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दाशरथिः mNs

Today we will look at the form दाशरथिः mNs from माघकाव्यम् 1.68.

स्मरत्यदो दाशरथिर्भवन्भवानमुं वनान्ताद्वनितापहारिणम् ।
पयोधिमाबद्धचलज्जलाविलं विलङ्घ्य लङ्कां निकषा हनिष्यति ॥ 1-68 ॥

मल्लिनाथ-टीका –
भातीति भवान् । भातेर्डवतुः । दशरथस्यापत्यं पुमान्दाशरथिः । “अत इञ्” इतीञ्प्रत्ययः । भवन् । रामः सन्नित्यर्थः । भवतेर्लटः शत्रादेशः । वनान्ताद्दण्डकारण्याद्वनितापहारिणं सीतापहर्तारममुं रावणम् । आबद्धः प्रक्षिप्ताद्रिभिर्बद्धसेतुः । अत एव चलन्ति जलानि यस्य स च । अत एवाविलश्च तमाबद्धचलज्जलाविलं पयोधिं विलङ्घ्य लङ्कां निकषा लङ्कासमीपे ‘समयानिकषाशब्दौ सामीप्ये त्वव्यये मतौ’ इति हलायुधः । “अभितः परितः समयानिकषाहाप्रतियोगेऽपि” इति द्वितीया । हनिष्यति अवधीत् । “अभिज्ञावचने लृट्” इति भूते लृट् । अदो हननं भवान्स्मरतीति काकुः । प्रत्यभिजानासि किमित्यर्थः । शेषे प्रथमः ॥

Translation – (Does) thou remember that – being the son of (King) Daśaratha, thou having crossed the bridged turbid ocean with turbulent waters, killed in the vicinity of Lañkā that (Rāvaṇa) – the abductor of the lady (Sītā) from the (Danḍaka) forest.

The above verses have previously appeared in the following post – हनिष्यति 3As-लृँट्

दशरथस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्) = दाशरथिः (रामः) – a (male) descendant of Daśaratha. It refers to Śrī Rāma (son of Daśaratha)
In the verses the विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(1) दशरथ ङस् + इञ् । By 4-1-95 अत इञ् – To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant) the तद्धित: affix ‘इञ्’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a sixth case affix and has a base ending in the letter ‘अ’। As per the सूत्रम् 4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed and which ends in a sixth case affix the तद्धिता: affixes already prescribed (by the prior rules 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् etc), as well as those that are going to be prescribed (by the following rules 4-1-95 अत इञ् etc), may be optionally applied to denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant.)
Note: The term अत: used in this सूत्रम् is an adjective to प्रातिपदिकात्‌ (ref. 4-1-1 ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्‌) and as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-72 येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य we get the meaning अदन्तात् प्रातिपदिकात्‌। And bearing in mind that the affix is added to a पदम् and not directly to a प्रातिपदिकम्, it implies that the affix (इञ्) is (optionally) applied following a (sixth-case ending) पदम् derived from a प्रातिपदिकम् ending in the letter ‘अ’।
Note: The affix ‘इञ्’ prescribed by this सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to the default affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्।

(2) दशरथ ङस् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘दशरथ ङस् + इ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) दशरथ + इ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘इञ्’ is a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step.

(4) दाशरथ + इ । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘दाशरथ’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(5) दाशरथ् + इ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= दाशरथि । The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दाशरथि’ declines like हरि-शब्दः।

(6) दाशरथि + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(7) दाशरथि + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) दाशरथिः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Similarly we can derive the following –
१) दुष्यन्तस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्) = दौष्यन्तिः (भरतः) – a (male) descendant of Duṣyanta. It refers to Bharata (son of Duṣyanta)
२) वसुकस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्) = वासुकिः – a (male) descendant of Vasuka
३) उत्तानपादस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्) = औत्तानपादः – a (male) descendant of Uttānapāda. It refers to Dhruva (son of Uttānapāda)

तिरोभूय ind

Today we will look at the form तिरोभूय  ind from कथासरित्सागर: verse 17.6.111.

