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विष्णुना mIs

Today we will look at the form विष्णुना mIs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 1.1.18.

विष्णुना सदृशो वीर्ये सोमवत्प्रियदर्शनः । कालाग्निसदृशः क्रोधे क्षमया पृथिवीसमः ।। १-१-१८ ।।
धनदेन समस्त्यागे सत्ये धर्म इवापरः । तमेवङ्गुणसम्पन्नं रामं सत्यपराक्रमम् ।। १-१-१९ ।।
ज्येष्ठं ज्येष्ठगुणैर्युक्तं प्रियं दशरथः सुतम् । प्रकृतीनां हितैर्युक्तं प्रकृतिप्रियकाम्यया ।। १-१-२० ।।
यौवराज्येन संयोक्तुमैच्छत्प्रीत्या महीपतिः ।। first half of verse १-१-२१ ।।

Gita Press translation – He is a replica of Lord Viṣṇu in prowess and is pleasing of aspect as the moon. In (show of) anger he resembles the destructive fire at the end of creation and is a counterpart of Mother Earth in forbearance (18). He equals Kubera (the god of riches, the bestower of wealth) in liberality and is another Dharma (the god of piety) as it were in point of truthfulness. With intent to gratify the people, the king (Emperor Daśaratha) lovingly sought to invest with the office of Regent, his beloved son, Śrī Rāma, who possessed unfailing prowess and was adorned with the aforesaid qualities, who was not only the eldest (of his four sons in point of age) but was also endowed with the highest virtues and devoted to the interests of the people (verses 19,20 and first half of verse 21).

These verses have previously appeared in the following post – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2013/03/08/त्यागे-mls/

विष्णुना is तृतीया-एकवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विष्णु’।

(1) विष्णु + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। As per 2-3-72 तुल्यार्थैरतुलोपमाभ्यां तृतीयान्यतरस्याम्‌ – A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) or a sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with ‘तुल्य’ (equal/similar to) or any of its synonyms – but not ‘तुला’ or ‘उपमा’।
In the present example, ‘विष्णु’ is co-occurring with ‘सदृश’ (a synonym of ‘तुल्य’)। Therefore ‘विष्णु’ takes the third case affix. Optionally ‘विष्णु’ could take the sixth case affix.

‘विष्णु’ gets the घि-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि।

(2) विष्णु + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) विष्णुना । By 7-3-120 आङो नाऽस्त्रियाम् – Following a अङ्गम् having घि-सञ्ज्ञा, the affix ‘आङ्’ is replaced by ‘ना’, but not in the feminine gender. ‘आङ्’ is an ancient name for the (instrumental singular) affix ‘टा’।


1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-72 तुल्यार्थैरतुलोपमाभ्यां तृतीयान्यतरस्याम्‌ been used between verses 35-40 of Chapter Four of the गीता?

2. Where else (besides in विष्णुना) has the सूत्रम् 2-3-72 तुल्यार्थैरतुलोपमाभ्यां तृतीयान्यतरस्याम्‌ been used in the verses?

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-72 तुल्यार्थैरतुलोपमाभ्यां तृतीयान्यतरस्याम्‌ the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अतुलोपमाभ्यां किम्? तुला उपमा वा कृष्णस्य नास्ति। Please explain.

4. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘क्षमा’ (used in the form क्षमया (तृतीया-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ग्’ in the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘त्याग’ (used in the form त्यागे (सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I want to get a car similar to your car.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ए’ (which subsequently becomes ‘अय्’ after applying 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः) in the form क्षमया?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-3 नामि been used in the verses?

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