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धौम्येन mIs

Today we will look at the form धौम्येन mIs from महाभारतम् 3.3.14.

जनमेजय उवाच
कथं कुरूणामृषभः स तु राजा युधिष्ठिरः । विप्रार्थमाराधितवान्सूर्यमद्‌भुतदर्शनम् ।। ३-३-१३ ।।
वैशम्पायन उवाच
शृणुष्वावहितो राजञ्शुचिर्भूत्वा समाहितः । क्षणं च कुरु राजेन्द्र सम्प्रवक्ष्याम्यशेषतः ।। ३-३-१४ ।।
धौम्येन तु यथा पूर्वं पार्थाय सुमहात्मने । नामाष्टशतमाख्यातं तच्छृणुष्व महामते ।। ३-३-१४ ।।

Translation – Janamejaya said: For the sake of the Brāhmaṇas, how did that foremost of the Kurus, King Yudhiṣṭhira, worship the Sun of wonderful appearance? (13) Vaiśampāyana said: O king, (first) purify yourself and being composed listen with attention. O king of kings, make some leisure. I shall (then) tell you everything in detail (14). O highly intelligent one, listen to the one hundred and eight names (of the Sun), as they were told earlier by Dhaumya to the very high-souled Yudhiṣṭhira (son of Pṛthā) (15).

The above verses have previously appeared in the following post – नामाष्टशतम्-nNs

धूमस्य गोत्रापत्यम् (पुमान्) = धौम्यः – a (male) descendant (but not the son) of the sage Dhūma
In the verses the विवक्षा is तृतीया-एकवचनम्, hence the form used is धौम्येन।

(1) धूम ङस् + यञ् । By 4-1-105 गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, and which ends in a sixth case affix and has ‘गर्ग’ etc (listed in the गर्गादि-गण:) as its base, the तद्धित: affix ‘यञ्’ may be applied optionally to denote a descendant having the designation ‘गोत्र’ (ref: 4-1-162 अपत्यं पौत्रप्रभृति गोत्रम्‌।)
Note: The अनुवृत्तिः of गोत्रे comes down into the सूत्रम् 4-1-105 from the सूत्रम् 4-1-98 गोत्रे कुञ्जादिभ्यश्च्फञ्।
As per 4-1-162 अपत्यं पौत्रप्रभृति गोत्रम्‌ – The designation ‘गोत्र’ is assigned to a grandson/granddaughter onward when the intention is to express him/her as a descendant (अपत्यम्)।
As per the सूत्रम् 4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed and which ends in a sixth case affix the तद्धिता: affixes already prescribed (by the prior rules 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् etc), as well as those that are going to be prescribed (by the following rules 4-1-95 अत इञ् etc), may be optionally applied to denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant.)

(2) धूम ङस् + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘धूम ङस् + य’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) धूम + य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘यञ्’ is a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step.

(4) धौम + य । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘धौम’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(5) धौम् + य । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= धौम्य । The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धौम्य’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

(6) धौम्य + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(7) धौम्य + इन । By 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः – Following a अङ्गम् ending in the letter ‘अ’, the affixes ‘टा’, ‘ङसिँ’ and ‘ङस्’ are replaced respectively by ‘इन’, ‘आत्’ and ‘स्य’। As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire affix ‘टा’ is replaced.

(8) धौम्येन । By 6-1-87 आद्‍गुणः

We can similarly derive the following –
१) पुलस्तेर्गोत्रापत्यम् (पुमान्) = पौलस्त्यः (रावणः) – a (male) descendant (but not the son) of (the sage) Pulasti
२) शकलस्य गोत्रापत्यम् (पुमान्) = शाकल्यः – a (male) descendant (but not the son) of Śakala
३) मुद्गलस्य गोत्रापत्यम् (पुमान्) = मौद्गल्यः – a (male) descendant (but not the son) of Mudgala
४) यज्ञवल्कस्य गोत्रापत्यम् (पुमान्) = याज्ञवल्क्यः – a (male) descendant (but not the son) of Yajñavalka

द्यावाभूम्योः fGd

Today we will look at the form द्यावाभूम्योः fGd from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 5.20.43.