इत्युक्त्वोपेत्य साश्रुस्तामवोचद्देवि माधुना । क्वापि यासीरहं मुक्ताफलकेतु: स ते प्रिय: ॥ १७.६.१०९ ॥
दृढव्रतस्य शापेन मानुषीभूय संस्मृता । जातिर्मयाद्येत्युक्त्वा तामैच्छदाश्लेष्टुमुत्सुक: ॥ १७.६.११० ॥
सा तूद्भ्रान्ता तिरोभूय तत्रासीत्साश्रुलोचना । सोऽपि राजसुतोऽपश्यंस्तां मोहादपतद्‍भुवि ॥ १७.६.१११ ॥

Translation – When he had said this, he went up to her weeping and said, “Princess, do not go away anywhere now; for I am your former lover Muktāphalaketu. I became a human by the curse of the hermit Dṛḍhavrata, and I have now remembered my former birth.” Having said this, he desired, in his eagerness, to embrace her. But she was alarmed and having concealed herself stayed there with her eyes full of tears: and the prince, not seeing her, fell on the ground in a swoon.

(1) अन्तर्हिता भूत्वा = तिरोभूय – having disappeared

तिरोभूय is derived from the verbal root √भू (भू सत्तायाम् १. १) preceded by the term ‘तिरस्’। ‘तिरस्’ gets the designation गति: here as per 1-4-71 तिरोऽन्तर्धौ – The term ‘तिरस्’ when denoting ‘disappearance/concealment’ gets the designation ‘गति’ provided it is used in conjunction with a verb.

Note: Besides accent considerations, the purpose of assigning the designation ‘गति’ is to facilitate compound formation prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः which in turn allows for the substitution ‘ल्यप्‌’ (in place of ‘क्त्वा’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ (in step 5.)

Note: Since the term ‘तिरस्’ has the designation ‘गति’ here it also gets the निपात-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-56 प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः and hence the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-37 स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम्।

(2) भू + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले – The affix ‘क्त्वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same. In the present example the later action (having the same agent – ‘she’) is आसीत् (‘stayed.’)

(3) अलौकिक-विग्रह: –

तिरस् + भू + क्त्वा । By 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः – The indeclinable ‘कु’, terms having the designation ‘गति’ (ref. 1-4-60 गतिश्च etc) as well as the terms ‘प्र’ etc. (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः) invariably compound with a syntactically related term and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of नित्यम् (invariably) comes down from the prior सूत्रम् 2-2-17 नित्यं क्रीडाजीविकयोः।

(4) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘तिरस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 (which prescribes the compounding) the term कुगतिप्रादयः ends in the nominative case. Hence the term ‘तिरस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘तिरस् + भू क्त्वा’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

(5) तिरस् + भू + ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ – When the affix ‘क्त्वा’ occurs at the end of a compound, it is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ provided the prior member of the compound is a अव्‍ययम् other than ‘नञ्’ (ref. 2-2-6 नञ्)। The entire term ‘क्त्वा’ is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य
Note: As per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ, the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) inherits the property of being a कित् (having the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) affix with the designation of कृत् (by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and आर्धधातुकम् (by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।)

(6) तिरस् + भू + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः from applying.

(7) तिररुँ + भू + य । By 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः

(8) तिर उ + भूय । By 6-1-114 हशि च

(9) तिरोभूय । By 6-1-87 आद्‍गुणः

‘तिरोभूय’ gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः with the help of 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ। This allows 2-4-82 to apply below.

(10) तिरोभूय + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(11) तिरोभूय । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-4-71 तिरोऽन्तर्धौ (used in step 1) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – अन्तर्धौ किम्? तिरो भूत्वा स्थित:। पार्श्वतो भूत्वेत्यर्थ:। Please explain.

2. Can you spot a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रिय’ (appearing in the form प्रिय: (पुंलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-3-158 समानकर्तृकेषु तुमुन् been used in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form शापेन used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Having concealed himself, Śrī Hanumān observed Sītā sitting at the base of an Aśoka tree.” Use the verbal root √लक्ष् (लक्षँ दर्शनाङ्कनयोः १०. ६) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘सम्’ for ‘to observe.’ Use the neuter noun ‘मूल’ for ‘base.’ Form a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘Aśoka tree’ = अशोकश्चासौ वृक्ष:।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-73 यमरमनमातां सक् च been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot the augment ‘उम्’ in the verses?

आपातरमणीयानाम् mGp

Today we will look at the form आपातरमणीयानाम् mGp from हितोपदेशः 11.79.

संयोगो हि वियोगस्य संसूचयति संभवम् । अनतिक्रमणीयस्य जन्म मृत्योरिवागमम् ।। ११-७९ ।।
आपातरमणीयानां संयोगानां प्रियैः सह । अपथ्यानामिवान्नानां परिणामोऽतिदारुणः ।। ११-८० ।।

Translation – Connection certainly indicates the possibility of separation, as birth indicates the coming of death which is unavoidable (79). The result of seemingly delightful (pleasant at first glance) associations with beloved persons, is exceedingly dreadful, like that of unwholesome foods (80).

