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पराधीनम् mAs/nAs

Today we will look at the form पराधीनम् mAs/nAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 11.11.19.

गां दुग्धदोहामसतीं च भार्यां देहं पराधीनमसत्प्रजां च । वित्तं त्वतीर्थीकृतमङ्ग वाचं हीनां मया रक्षति दुःखदुःखी ।। ११-११-१९ ।।
यस्यां न मे पावनमङ्ग कर्म स्थित्युद्भवप्राणनिरोधमस्य । लीलावतारेप्सितजन्म वा स्याद्वन्ध्यां गिरं तां बिभृयान्न धीरः ।। ११-११-२० ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
एतदेवान्यार्थनिदर्शनैः प्रपञ्चयति – गामिति । दुह्यत इति दोहः पयः । दुग्धो दोहो नोत्तरत्र दोह्योऽस्ति यस्यास्तामर्थशून्याम् । असतीं भार्यां कामशून्याम् । देहं पराधीनं प्रतिक्षणं दुःखहेतुम् । असत्प्रजां दृष्टादृष्टसाधनशून्यं पुत्रम् । अतीर्थीकृतमागते पात्रेऽदत्तं वित्तं दुष्कीर्तिदुरितापादकम् । अङ्ग हे उद्धव, दुःखानन्तरं दुःखमेव यस्य स रक्षति ।। १९ ।। मया हीनां वाचमित्युक्तं विवृणोति । यस्यां वाचि मे जगतः शोधकं चरित्रं न स्यात् । किं तत् । अस्य विश्वस्य स्थित्यादिरूपम्, तद्धेतुरित्यर्थः । लीलावतारेष्वीप्सितं जगतः प्रेमास्पदं श्रीरामकृष्णादिजन्म वा न स्यात्तां निष्फलां गिरं धीरो धीमान्न धारयेत् ।। २० ।।

Translation – The man who maintains a cow that has been milked for good (offers no more prospect of yielding milk), a false wife, a body depending (for its support) on another and an unworthy son, nay, who guards wealth which is not bestowed on worthy recipients and cultivates, O dear Uddhava, speech which does not glorify Me reaps misery after misery (19). A wise man ought not to cultivate such barren speech as does not glorify, O dear Uddhava, My purifying activity responsible for the appearance, continuance and extinction of this universe and does not describe My advent (in the form of Śrī Rāma, Śrī Kṛṣṇa and so on), which is so dear to the world, among My (numerous) descents taken for the sake of sport (20).

(1) परस्मिन्नधि = पराधीन: – depending on other.
Note: The सूत्रम् 1-4-97 अधिरीश्वरे assigns the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: to ‘अधि’ here. In connection with ‘अधि’ (which has the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-97 अधिरीश्वरे), ‘पर’ takes a seventh case affix as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-9 यस्मादधिकं यस्य चेश्वरवचनं तत्र सप्तमी

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) पर ङि + अधि । By 2-1-40 सप्तमी शौण्डैः – A पदम् ending in a seventh case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to ‘शौण्ड’ etc and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: Since ‘अधि’ is a अव्ययम् the default सुँप् affix ‘सुँ’ following ‘अधि’ takes the लुक् elision as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः
Note: The शौण्डादि-गण: is listed in the गणपाठ: as follows – शौण्ड। धूर्त। कितव। व्याड। प्रवीण। संवीत। अन्तर्। अधि। पटु। पण्डित। कुशल। चपल। निपुण।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘पर ङि’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-40 (which prescribes the compounding) the term सप्तमी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘पर ङि’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘पर ङि + अधि’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) पर + अधि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) पराधि । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

(6) पराधि + ख । By 5-4-7 अषडक्षाशितंग्वलंकर्मालंपुरुषाध्युत्तरपदात्ख: – The following प्रातिपदिकानि invariably take the तद्धित: affix ‘ख’ with no change in meaning – i) ‘अषडक्ष’ ii) ‘आशितङ्गु’ iii) ‘अलंकर्मन्’ vi) ‘अलंपुरुष’ and v) a compound having ‘अधि’ as its latter member.

(7) पराधि + ईन । By 7-1-2 आयनेयीनीयियः फढखछघां प्रत्ययादीना – the letters ‘फ्’, ‘ढ्’, ‘ख्’, ‘छ्’ and ‘घ्’ – when they occur at the beginning of a प्रत्यय: (affix) – are replaced respectively by ‘आयन्’, ‘एय्’, ‘ईन्’, ‘ईय्’ and ‘इय्’।
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 1-3-10 यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम्, the substitutions take place respectively.

See question 1.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘पराधि’ has the designation ‘भ’ here by 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(8) पराध् + ईन । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= पराधीन ।

Note: In the present example the compound ‘पराधीन’ (which is an adjective) is qualifying the masculine/neuter noun ‘देह’ and hence takes the masculine/neuter gender.

