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ज्ञानविज्ञानात् n-Ab-s

Today we will look at the form ज्ञानविज्ञानात् n-Ab-s from श्रीमद्भागवतम् verse 4.22.33

अर्थेन्द्रियार्थाभिध्यानं सर्वार्थापह्नवो नृणाम् । भ्रंशितो ज्ञानविज्ञानाद्येनाविशति मुख्यताम् ।। ४-२२-३३ ।।
न कुर्यात्कर्हिचित्सङ्गं तमस्तीव्रं तितीरिषुः । धर्मार्थकाममोक्षाणां यदत्यन्तविघातकम् ।। ४-२२-३४ ।।

कुत इत्यत आह । अर्थस्याभिध्यानमिन्द्रियस्यार्थः कामस्तस्याभिध्यानं सर्वार्थनाशः । ज्ञानं विज्ञानं च परोक्षापरोक्षम् । येन ध्यानेन मुख्यतां स्थावरताम् ।। ३३ ।। अनात्मरतेरनर्थहेतुत्वमुक्तं सङ्गस्याप्याह – नेति । यद्वस्तु धर्मादीनां विघातकं तस्मिन्सङ्गम्तमः संसारम् ।। ३४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Constant preoccupation with wealth and the objects of sense means the ruination of all the interests of men. Deprived of his knowledge and wisdom through such preoccupation, man is reborn in the immobile creation (the vegetable and mineral kingdom) (33). Whoever is keen to cross and reach the other end of the impenetrable gloom in the form of ignorance (the root of transmigration) should never conceive an attachment to that which is most detrimental to (the attainment of) religious merit, worldly possessions, gratification of the senses and liberation (34).

(1) ज्ञानं विज्ञानं च तयो: समाहार: = ज्ञानविज्ञानम् – knowledge and wisdom.
Note: समाहारः denotes a collection of two or more terms (having the designation पदम्) wherein the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group.

(2) ज्ञान सुँ + विज्ञान सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) ज्ञान सुँ + विज्ञान सुँ । As per 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position. Since ‘ज्ञान’ has two syllables while ‘विज्ञान’ has three, ‘ज्ञान सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound.
Note: ‘ज्ञान सुँ + विज्ञान सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) ज्ञान + विज्ञान । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= ज्ञानविज्ञान ।

Since there is only a single group in a द्वन्द्वः compound which expresses a समाहारः it is always singular in number and as per 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌ it is always neuter in gender.

The विवक्षा is पञ्चमी-एकवचनम्।

(5) ज्ञानविज्ञान + ङसिँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) ज्ञानविज्ञान + आत् । By 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः – Following a अङ्गम् ending in a the letter ‘अ’, the affixes ‘टा’, ‘ङसिँ’ and ‘ङस्’ are replaced respectively by ‘इन’, ‘आत्’ and ‘स्य’। Note: Since the substitute ‘आत्’ has more than one letter, as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य, the entire affix (and not just its last letter) is replaced by ‘आत्’।
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘त्’ of ‘आत्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) ज्ञानविज्ञानात् । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः


1. Can you spot a समाहार-द्वन्द्वः compound in verses 41-45 of Chapter Eighteen of the गीता?

2. What would be the final form in this example if the द्वन्द्व: compound were to be formed इतरेतरयोगे (instead of समाहारे)?

3. What type of compound is ‘अत्यन्त’ (used as part of the larger compound अत्यन्तविघातकम् in the verses)?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. बहुव्रीहि:
iii. प्रादि-तत्पुरुष:
iv. अव्ययीभाव:

4. The form तितीरिषुः is आर्ष: (grammatically irregular.) What is the grammatically correct form?

5. Which compound used in the commentary is a समाहार-द्वन्द्व:?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Knowledge and wisdom is obtained through (by) devotion.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix ‘श’ in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-109 ये च been used in the verses?

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