लौकिक-विग्रहः
(1) आपाते रमणीय: = आपातरमणीय: – delightful/pleasant at first glance.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) आपात ङि + रमणीय सुँ 2-1-40 (a) सप्तमी । Note: ‘सप्तमी’ इति योगविभागात्समास:। Since ‘रमणीय’ is not listed in the शौण्डादि-गण: we cannot use 2-1-40 सप्तमी शौण्डैः to form this compound. (The rules from 2-1-41 to 2-1-48 do not apply either.) So we split the rule 2-1-40 सप्तमी शौण्डैः in to two parts – 2-1-40 (a) सप्तमी and 2-1-40 (b) शौण्डैः। The meaning of part (a) becomes – A पदम् ending in a seventh case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:। We can use this part (a) to justify the formation of the compound ‘आपातरमणीय’।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘आपात ङि’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-40 (a) (which prescribes the compounding) the term सप्तमी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘आपात ङि’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘आपात ङि + रमणीय सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) आपात + रमणीय । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= आपातरमणीय ।

Note: In the present example the compound ‘आपातरमणीय’ (which is an adjective) is qualifying the masculine noun ‘संयोग’ and hence takes the masculine gender.

The विवक्षा is षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्।

(5) आपातरमणीय + आम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘आम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(6) आपातरमणीय + नुँट् आम् । By 7-1-54 ह्रस्वनद्यापो नुट् – The affix ‘आम्’ takes the augment ‘नुँट्’ when it follows a प्रातिपदिकम् which either ends in a short vowel or has the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा or ends in the feminine affix ‘आप्’।
As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ the augment ‘नुँट्’ joins at the beginning of the affix ‘आम्’।

(7) आपातरमणीय + नाम् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) आपातरमणीयानाम् । By 6-4-3 नामि – The ending vowel of an अङ्गम् gets elongated if followed by the term ‘नाम्’।

Questions:

1. In verses 6-10 of Chapter One of the गीता can you spot a compound which may be justified by the statement – ‘सप्तमी’ इति योगविभागात्समास:?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘क’ in the verse?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आगम’ (used in the form आगमम् (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) in the verse)?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the कृत् affix ‘अनीयर्’ used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘रमणीय’ (which is part of the compound ‘आपातरमणीय’)?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने been used in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The result of the seemingly delightful associations with the sense objects, is exceedingly dreadful.” Form a compound for ‘seemingly delightful’ (= ‘delightful at first glance.’) Use words from the verse for ‘result’ and ‘exceedingly dreadful.’ Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘संयोग’ for ‘association’ and the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विषय’ for ‘sense object.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘णिच्’ in the form संसूचयति?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-110 ङसिङसोश्च been used in the verse?

तारकाचित्रम् nNs

Today we will look at the form तारकाचित्रम्  nNs from रामोपाख्यानम् in the महाभारतम् 3.275.20.

ततोऽन्तरिक्षं तत्सर्वं देवगन्धर्वसंकुलम् । शुशुभे तारकाचित्रं शरदीव नभस्तलम् ।। ३-२७५-२० ।।
तत उत्थाय वैदेही तेषां मध्ये यशस्विनी । उवाच वाक्यं कल्याणी रामं पृथुलवक्षसम् ।। ३-२७४-२१ ।।
राजपुत्र न ते कोपं करोमि विदिता हि मे । गतिः स्त्रीणां नराणां च शृणु चेदं वचो मम ।। ३-२७४-२२ ।।

Translation – Then the entire atmosphere filled with gods and Gandharvas shone like the surface of the sky bright with stars in autumn (20).Then the noble princess of Videha stood up glorious in their midst and spoke this speech to the broad chested Rāma: “Prince, I am not angry at you, for I know the way of women and of men, but listen to my speech.” (21-22)

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
(1) तारकाभिश्चित्रम् = तारकाचित्रम् – bright with stars.
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया a third case affix is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘तारका’ which denotes the करणम् (instrument) of the action of making bright.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) तारका भिस् + चित्र सुँ । By 2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन – (As per the महाभाष्यम्) this सूत्रम् consists of two parts – i) तृतीया तत्कृतेन गुणवचनेन – A पदम् ending in a third case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् which denotes that which possesses a property instrumentally caused by that which is denoted by the पदम् ending in a third case affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
ii) अर्थेन – A पदम् ending in a third case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् (composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) ‘अर्थ’ (wealth) and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

See question 1.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘तारका भिस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-30 (which prescribes the compounding) the term तृतीया ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘तारका भिस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘तारका भिस् + चित्र सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) तारका + चित्र । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= तारकाचित्र ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘तारकाचित्र’ is neuter here since the latter member ‘चित्र’ of the compound is used here in the neuter. (The entire compound is qualifying नभस्तलम्।)

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(5) तारकाचित्र + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(6) तारकाचित्र + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) तारकाचित्रम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन (used in step 2) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says तत्कृतेति लुप्ततृतीयाकम्‌। Please explain.

2. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says तत्कृतेति किम्‌? अक्ष्णा काण:। Please explain.

3. Commenting on the same सूत्रम् the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – गुणवचनेनेति किम्? गोभिर्वपावान्। गोसंबन्धिदध्यादिभोजनेन देवदत्तस्य वपावत्त्वमित्यस्ति तत्कृतत्वं, न त्वसौ गुणवचनः। Please explain.

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ been used in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix क्तिन् in the form गति:?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The ground here is white with snow.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ए’ in the form शुशुभे?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-106 उतश्च प्रत्ययादसंयोगपूर्वात्‌ been used in the verses?

सुभिक्षम् nNs

Today we will look at the form सुभिक्षम् nNs from नैषधीय-चरित्रम् verse 3-38.

संग्रामभूमीषु भवत्यरीणामस्रैर्नदीमातृकतां गतासु ।
तद्बाणधारापवनाशनानां राजव्रजीयैरसुभिः सुभिक्षम् ।। ३८ ।।

टीका –
संग्रामेति ।। हे भैमि, राज्ञां व्रजाः समूहास्तेषामिमे राजव्रजीयास्तैरसुभिर्नरेन्द्रप्राणरूपैर्वायुभिः कृत्वा तस्य नलस्य बाणधारा बाणपरम्परास्तल्लक्षणाः पवनाशनाः सर्पास्तेषां सुभिक्षं भिक्षासमृद्धिर्भवति । नलबाणैः सर्वेऽपि शत्रवो हता इति भावः । कासु सतीषु — संग्रामभूमीष्वरीणां शत्रूणामस्रै रुधिरैर्नदीमातृकतां (गतासु) नदीजलपरिपूर्णासु सतीषु । वैरिरुधिरनदीपरिपूर्णास्वित्यर्थः ।  दैर्घ्येणाशुगामित्वेन प्राणहरत्वेन बाणानां पवनाशनत्वम् । प्राणानां पवनत्वात्तैरेव तेषां सुभिक्षमिति भावः । नदीमातृकासु भूमिष्ववग्रहादिसद्भावेऽपि सुभिक्षं भवति ‘देशो नद्यम्बुवृष्ट्यम्बुसंपन्नव्रीहिपालितः । स्यान्नदीमातृको देवमातृकश्च यथाक्रमम् ।।’ इत्यमरः । नदीमातृक इति ‘5-4-153 नद्यृतश्च’ इति कप् । राजव्रजीय इति ‘4-2-114 वृद्धाच्छः’ । सुभिक्षम् । भिक्षाणां समृद्धिः ‘2-1-6 अव्ययं विभक्ति-‘ इत्यव्ययीभावः ।।

Translation – On the battle-fields, fertilized by rivers of his enemies’ blood, the life-breath of crowds of (hostile) kings furnishes abundant food to the serpents in the shape of the showers of his arrows.

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
(1) भिक्षाणां समृद्धि: = सुभिक्षम् = Abundant food.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) भिक्षा आम् + सु । By 2-1-6 अव्ययं विभक्तिसमीपसमृद्धिव्यृद्ध्यर्थाभावात्ययासम्प्रतिशब्दप्रादुर्भावपश्चाद्यथानुपूर्व्ययौगपद्यसादृश्यसम्पत्तिसाकल्यान्तवचनेषु – A अव्ययम्‌ (indeclinable) used in any one of the following meanings invariably compounds with a (syntactically related) term ending in a सुँप् affix to yield a अव्ययीभाव: compound –
(i) विभक्ति: – a case affix
(ii) समीपम्‌ – close by
(iii) समृद्धि: (ऋद्धेराधिक्यम्‌) – prosperity
(iv) व्यृद्धि: (विगता ऋद्धि:) – adversity
(v) अर्थाभाव: – absence of something
(vi) अत्यय: (ध्वंस:) – disappearance (passing away)
(vii) असम्प्रति – presently inappropriate
(viii) शब्दप्रादुर्भाव: – manifestation of a sound
(ix) पश्चाद् – following
(x) यथा (योग्यतावीप्सापदार्थानतिवृत्तिसादृश्यानि यथार्था:) – appropriateness, repetition, non-transgression of something, similarity
(xi) आनुपूर्व्यम्‌ – in orderly succession
(xii) यौगपद्यम्‌ – simultaneity
(xiii) सादृश्यम्‌ – similarity/resemblance. Note: यथार्थत्वेनैव सिद्धे पुन: सादृश्यग्रहणं गुणभूतेऽपि सादृश्ये यथा स्यादित्येवमर्थम्‌ – सादृश्यम्‌ is mentioned here again (even though it is already given as one of the meanings of यथा in (x) above) in order to allow compounding even when सादृश्यम्‌ is used in a secondary (adjectival) sense
(xiv) सम्पत्ति: (अनुरूप आत्मभाव:) – befitting state
(xv) साकल्यम्‌ – totality/completeness
(xvi) अन्त: – termination/end

