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उच्चैः ind

Today we will look at the form उच्चैः ind from चाणक्य-नीतिः।

गुणैरुत्तमतां याति नोच्चैरासनसंस्थिताः ।
प्रासादशिखरस्थोऽपि काकः किं गरुडायते ॥

Translation – Excellence is attained through good qualities and not by (the mere fact of) occupying a high seat. Can a crow – even though stationed on the pinnacle of a palace – act like Garuḍa (the king of birds)?

Note: This verse has also been previously posted in the following post – गरुडायते-3as-लँट्

The form उच्चैः is derived from the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उच्चैस्’।

Since ‘उच्चैस्’ is listed in the स्वरादि-गण:, it gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-37 स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम् – The class of terms beginning with ‘स्वर्’ (heaven) and the particles (निपाताः) are assigned the name अव्ययम् (indeclinable). Since ‘उच्चैस्’ is an अव्ययम्, it only takes the default first case affix ‘सुँ’।

(1) उच्चैस् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। By 2-3-46 प्रातिपदिकार्थलिङ्गपरिमाणवचनमात्रे प्रथमा – A first case affix (‘सुँ’, ‘औ’, ‘जस्’) is used to denote (i) only the meaning of the प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) or (ii) only the additional sense of gender or (iii) only the additional sense of measure or (iv) only number.

(2) उच्चैस् । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः, the feminine affix आप् and the सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision. Now ‘उच्चैस्’ gets the पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्

(3) उच्चैः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः। See question 2.

Questions:

1. Where has the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उच्चैस्’ been used in Chapter One of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the final form उच्चैः, the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – पदत्वादिह रुत्वविसर्गौ भवत:। Please explain.

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-46 प्रातिपदिकार्थलिङ्गपरिमाणवचनमात्रे प्रथमा (used in step 1) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – मात्रशब्दस्य प्रत्येकं योग:। Please explain.

4. The वृत्ति: of the सूत्रम् 2-3-46 प्रातिपदिकार्थलिङ्गपरिमाणवचनमात्रे प्रथमा in the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – प्रातिपदिकार्थमात्रे लिङ्गमात्राद्याधिक्‍ये संख्‍यामात्रे च प्रथमा स्‍यात् । Commenting on the use of the term आधिक्‍ये the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – यद्यपि लिङ्गमात्रे परिमाणमात्रे इत्येवाक्षरार्थस्तथापि प्रातिपदिकार्थं विना लिङ्गादिप्रतीतेरसम्भवादिति तदाधिक्य इत्युक्तम्। Please explain.

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-3-122 उपसर्गस्य घञ्यमनुष्ये बहुलम् been used in the verses?

6. In which sense is the affix ल्युट् used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आसन’?
(i) कर्तरि
(ii) कर्मणि
(iii) करणे
(iv) अधिकरणे

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The teacher should sit on a high seat, but not the student.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः been used in the verse?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Where has the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उच्चैस्’ been used in Chapter One of the गीता?
    Answer: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उच्चैस्’ has been used in the following verse in Chapter One of the गीता –
    तस्य सञ्जनयन्हर्षं कुरुवृद्धः पितामहः |
    सिंहनादं विनद्योच्चैः शङ्खं दध्मौ प्रतापवान्‌ || 1-12||

    2. Commenting on the final form उच्चैः, the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – पदत्वादिह रुत्वविसर्गौ भवत:। Please explain.
    Answer: Steps (1) and (2) in the derivation shown in the post appear to be trivial, but the तत्त्वबोधिनी explains that it is not so – because only after these two steps does ‘उच्चैस्’ get the पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम् which enables the application of 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः in step (3) to give उच्चैः। Without the सूत्रम् 2-3-46 the पद-सञ्ज्ञा for ‘उच्चैस्’ would not have been possible because we would not have been able to bring in the सुँप् affix by the सूत्रम् 4-1-2 (and subsequently elide it by the सूत्रम् 2-4-82.)