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम् ।

(9) पराधीन + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(10) पराधीन + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. Note: In the neuter gender, 7-1-24 is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(11) पराधीनम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Why doesn’t the ending letter ‘न्’ of the substitute ‘ईन्’ (used in step 7) get the designation इत् (as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्)? In answer to this the तत्त्वबोधिनी says आयनीनोर्नकारस्य नेत्त्वम्, फिनो नित्करणसामर्थ्यात्। Please explain. Note: ‘फिन्’ is a तद्धित: affix prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-160 प्राचामवृद्धात्‌ फिन् बहुलम्‌।

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-45 ओदितश्च been used in the verses?

3. From which verbal root is the participle ‘ईप्सित’ (used in the compound ‘लीलावतारेप्सितजन्म’ in the verses) derived?

4. What is the विग्रह-वाक्यम् (explanatory sentence) of the अव्ययीभाव: compound प्रतिक्षणम् used in the commentary?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘ण्वुल्’ used in the form शोधकम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शोधक’, नपुंसकलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In childhood I was not independent but now I am.” Paraphrase to “In childhood I was dependent on another but now I am self-dependent.” Use the neuter noun ‘शैशव’ for ‘childhood.’ Form a compound for ‘dependent on another’ and ‘self-dependent (dependent on oneself.)’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘इ’ in the form बिभृयात्?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘श्नु’ in the commentary?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Why doesn’t the ending letter ‘न्’ of the substitute ‘ईन्’ (used in step 7) get the designation इत् (as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्)? In answer to this the तत्त्वबोधिनी says आयनीनोर्नकारस्य नेत्त्वम्, फिनो नित्करणसामर्थ्यात्। Please explain. Note: ‘फिन्’ is a तद्धित: affix prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-160 प्राचामवृद्धात्‌ फिन् बहुलम्‌।
    Answer: The ending letter ‘न्’ of the तद्धित: affix ‘फिन्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-160 प्राचामवृद्धात्‌ फिन् बहुलम्‌) is a इत् by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्। (The purpose of the letter ‘न्’ being a इत् in the affix ‘फिन्’ is to prescribe a particular स्वरः – intonation).
    There would be no purpose served by having the ending letter ‘न्’ of the affix ‘फिन्’ as a इत् if the ending letter ‘न्’ of the substitute ‘आयन्’ (in place of the letter ‘फ्’) were to be a इत् because in that case ‘फिन्’ would inherit the property of being a नित् (having the letter ‘न्’ as a इत्) from the substitute ‘आयन्’ already. Hence the fact that the affix ‘फिन्’ has been specifically made a नित् tells us that the ending letter ‘न्’ of the substitute ‘आयन्’ is not a इत्। And based on the association of ‘ईन्’ with ‘आयन्’ (in the सूत्रम् 7-1-2 आयनेयीनीयियः फढखछघां प्रत्ययादीना) we extend this logic to apply equally to ‘ईन्’ as well and conclude that the ending letter ‘न्’ of ‘ईन्’ is also not a इत्।

    2. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-45 ओदितश्च been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 8-2-45 ओदितश्च has been used in the form हीनाम् (स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हीना’, द्वितीय-एकवचनम्) – derived from the verbal root √हा (ओँहाक् त्यागे ३. ९).

    Please see answer to question 4 in the following comment for derivation of the स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हीना’ – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2014/11/27/मानुष्यम्-nas/#comment-3513

    3. From which verbal root is the participle ‘ईप्सित’ (used in the compound ‘लीलावतारेप्सितजन्म’ in the verses) derived?
    Answer: The participle ‘ईप्सित’ is derived from the verbal root √आप् (आपॢँ व्याप्तौ ५. १६).

    Please see the following post for derivation of the participle form ‘ईप्सित’ –
    http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/11/19/ईप्सितम्-nns

    4. What is the विग्रह-वाक्यम् (explanatory sentence) of the अव्ययीभाव: compound प्रतिक्षणम् used in the commentary?
    Answer: The विग्रह-वाक्यम् of the अव्ययीभाव: compound प्रतिक्षणम् is
    क्षणे क्षणे = प्रतिक्षणम् = at moment after moment = at each moment

    अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
    क्षण ङि + प्रति । By 2-1-6 अव्ययं विभक्तिसमीपसमृद्धिव्यृद्ध्यर्थाभावात्ययासम्प्रतिशब्दप्रादुर्भावपश्चाद्यथानुपूर्व्ययौगपद्यसादृश्यसम्पत्तिसाकल्यान्तवचनेषु – A अव्ययम्‌ (indeclinable) used in any one of the following meanings invariably compounds with a (syntactically related) term ending in a सुँप् affix to yield a अव्ययीभाव: compound –
    (i) विभक्ति: – a case affix
    (ii) समीपम्‌ – close by
    (iii) समृद्धि: (ऋद्धेराधिक्यम्‌) – prosperity
    (iv) व्यृद्धि: (विगता ऋद्धि:) – adversity
    (v) अर्थाभाव: – absence of something
    (vi) अत्यय: (ध्वंस:) – disappearance (passing away)
    (vii) असम्प्रति – presently inappropriate
    (viii) शब्दप्रादुर्भाव: – manifestation of a sound
    (ix) पश्चाद् – following
    (x) यथा (योग्यतावीप्सापदार्थानतिवृत्तिसादृश्यानि यथार्था:) – appropriateness, repetition, non-transgression of something, similarity
    (xi) आनुपूर्व्यम्‌ – in orderly succession
    (xii) यौगपद्यम्‌ – simultaneity
    (xiii) सादृश्यम्‌ – similarity/resemblance. Note: यथार्थत्वेनैव सिद्धे पुन: सादृश्यग्रहणं गुणभूतेऽपि सादृश्ये यथा स्यादित्येवमर्थम्‌ – सादृश्यम्‌ is mentioned here again (even though it is already given as one of the meanings of यथा in (x) above) in order to allow compounding even when सादृश्यम्‌ is used in a secondary (adjectival) sense
    (xiv) सम्पत्ति: (अनुरूप आत्मभाव:) – befitting state
    (xv) साकल्यम्‌ – totality/completeness
    (xvi) अन्त: – termination/end
    Note: The term ‘वचन’ used at the end of the compound विभक्ति……वचनेषु connects with each one of the prior terms ‘विभक्ति’ etc in the compound.
    = प्रति + क्षण ङि । By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् which prescribes a compound gets the designation ‘उपसर्जन’। Here the term ‘अव्ययम्’ in the सूत्रम् 2-1-6 ends in the nominative case. Therefore the अव्ययम् ‘प्रति’ gets the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ by 1-2-43. Hence ‘प्रति’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌।
    Note: ‘प्रति + क्षण ङि’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
    = प्रति + क्षण । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः।
    = प्रतिक्षण ।

    प्रतिक्षण + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
    = प्रतिक्षण + अम् । By 2-4-83 नाव्ययीभावादतोऽम्त्वपञ्चम्याः – This सूत्रम् has two parts – (a) नाव्ययीभावादत: – following a अव्ययीभावः compound ending (ref. 1-1-72) in the letter ‘अ’ a सुँप् affix does not take the लुक् elision (which would have been done by 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः) and (b) अम्त्वपञ्चम्याः – following a अव्ययीभावः compound ending (ref. 1-1-72) in the letter ‘अ’ a सुँप् affix – other than a fifth case affix – is substituted by अम्।
    1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
    = प्रतिक्षणम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः।

    5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘ण्वुल्’ used in the form शोधकम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शोधक’, नपुंसकलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) in the commentary?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-1-133 ण्वुल्तृचौ prescribes the affix ‘ण्वुल्’ used in the form शोधकम् – derived from the verbal root √शुध् (शुधँ शौचे ४.८८) as follows –

    शुध् + ण्वुल् । By 3-1-133 ण्वुल्तृचौ – The affixes ‘ण्वुल्’ and ‘तृच्’ may be used after a verbal root. Note: As per 3-4-67 कर्तरि कृत्‌, the affixes ‘ण्वुल्’ and ‘तृच्’ are used in the sense of the agent of the action.
    = शुध् + वु । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = शुध् + अक । By 7-1-1 युवोरनाकौ, 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य।
    = शोध् + अक । By 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च।
    = शोधक । ‘शोधक’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “In childhood I was not independent but now I am.” Paraphrase to “In childhood I was dependent on another but now I am self-dependent.” Use the neuter noun ‘शैशव’ for ‘childhood.’ Form a compound for ‘dependent on another’ and ‘self-dependent (dependent on oneself.)’
    Answer: शैशवे पराधीनः आसम् साम्प्रतम् तु स्वाधीनः अस्मि = शैशवे पराधीन आसं साम्प्रतं तु स्वाधीनोऽस्मि।

    Easy questions:
    1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘इ’ in the form बिभृयात्?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 7-4-76 भृञामित्‌ prescribes the substitution ‘इ’ in the form बिभृयात् derived from √भृ ( डुभृञ् धारणपोषणयोः ३.६).

    Please see answer to question 4 in the following comment for derivation of the form बिभृयात् – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/10/01/बुधः-mns/#comment-4877

    2. Can you spot the affix ‘श्नु’ in the commentary?
    Answer: The affix ‘श्नु’ occurs in the form विवृणोति – derived from the verbal root √वृ (वृञ् वरणे ५. ८).

    The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।
    वृ + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्।
    = वृ + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = वृ + तिप् । By 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्, 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्।
    Note: The affix ‘तिप्’ has the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्। This allows 3-1-73 to apply below.
    = वृ + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = वृ + श्नु + ति । By 3-1-73 स्वादिभ्यः श्नुः – The affix ‘श्नु’ is placed after the verbal roots of the स्वादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुकम् affix that is used signifying the agent. This सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ ।
    = वृ + नु + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    Note: By 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित्, the affix ‘नु’ becomes ङिद्वत् (behaves like having the letter ‘ङ्’ as a इत्)। Hence 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents the गुणादेशः for the letter ‘ऋ’ (of the अङ्गम् ‘वृ’) which would have been done by 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः।
    = वृनोति । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः।
    = वृणोति । By 8-4-2 अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेऽपि, वार्तिकम् – ऋवर्णान्नस्य णत्वं वाच्यम्।

    ‘वि’ is the उपसर्ग: (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे, 1-4-80 ते प्राग्धातोः।)
    वि + वृणोति = विवृणोति । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि।

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