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महायशाः mNs

Today we will look at the form महायशाः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.1.21.

एतत्सङ्कल्पवैषम्यं होतुस्ते व्यभिचारतः । तथापि साधयिष्ये ते सुप्रजास्त्वं स्वतेजसा ।। ९-१-२० ।।
एवं व्यवसितो राजन्भगवान्स महायशाः । अस्तौषीदादिपुरुषमिलायाः पुंस्त्वकाम्यया ।। ९-१-२१ ।।

No commentary on these verses.

Note: Verse ९-१-२१ has been used previously in the following post – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/08/08/पुंस्त्वकाम्यया-fis/

Gita Press translation – “This frustration of your purpose has been brought about by the contrary intention of the Hotā. Yet by virtue of my own spiritual glory I shall confer on you the privilege of having a good (male) progeny.” (20) Thus resolved, O king, the glorious sage (Vasiṣṭha) of extraordinary fame, extolled Lord Viṣṇu (the most ancient Person) with the desire of transforming Ilā into a male child (21).

(1) महद्यशो यस्य स: = महायशा: – He who has great renown.

(2) महत् सुँ + यशस् सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) By सूत्रम् 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘महत् सुँ’ as well as ‘यशस् सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.

The adjective ‘महत् सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘महत् सुँ + यशस् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) महत् + यशस् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) मह आ + यशस् । By 6-3-46 आन्महतः समानाधिकरणजातीययोः – The ending letter (‘त्’) of ‘महत्’ is substituted by ‘आ’ when ‘महत्’ is followed by either –
i) a latter member (of a compound) which has समानाधिकरणम् (refers to the same item as does ‘महत्’) or
ii) affix ‘जातीय’ (ref. 5-3-69 प्रकारवचने जातीयर्)।
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य only the ending letter ‘त्’ of ‘महत्’ is substituted by ‘आ’।

(6) महायशस् । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

See question 1.

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example महायशाः is qualifying सः (He – Vasiṣṭha). Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महायशस्’। It declines like वेधस्-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(7) महायशस् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(8) महायशस् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(9) महायशास् + स् । By 6-4-14 अत्वसन्तस्य चाधातोः – When the ‘सुँ’ affix which is not सम्बुद्धिः follows, a base that ends in ‘अतुँ’ or a base that ends in ‘अस्’ which is not of a verbal root, has its penultimate letter elongated.

(10) महायशास् । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् – A single letter affix ‘सुँ’, ‘ति’ or ‘सि’ is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix ‘ङी’ or ‘आप्’।
Note: Now ‘महायशास्’ gets पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows 8-2-66 to apply in the next step.

(11) महायशाः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. What is the optional form for महायशाः (in the case where the समासान्त: affix ‘कप्’ is added by 5-4-154 शेषाद्विभाषा)?

2. In which compound in the verses has the समासान्त: affix ‘असिँच्’ been used?

3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘काम्यच्’ in the form पुंस्त्वकाम्यया (स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पुंस्त्वकाम्या’, तृतीया-एकवचनम्)?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-40 द्यतिस्यतिमास्थामित्ति किति been used in the verses?

5. Why is the form अस्तौषीत् a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (irregular grammatical usage)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Among all the texts on the subject of grammar, the best is the text called (named) Aṣṭādhyāyī composed by the sage Pāṇini of great renown.” Paraphrase to – “Among all the texts which have grammar as their subject, the best is the text called (named) Aṣṭādhyāyī composed by the sage Pāṇini of great renown.” Construct बहुव्रीहि: compounds for ‘that (text) which has grammar as its subject’ = ‘व्याकरणं विषयो यस्य स: (ग्रन्थ:)’ and for ‘that (text) which has Aṣṭādhyāyī as its name’ = ‘अष्टाध्यायी नाम यस्य स: (ग्रन्थ:)’।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-111 ऋत उत्‌ been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘णिच्’ in the verses?

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