    3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-46 प्रातिपदिकार्थलिङ्गपरिमाणवचनमात्रे प्रथमा (used in step 1) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – मात्रशब्दस्य प्रत्येकं योग:। Please explain.
    Answer: The word ‘मात्र’ – which is the ending member of the compound ‘प्रातिपदिकार्थलिङ्गपरिमाणवचनमात्र’ should be understood to be associated with each of the prior members in the compound. Therefore the compound प्रातिपदिकार्थलिङ्गपरिमाणवचनमात्रे is to be elaborated as प्रातिपदिकार्थमात्रे, लिङ्गमात्रे, परिमाणमात्रे and वचनमात्रे। Hence a first case affix is used प्रातिपदिकार्थमात्रे (to denote only the meaning of the प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem)) or लिङ्गमात्रे (to denote only the additional sense of gender) or परिमाणमात्रे (to denote only the additional sense of measure) or वचनमात्रे (to denote only number.)

    4. The वृत्ति: of the सूत्रम् 2-3-46 प्रातिपदिकार्थलिङ्गपरिमाणवचनमात्रे प्रथमा in the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – प्रातिपदिकार्थमात्रे लिङ्गमात्राद्याधिक्‍ये संख्‍यामात्रे च प्रथमा स्‍यात् । Commenting on the use of the term आधिक्‍ये the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – यद्यपि लिङ्गमात्रे परिमाणमात्रे इत्येवाक्षरार्थस्तथापि प्रातिपदिकार्थं विना लिङ्गादिप्रतीतेरसम्भवादिति तदाधिक्य इत्युक्तम्। Please explain.
    Answer: As explained in answer to question 3 above, प्रातिपदिकार्थलिङ्गपरिमाणवचनमात्रे is to be elaborated as प्रातिपदिकार्थमात्रे, लिङ्गमात्रे, परिमाणमात्रे and वचनमात्रे। But without first introducing the meaning of the प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) itself, the notion of लिङ्गम् (gender) or परिमाण: (measure) has no basis. Hence it is understood that लिङ्गमात्रे actually stands for लिङ्गमात्राधिक्‍ये (to denote only the additional sense of gender) and परिमाणमात्रे actually stands for परिमाणमात्राधिक्‍ये (to denote only the additional sense of measure.)

    5. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-3-122 उपसर्गस्य घञ्यमनुष्ये बहुलम् been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-3-122 उपसर्गस्य घञ्यमनुष्ये बहुलम् has been used in the form ‘प्रासाद’ which is a part of the compound प्रासादशिखरस्थः in the verses.
    Please see the following post for derivation of the form ‘प्रासाद’ – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2013/06/05/प्रासादात्-m-ab-s/

    6. In which sense is the affix ल्युट् used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आसन’?
    (i) कर्तरि
    (ii) कर्मणि
    (iii) करणे
    (iv) अधिकरणे
    Answer: The affix ‘ल्युट्’ is used (iv) अधिकरणे (to denote the locus of the action) in the form ‘आसन’ – derived from the verbal root √आस् (आसँ उपवेशने २. ११).

    The विग्रह: of the word आसनम् (seat) is आस्यतेऽत्र (where one sits.) The derivation is as follows –

    आस् + ल्युट् । By 3-3-117 करणाधिकरणयोश्च – The affix ल्युट् may be used following a verbal root to denote the instrument or the locus of the action.
    = आस् + यु । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = आस् + अन । By 7-1-1 युवोरनाकौ, 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य।
    = आसन । ‘आसन’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

    7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “The teacher should sit on a high seat, but not the student.”
    Answer: अध्यापकः उच्चैः आसने उपविशेत् न तु छात्रः = अध्यापक उच्चैरासन उपविशेन्न तुच्छात्रः।

    Easy questions:
    1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः been used in the verse?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः has been used in the form याति derived from the verbal root √या (या प्रापणे, अदादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः २. ४४).
    Please see answer to easy question 2 in the following comment – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/08/16/महीयते-3as-लँट्/#comment-4258

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