(3) सु + भिक्षा आम् । By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् which prescribes a compound gets the designation ‘उपसर्जन’। Here the term ‘अव्ययम्’ in the सूत्रम् 2-1-6 ends in the nominative case. Therefore the अव्ययम् ‘सु’ gets the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ by 1-2-43. Hence ‘सु’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.
Note: ‘सु + भिक्षा आम्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) सुभिक्षा । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।
Note: By 2-4-18 अव्ययीभावश्च – A अव्ययीभावः compound also is neuter in gender. This allows 1-2-47 to apply in the following step.

(5) सुभिक्ष । By 1-2-47 ह्रस्वो नपुंसके प्रातिपदिकस्य – In the neuter gender, the ending vowel (if any) of a प्रातिपदिकम् is shortened.

(6) सुभिक्ष + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(7) सुभिक्ष + अम् । By 2-4-83 नाव्ययीभावादतोऽम्त्वपञ्चम्याः – This सूत्रम् has two parts – (a) नाव्ययीभावादत: – following a अव्ययीभावः compound ending (ref. 1-1-72) in the letter ‘अ’ a सुँप् affix does not take the लुक् elision (which would have been done by 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः) and (b) अम्त्वपञ्चम्याः – following a अव्ययीभावः compound ending (ref. 1-1-72) in the letter ‘अ’ a सुँप् affix – other than a fifth case affix – is substituted by अम्।
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) सुभिक्षम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the letter ‘म्’ in the form गतासु?

2. Convert the passive sentence नलबाणैः सर्वेऽपि शत्रवो हता: (used in the commentary) in to active voice.

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-3-103 गुरोश्च हलः been used in the commentary?

4. Which उणादि-प्रत्यय: is used to form the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वायु’ (used in the form वायुभि: (तृतीया-बहुवचनम्)) in the commentary?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In Śrī Rāma’s kingdom there was always abundant food for all.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“When there is abundant rain there is abundant food.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the letter ‘अ’ in the form राज्ञाम् used in the commentary?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-111 श्नसोरल्लोपः been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in the commentary?

परितोषात् m-Ab-s

Today we will look at the form परितोषात् m-Ab-s from अभिज्ञान-शकुन्तलम् 1-2.

आ परितोषाद्विदुषां न साधु मन्ये प्रयोगविज्ञानम् ।
बलवदपि शिक्षितानामात्मन्यप्रत्ययं चेतः ।। २ ।।

Translation – I do not consider skill in the representation of plays to be good (perfect) until (it causes) the satisfaction of the learned (audience); the mind of even those who are very well instructed has no confidence in itself.

परितोषात् is पञ्चमी-एकवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘परितोष’।

(1) परितोष + ङसिँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per 2-3-10 पञ्चम्यपाङ्परिभिः – A fifth case affix (‘ङसिँ’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with ‘अप’/’परि’/’आङ्’ used as a कर्मप्रवचनीय:। In the present example ‘परितोष’ is co-occurring with ‘आङ्’ which has the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: here as per 1-4-89 आङ् मर्यादावचने – The term ‘आङ्’ gets the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: when used in the meaning of ‘up to (but excluding) a limit.’ Note: The ending consonant ‘ङ्’ of ‘आङ्’ is a इत् as per 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and is elided by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

See question 2.

(2) परितोष + आत् । By 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः – Following a अङ्गम् ending in the letter ‘अ’, the affixes ‘टा’, ‘ङसिँ’ and ‘ङस्’ are replaced respectively by ‘इन’, ‘आत्’ and ‘स्य’। Note: Since the substitute ‘आत्’ has more than one letter, as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य, the entire affix (and not just its last letter) is replaced by ‘आत्’।
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘त्’ of ‘आत्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(3) परितोषात् । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

Questions:

1. Where has the combination of 1-4-89 आङ् मर्यादावचने and 2-3-10 पञ्चम्यपाङ्परिभिः been used in Chapter Eight of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-4-89 आङ् मर्यादावचने (used in step 1) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – वचनग्रहणादभिविधावपि। Please explain.