अण्डमध्यगतः सूर्यो द्यावाभूम्योर्यदन्तरम् । सूर्याण्डगोलयोर्मध्ये कोट्यः स्युः पञ्चविंशतिः ।। ५-२०-४३ ।।
मृतेऽण्ड एष एतस्मिन्यदभूत्ततो मार्तण्ड इति व्यपदेशः । हिरण्यगर्भ इति यद्धिरण्याण्डसमुद्भवः ।। ५-२०-४४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
विस्तरेणोक्तं ब्रह्माण्डमानं सर्वतोऽपि निरूपयति । अण्डमध्यगतः । किं तन्मध्यं तदाह । द्यावाभूम्योः पूर्वोत्तरकपालयोर्यदन्तरं मध्यस्थानम् । सर्वतः पञ्चविंशतिकोट्यः ।। ४३ ।। अण्डमध्यावस्थाने कारणं तन्नामनिर्वचनेनाह । मृतेऽचेतने एष सूर्यो वैराजरूपेण यस्मात्प्रविष्टः ।। ४५ ।।

Gita Press translation – (The orb of) the sun is located in the middle of the egg (of this universe), which corresponds to the center of space lying between heaven (the upper shell of the cosmic egg) and earth (the lower shell of the cosmic egg.) The (extent of) space between (the orb of) the sun and (the outer shell of) the cosmic egg (on all sides) is twenty-five crore Yojanas (or two thousand million miles) (43). Because the sun-god appeared in this lifeless (inanimate) egg (as the Cosmic Being), the appellation of Mārtaṇḍa (मृते अण्डे भवः) has been applied to him (ever) since. He is (also) called Hiraṇyagarbha inasmuch as he (as the sun) represents the embryo (located) in (the centre of) the golden egg (of this universe) (44).

(1) द्यौश्च भूमिश्च = द्यावाभूमी – Heaven and earth.

(2) दिव् सुँ + भूमि सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) दिव् सुँ + भूमि सुँ । Note: ‘दिव्’ has one syllable while ‘भूमि’ has two syllables. Therefore ‘दिव्’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound as per 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘दिव् सुँ + भूमि सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) दिव् + भूमि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) द्यावाभूमि । By 6-3-29 दिवो द्यावा – When the final member of the compound follows, in a द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms denote names of deities there is a substitution of ‘द्यावा’ in the place of the term ‘दिव्’। As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य, the entire term ‘दिव्’ is replaced by ‘द्यावा’।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘द्यावाभूमि’ is feminine since the final member ‘भूमि’ of the compound is feminine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members. It declines like मति-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is षष्ठी।

(6) द्यावाभूमि + ओस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘ओस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) द्यावाभूम्योस् । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि

(8) द्यावाभूम्यो: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. From which सूत्रम् does the अनुवृत्ति: of देवताद्वन्द्वे come down in to the सूत्रम् 6-3-29 दिवो द्यावा (used in step 5)?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-24 द्वितीया श्रितातीतपतितगतात्यस्तप्राप्तापन्नैः been used in the verses?

3. What is the विग्रह: of the compound पञ्चविंशतिः?

4. Which वार्तिकम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form विस्तरेण used in the commentary?

5. Where has the particle नञ् been used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Lord Vāmana took away heaven and earth from king Bali.” Use the verbal root √हृ (हृञ् हरणे १. १०४६) preceded by the उपसर्गः ‘अप’ for ‘to take away.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-4-77 गातिस्थाघुपाभूभ्यः सिचः परस्मैपदेषु been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the letter ‘अ’ in the form स्युः?

किंसखा  mNs

Today we will look at the form किंसखा  mNs from किरातार्जुनीयम् 1.5.

स किंसखा साधु न शास्ति योऽधिपं हितान्न यः संशृणुते स किंप्रभुः ।
सदानुकूलेषु हि कुर्वते रतिं नृपेष्वमात्येषु च सर्वसंपदः ॥ १-५ ॥

टीका
इति ॥ यः सखामात्यादिरधिपं स्वामिनं साधु हितं शास्ति नोपदिशति। ’ब्रुविशासि-’ इत्यादिना शासेर्दुहादिपाठाद्‍द्विकर्मकत्वम्। हितानुपदेष्टा। कुत्सितः सखा किंसखा। दुर्मन्त्रीत्यर्थः। ’किमः क्षेपे’ इति समसान्तप्रतिषेधः। तथा यः प्रभुर्निग्रहानुग्रहसमर्थः स्वामी हितादाप्तजनाद्धितोपदेष्टुः सकाशात्। ’आख्यातोपयोगे’ इत्यपादानत्वात्पञ्चमी। न संशृणुते न शृणोति। हितमिति शेषः। ’समो गम्यृच्छ-’ इत्यादिना संपूर्वाच्छृणोतेरकर्मकादात्मनेपदम्। अकर्मकत्वं वैवक्षिकम्। स हितमश्रोता प्रभुः किंप्रभुः कुत्सितस्वामी। पूर्ववत्समासः। सर्वथा सचिवेन वक्तव्यं श्रोतव्यं स्वामिना। एवं च राजमन्त्रिणोरैकमत्यं स्यादित्यर्थः। एकमत्यस्य फलमाह – सदेति। हि यस्मान्नृपेषु स्वामिषु। अमा सह भवा अमात्यास्तेषु । ’अव्ययात्त्यप्’। अनुकूलेषु परस्परानुरक्तेषु सत्सु सर्वसंपदः सदा रतिमनुरागं कुर्वते कुर्वन्ति। न जातु जहतीत्यर्थः। अतो मया वक्तव्यं त्वया च श्रोतव्यमिति भावः। अत्रैवं राजमन्त्रिणोर्हितानुपदेशतदश्रवणनिन्दासामर्थ्यसिद्धेरैकमत्यलक्षणकारणस्य निर्दिष्टस्य सर्वसंपत्सिद्धिरूपकार्येण समर्थनात्कार्येण कारणसमर्थनरूपोऽर्थान्तरन्यसोऽलंकारः। तदुक्तम् – ’सामान्यविशेषकार्यकारणभावाभ्यां निर्दिष्टप्रकृतसमर्थनमर्थान्तरन्यासः’ इति।

