3-1-27 कण्ड्वादिभ्यो यक् been used?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘सन्’ in the verses?

3. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a second case affix in the word मुहूर्तम् used in the verses?

4. Which other case ending (besides a second case ending) could have been used in the form चन्द्रम् used in the verses?

5. In which sense has a third case ending been used in the words पुण्येन स्वेन कर्मणा in the verses?
i. कर्तरि
ii. कर्मणि
iii. हेतौ
iv. None of the above

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“If you want to worship all the deities, then worship a cow because all the deities reside in her body.” Construct a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘all the deities’ = सर्वाश्च ता देवता:। Use the combination of indeclinables ‘यत: + हि = यतो हि’ for ‘because.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘इयँङ्’ seen in the form स्त्रिय: (स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्त्री’, प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-67 सार्वधातुके यक् been used in the verses?

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