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-10 पञ्चम्यपाङ्परिभिः (used in step 1) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – परिरत्र वर्जने। To this the तत्त्वबोधिनी adds the comment – अत्र पञ्चमीविधौ वर्जनार्थेनापेन साहचर्यादिति भाव:। Please explain.

4. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘परितोष’?

5. Can you spot the (optional) substitution ‘वसुँ’ (in place of ‘शतृँ’) in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I do not consider knowledge to be good (perfect) until (it gives rise to) humility.” To form a प्रातिपदिकम् for ‘humility’ use the affix अच् (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-3-56 एरच्) following the verbal root √नी (णीञ् प्रापणे #१. १०४९) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘वि’।

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the सम्प्रसारणम् in the form विदुषाम्?

2. Where has the affix श्यन् been used in the verses?

परापवादसस्येभ्यः n-Ab-p

Today we will look at the form परापवादसस्येभ्यः n-Ab-p from शार्ङ्गधरपद्धति: 1423.

परापवादसस्येभ्यो गां चरन्तीं निवारय । १४२३ ।

Translation – Ward off the grazing cow (in the form of speech) from the grains in the form of censure of others.
Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गो’ (used in गाम्) has the meaning of ‘cow’ as well as ‘speech’.

परापवादसस्येभ्यः is पञ्चमी-बहुवचनम् of the नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘परापवादसस्य’।

(1) परापवादसस्य + भ्यस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per the 1-4-27 वारणार्थानामीप्सितः – When a verbal root having the meaning of वारणम् (warding off) is used, the कारकम् (participant in the action) which denotes the thing desired to be reached/affected (by the doer through the action) is designated as अपादानम्। Note: वारणम् (warding off) stands for प्रवृत्तिविघात: (preventing from advancing.)
By 2-3-28 अपादाने पञ्चमी – A fifth case affix (‘ङसिँ’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used to denote the अपादानम् (that from which detachment/ablation takes place) provided it has not been expressed otherwise.

Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘भ्यस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(2) परापवादसस्ये + भ्यस् । By 7-3-103 बहुवचने झल्येत् – the ending letter ‘अ’ of a अङ्गम् changes to ‘ए’ when followed by a plural सुँप् affix beginning with a झल् letter.

(3) परापवादसस्येभ्य: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-4-27 वारणार्थानामीप्सितः (used in step 1) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – ईप्सित: किम्? यवेभ्यो गां वारयति क्षेत्रे। Please explain.

2. Commenting on example ‘यवेभ्यो गां वारयति’ given under the same सूत्रम् the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – यवसंयोगात् प्रागेव गां निवारयतीति ‘ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम्’ इत्यनेनासिद्धावयमारम्भ:। Please explain.

3. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – बुद्धिपरिकल्पितापायमङ्गीकुर्वतो भाष्यकारस्य मते तु वैयर्थ्यमेतस्य स्फुटमेव। Please explain.

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-124 लटः शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे been used in the example?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अपवाद’ (used in the compound परापवादसस्येभ्य: in the example)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Dadhimukha – the guardian of Sugrīva’s honey-grove – warded off the monkeys from the honey.” Use the neuter (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मधुवन’ for ‘honey-grove.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘आ’ in the form गाम्?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-105 अतो हेः been used in the example?

मे fDs

Today we will look at the form मे fDs from शाकुन्तलम् 1-29.

राजा — ( ग्रहीतुमिच्छन्निगृह्यात्मानम् । आत्मगतम् ) अहो चेष्टाप्रतिरूपिका कामिजनमनोवृत्तिः । अहं हि अनुयास्यन्मुनितनयां सहसा विनयेन वारितप्रसरः । स्थानादनुच्चलन्नपि गत्वेव पुनः प्रतिनिवृत्तः॥ 1-29 ॥
प्रियंवदा — ( शकुन्तलां निरुध्य ) हला न ते युक्तं गन्तुम् ।
शकुन्तला — ( सभ्रूभङ्गम् ) किंनिमित्तम् ।
प्रियंवदा — वृक्षसेचने द्वे धारयसि मे । एहि तावत् । आत्मानं मोचयित्वा ततो गमिष्यसि ।

Translation – The king (wanting to grasp (Śakuntalā), having restrained himself. (Said) to himself) – ‘Ah! what passes in the mind [the state of mind] of a lover has not a counterpart in his gestures : for, being about to follow the hermit’s daughter, all at once I have been restrained  by decorum from advancing; although not (really) moving from my place, as if having gone, I have turned back again.’