Translation – He is a bad (despicable) friend (counselor) who does not give proper advice to his master; and he is a bad master who does not listen to the advice of his well-wisher: for, prosperity of every kind delights to be there where kings and their ministers are always mutually well-disposed.

(1) कुत्सितो सखा = किंसखा – A bad friend.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) किम् सुँ + सखि सुँ । By 2-1-64 किं क्षेपे – A सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् which is composed by adding a सुँप् affix to ‘किम्’ when indicating censure compounds with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् – provided both the सुबन्त-पदे refer to the same item – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।
Note: This सूत्रम् prescribes a नित्य-समास: because in order to convey the meaning of क्षेपे (censure) the लौकिक-विग्रह: has to be constructed using words other than those present in the compound.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘किम् सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-64 (which prescribes the compounding) the term किम् ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘किम् सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘किम् सुँ + सखि सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) किम् + सखि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) किं + सखि । By 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः।

= किंसखि ।

Note: At this point the सूत्रम् 5-4-91 राजाह:सखिभ्यष्टच्‌ comes for application but it is blocked by the सूत्रम् 5-4-70 in the following step.

(6) As per 5-4-70 किमः क्षेपे – Affixes prescribed in the अधिकार: ‘5-4-68 समासान्ताः‘ are not allowed following a compound which ends in a term which follows the term ‘किम्’ used in the sense of contempt. 5-4-70 blocks the application of the affix टच् which would have been prescribed by the सूत्रम् 5-4-91 राजाह:सखिभ्यष्टच्‌।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘किंसखि’ is masculine since the latter member ‘सखि’ of the compound is masculine. The compound declines like ‘सखि’-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(7) किंसखि + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(8) किंसखि + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(9) किंसख् अनँङ् + स् । By 7-1-93 अनङ् सौ – ‘अनँङ्’ is substituted for the अङ्गम् (base) ‘सखि’ when the non-vocative affix ‘सुँ’ follows.

(10) किंसखन् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(11) किंसखान् + स् । By 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ – The penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् (base) ending in the letter ‘न्’ gets elongated if it is followed by a non-vocative affix having the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्।

(12) किंसखान् | By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् – A single letter affix ‘सुँ’, ‘ति’ or ‘सि’ is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix ‘ङी’ or ‘आप्’।

(13) किंसखा | By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

Questions:

1. In the verses, can you spot another compound (besides किंसखा) which is constructed using the सूत्रम् 2-1-64 किं क्षेपे?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-1-64 किं क्षेपे the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – क्षेपे किम्? को राजा पाटलिपुत्रे। Please explain.

3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the seventh case affix in the forms नृपेषु, अमात्येषु and the corresponding adjective अनुकूलेषु?

4. Where does the सूत्रम् 1-4-29 आख्यातोपयोगे find application in the verses?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the form अधिपम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अधिप’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“A contemptible king is one who does not protect (his) subjects.” Construct a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘contemptible king’ = कुत्सितो राजा।

Advanced question:

1. How can the use of a आत्मनेपदम् affix in the form संशृणुते be justified?

Easy question:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-5 आत्मनेपदेष्वनतः been used in the verses?

गाम् fAs

Today we will look at the form गाम्-fAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb11-23-59.

श्रीभगवानुवाच
निर्विद्य नष्टद्रविणे गतक्लमः प्रव्रज्य गां पर्यटमान इत्थम् ।
निराकृतोऽसद्भिरपि स्वधर्मादकम्पितोऽमूं मुनिराह गाथाम् ।। ११-२३-५९ ।।

Gita Press translation “The glorious Lord went on: Getting disgusted with the pleasures of sense and leaving his home and wandering over the earth, the ascetic – whose depression of spirits was gone even though he had lost his fortune, and who did not budge from his righteous course of conduct though ill-treated as aforesaid by the wicked – chanted the foregoing song.”

