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विगतस्पृहः mNs

Today we will look at the form विगतस्पृहः  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.19.21.

इत्युक्त्वा नाहुषो जायां तदीयं पूरवे वयः । दत्त्वा स्वां जरसं तस्मादाददे विगतस्पृहः ।। ९-१९-२१ ।।
दिशि दक्षिणपूर्वस्यां द्रुह्‍युं दक्षिणतो यदुम् । प्रतीच्यां तुर्वसुं चक्र उदीच्यामनुमीश्वरम् ।। ९-१९-२२ ।।

No commentary on these verses.

Gita Press translation – Having spoken thus to his wife (Devayānī) and returned Pūru’s youth to him, Yayāti received (back) his own old age (from him), all craving for enjoyment having left him for good (21). He appointed Druhyu as the ruler in the south-eastern quarter, Yadu in the south, Turvasu in the west and Anu in the north (22).

(1) विगता स्पृहा यस्य स: = विगतस्पृहः – He (Yayāti) whose craving for enjoyment had completely gone.

(2) विगता सुँ + स्पृहा सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) By the सूत्रम् 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘विगता सुँ’ as well as ‘स्पृहा सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.

The adjective ‘विगता सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘विगता सुँ + स्पृहा सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) विगता + स्पृहा । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) विगत + स्पृहा । By 6-3-34 स्त्रियाः पुंवद्भाषितपुंस्कादनूङ् समानाधिकरणे स्त्रियामपूरणीप्रियादिषु – A feminine adjective which does not end in the feminine affix ‘ऊङ्’ (ref. 4-1-66 ऊङुतः etc) and is formed from a masculine base denoting the same meaning becomes masculine-like when it is followed by a feminine final member (of a compound) which has समानाधिकरणम् (same locus/reference) but not if the final member denotes an ordinal number or belongs to the class of words ‘प्रिया’ etc.
In the present example the feminine adjective ‘विगता’ which does not end in the feminine affix ‘ऊङ्’ and is formed from the masculine base ‘विगत’ denoting the same meaning becomes masculine-like (‘विगत’) because it is followed by the feminine final member ‘स्पृहा’ which has समानाधिकरणम् (same locus/reference).

See questions 2 and 3.

(6) विगतस्पृह । By 1-2-48 गोस्त्रियोरुपसर्जनस्य – The ending vowel (ref. 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य) of a प्रातिपदिकम् is shortened if the प्रातिपदिकम् ends in either –
i) the term ‘गो’ that has the designation उपसर्जनम् or
ii) a term which ends in a feminine affix and has the designation उपसर्जनम्।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example विगतस्पृहः is qualifying नाहुष: (ययातिः) । Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विगतस्पृह’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(7) विगतस्पृह + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(8) विगतस्पृह + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(9) विगतस्पृह: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. In which chapter(s) of the गीता has the compound ‘विगतस्पृह’ been used?

2. What is the optional second form for the above compound in the case where the affix ‘कप्’ is applied using the सूत्रम् 5-4-154 शेषाद्विभाषा?

3. What is the optional third form for the above compound in the case where the affix ‘कप्’ is applied using the सूत्रम् 5-4-154 शेषाद्विभाषा and the ending long vowel ‘आ’ of the अङ्गम् (base) is shortened using the सूत्रम् 7-4-15 आपोऽन्यतरस्याम्?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a fourth case affix in the form पूरवे?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-46 दो दद् घोः been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Because king Daśaratha was true to his promise he exiled his own beloved son Śrī Rāma.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘one who is true to his promise’ = ‘one whose promise is true’ = ‘सत्या प्रतिज्ञा यस्य स:’। Use a causative form of the verbal root √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘वि’ for ‘to exile.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् mandates the use of a आत्मनेपदम् affix in the form आददे?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः been used in the verses?

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