Priyaṁvadā (restraining Śakuntalā) – ‘O dear, it is not proper for you to go.’

Śakuntalā (with a frown) – ‘Why is that?’

Priyaṁvadā – ‘You owe me two (times) watering of trees. Come now. After freeing yourself (of your debt to me) then you shall leave.’

मे is चतुर्थी-एकवचनम् of the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अस्मद्’।

‘अस्मद्’ (‘I’/’we’) gets the designation सम्‍प्रदानम् (recipient) here by the सूत्रम् 1-4-35 धारेरुत्तमर्णः – When a causative form of the verbal root √धृ (धृङ् अवस्थाने ६. १४८) is employed, that कारकम् (participant in the action) who is the creditor gets the designation सम्‍प्रदानम् (recipient.)
Note: उत्तमर्णो धनस्वामी – उत्तमर्ण: refers to one who is the creditor (the owner of the money.)

(1) अस्मद् + ङे । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per 2-3-13 चतुर्थी सम्प्रदाने – A fourth case affix (‘ङे’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used to denote the सम्‍प्रदानम् (recipient) provided it has not been expressed otherwise.

(2) मे । By 8-1-22 तेमयावेकवचनस्य – The प्रातिपदिके ‘युष्मद्’ and ‘अस्मद्’ along with a singular affix of the fourth or sixth case, get ‘ते’ and ‘मे’ as replacements respectively when the following conditions are satisfied:
1. There is a पदम् (which in the present example is धारयसि) in the same sentence preceding ‘युष्मद्’/’अस्मद्’।
2. ‘युष्मद्’/’अस्मद्’ is not at the beginning of a metrical पाद:।

Questions:

1. In how many places in the गीता has the सूत्रम् 1-4-35 धारेरुत्तमर्णः been used?
(i) 0 (ii) 1 (iii) 2 (iv) 3

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-4-35 धारेरुत्तमर्णः the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – उत्तमर्ण: किम्? देवदत्ताय शतं धारयति ग्रामे। Please explain.

3. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of the affix तुमुँन् used in the form ग्रहीतुम् in the present example?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-3-14 लृटः सद् वा been used in the present example?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“King Daśaratha owed two boons to Kaikeyī.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I don’t owe anybody anything.”

Easy questions:

1. From which verbal root is एहि derived?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment इट् in the form गमिष्यसि?

यस्मै mDs

Today we will look at the form यस्मै mDs from हितोपदेश: 2-53

किमप्यस्ति स्वभावेन सुन्दरं वाप्यसुन्दरम् । यदेव रोचते यस्मै भवेत् तत् तस्य सुन्दरम् ॥ २-५३ ॥

Translation – Is there anything by nature charming or not charming? That alone which is pleasing unto whom may be charming to him.

यस्मै is पुंलिङ्गे चतुर्थी-एकवचनम् of the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘यद्’।

‘यद्’ (‘who’) gets the designation सम्‍प्रदानम् (recipient) by the सूत्रम् 1-4-33 रुच्यर्थानां प्रीयमाणः – When the verbal root √रुच् (रुचँ दीप्तावभिप्रीतौ च १. ८४७) or any of its synonyms is employed, that कारकम् (participant in the action) who is being pleased gets the designation सम्‍प्रदानम् (recipient.)

See question 1.

(1) यद् + ङे । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per 2-3-13 चतुर्थी सम्प्रदाने – A fourth case affix (‘ङे’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used to denote the सम्‍प्रदानम् (recipient) provided it has not been expressed otherwise.
Note: As per 1-4-104 विभक्तिश्च the affix ‘ङे’ has the designation विभक्ति:। This allows 7-2-102 to apply in the next step.

(2) य अ + ङे । By 7-2-102 त्यदादीनामः – The ending letter of the pronouns, starting with ‘त्यद्’ and ending with ‘द्वि’, is replaced by ‘अ’ when followed by a विभक्ति: affix. As per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending letter ‘द्’ of the अङ्गम् ‘यद्’ is replaced by ‘अ’।

(3) य + ङे । By 6-1-97 अतो गुणे।

(4) यस्मै । By 7-1-14 सर्वनाम्न: स्मै – Following a pronoun ending in the letter ‘अ’, the affix ‘ङे’ is replaced by ‘स्मै’ ।

Questions:

1. In the present example ‘यद्’ (‘who’) would get which designation (instead of सम्‍प्रदानम्) in the absence of the सूत्रम् 1-4-33 रुच्यर्थानां प्रीयमाणः?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-4-33 रुच्यर्थानां प्रीयमाणः the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – प्रीयमाण: किम्? देवदत्ताय रोचते मोदक: पथि। Please explain.