‘गो’ gets प्रातिपदिकसंज्ञा by 1-2-45 अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्। The विवक्षा here is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा… mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् “गो” ।

(1) गो + अम् ।

(2) गाम् । By 6-1-93 औतोऽम्शसोः, आकारः shall be the single substitute in the place of an ओकारः and the following अकारः of affixes अम् and शस्।

Questions:

1. Where is the word “गाम्” found in the गीता?

2. Please do पदच्छेद: of the सूत्रम् 6-1-93 औतोऽम्शसोः and indicate the विभक्ति:/वचनम् of each term.

3. Derive the form “अमूम्” (स्त्रीलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) from the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् “अदस्”।

4. Which terms from the प्रादिगण: (reference 1-4-58 प्रादयः) have been used in this verse?

5. Which of these (answer to question 4) have the उपसर्ग-सञ्ज्ञा? (reference 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे)

6. Why did we not consider the सूत्रम् 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः in this example?

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“This (is) an appropriate example.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “उचित” for “appropriate.”

8. Please state the one synonym for the word “क्लम:” (प्रातिपदिकम् “क्लम” masculine, meaning “fatigue”) as given in the अमरकोश:।
क्लमथः क्लमे ॥३-२-१०॥
(इति द्वे “ग्लाने:” नामनी)

Easy questions:

1. Derive the form “स्वधर्मात्” (पञ्चमी-एकवचनम्) from the प्रातिपदिकम् “स्वधर्म” (declined like राम-शब्द:)।

2. Which term used in the verse has the घि-सञ्ज्ञा (reference 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि)?

अन्यद् nNs

पाणिनये नम:।

Today we will look at the formation of the नपुंसकलिङ्गपदम् ‘अन्यत्’ from the भगवद्गीता।

यामिमां पुष्पितां वाचं प्रवदन्त्यविपश्चितः |
वेदवादरताः पार्थ नान्यदस्तीति वादिनः || 2-42||

(1) अन्य + सुँ – The सुँप्-प्रत्ययाः are ordained by 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छस्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। Since the विवक्षा is this example is प्रथमैकवचनम् the affix  ‘सुँ’ is used.

(2) अन्य + अद्ड् – By 7-1-25 अद्ड् डतरादिभ्यः पञ्चभ्यः, ‘सुँ’ is substituted by ‘अद्ड्’।

(3) अन्य + अद् – The ending letter ‘ड्’ of ‘अद्ड्’ gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, and takes लोपः by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(4) अन्य् + अद् – The ending  letter ‘अ’ of the अङ्गम् ‘अन्य’, which is its टि-भागः, is dropped by 6-4-143 टेः, since the affix ‘अद्ड्’ has the letter ‘ड्’ as a इत्।

(5) अन्यद् – Now अन्यद् gets the पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम्। By 8-2-39 झलां जशोऽन्ते, the ending letter ‘द्’ of अन्यद् is substituted by a letter of the प्रत्याहार: ‘जश्’। In this case that letter is ‘द्’ itself.

(6) अन्यद्/अन्यत् – By 8-4-56 वाऽवसाने, the letter ‘द्’ is optionally substituted by the letter ‘त्’ (a letter of the  प्रत्याहार: ‘चर्’) yielding two possible final forms.

Questions:

1. If 7-1-25 अद्ड् डतरादिभ्यः पञ्चभ्यः were not there, then which rule would have applied to give which (undesired) form?

2. As we have seen previously, the अव्ययम् “इति” is used as an end-quote. In the verse we have इति in the second line. That ends a quotation. Where does the quotation begin?

3. Where is the सूत्रम् 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः used in this verse? Where is 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः used?

4. In the सूत्रम् 6-4-143 टेः, what विभक्ति: has been used – is it पञ्चमी or षष्ठी?

5. Which entire सूत्रम् comes as अनुवृत्ति: into 7-1-25 अद्ड् डतरादिभ्यः पञ्चभ्यः?

6. With regard to the “अद्ड्” आदेश:, the commentator कैयटः makes the following observation “दस्य ष्टुत्वेन डकारः, डस्य संयोगान्तलोपश्च आदेशस्वरूपावगतये न कृत:” Please explain what this means.

7. Is the following logic correct? “We do not need to have the डकार: as an इत् in order to get the final form अन्यत् in this example, because even without that we could have used 6-1-97 अतो गुणे in step 4 to get the same result.”

8. Why did the पदान्त-मकार: at the end of याम् not become an अनुस्वार: by 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः ?

9. Is “अन्यत्” used anywhere else in the गीता? अन्यत्-पदम् गीतासु अन्यत्र प्रयुज्यते वा?

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