3. Commenting on the same सूत्रम् the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – यद्यपि रुचिर्दीप्तावपि पठ्यते तथापीह दीप्तिर्न विवक्षिता। Please explain.

4. Which वार्तिकम् justifies the use of the third case affix in the form स्वभावेन used in the verses?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भाव’ (used as part of the compound स्वभावेन)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I like those people who like me.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ए’ in the form रोचते?

स्वान् mAp

Today we will look at the form स्वान् mAp from the सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी।

शत्रूनगमयत्स्वर्गं वेदार्थं स्वानवेदयत् ।
आशयच्चामृतं देवान् वेदमध्यापयद्विधिम् ।
आसयत्सलिले पृथ्वीं य: स मे श्रीहरिर्गति: ॥

तत्त्वबोधिनी
शत्रवः स्वर्गमगच्छन्, तान् श्रीहरिः स्वर्गमगमयदिति – गमेरण्यन्तावस्थायां शत्रवः कर्तारस्ते ण्यन्तावस्थायां कर्म अभवन्।
वेदार्थमिति । स्वे = स्वकीया वेदार्थमविदुः, तान् श्रीहरिर्वेदार्थमवेदयत्। तथा देवा अमृतम् आश्नन्, तानाशयत्। विधिः वेदमध्यैत, तं ब्रह्माणं वेदमध्यापयत् – अपाठयत्। सलिले पृथ्वी आस्त, तां यो हरिरासयत्स्थापयति स्म स हरिर्मे गतिरित्यन्वयः।

Translation – That Lord Viṣṇu is my goal who i) made (even) enemies go to heaven, ii) made his own (devotees) understand the meaning of the Vedas, iii) made the gods consume nectar, iv) made Lord Brahma study the Veda and v) made the Earth sit on water.

स्वान् is पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम् of the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्व’।

‘स्व’ gets the कर्म-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ – A कर्ता (agent) of a non-causal verbal root becomes the कर्म (object) of the causal verbal root provided the verbal root either –
(i) denotes either गति: (movement) or बुद्धि: (perception) or प्रत्यवसानम् (consuming) or
(ii) has शब्द: (sound) as its object or
(iii) has no object at all.

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 1-4-55 तत्प्रयोजको हेतुश्च we know that श्रीहरिः is the हेतु: (cause) in the sentence श्रीहरिः स्वान् वेदार्थमवेदयत्। On removing the हेतु: we get the non-causative form of the sentence as स्वे वेदार्थमविदुः । स्वे is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् of the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्व’। Hence ‘स्व’ is the अणौ कर्ता (agent of the non-causal verbal root √विद् (विदँ ज्ञाने २. ५९). This अणौ कर्ता becomes the कर्म (object) णौ (of the causal form of the verbal root √विद्) since the conditions for applying the सूत्रम् 1-4-52 are satisfied here.

(1) स्व + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। Since ‘स्व’ has the कर्म-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ, it takes a second case affix by 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया – A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used to denote कर्म (object of the action) provided it has not been expressed otherwise.

(2) स्व + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘शस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(3) स्वास् । By 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः – When a अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(4) स्वान् । By 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि – In the masculine gender, when the letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘शस्’ follows a vowel which has been elongated by 6-1-102 then it is replaced by the letter ‘न्’।

Questions:

1. In which other words (besides in स्वान्) in the verse does the सूत्रम् 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ find application?

2. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of the affix लँट् in the form स्थापयति in the commentary?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अवस्था’ (used in the compounds ण्यन्तावस्थायाम् and अण्यन्तावस्थायाम् in the commentary)?

4. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Śrī Kṛṣṇa imparted the meaning of the Upaniṣads to Arjuna.” Paraphrase to “Śrī Kṛṣṇa made Arjuna understand the meaning of the Upaniṣads.”

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The sage Viśwāmitra sent Triśaṅku to heaven.” Paraphrase to “The sage Viśwāmitra made Triśaṅku go to heaven.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Pūtanā fed poison to Śrī Kṛṣṇa.”

Easy questions:

1. In the verses, can you spot two other words (besides स्वान्) in which the सूत्रम् 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि has been used?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the वृद्धि: substitution in आशयत् and आसयत्?

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