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कुपुरुषः mNs

Today we will look at the form कुपुरुषः  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 7.8.53.

यक्षा ऊचुः
वयमनुचरमुख्याः कर्मभिस्ते मनोज्ञैस्त इह दितिसुतेन प्रापिता वाहकत्वम् । स तु जनपरितापं तत्कृतं जानता ते नरहर उपनीतः पञ्चतां पञ्चविंश ।। ७-८-५२ ।।
किम्पुरुषा ऊचुः
वयं किम्पुरुषास्त्वं तु महापुरुष ईश्वरः । अयं कुपुरुषो नष्टो धिक्कृतः साधुभिर्यदा ।। ७-८-५३ ।।

मनोज्ञैः कर्मभिस्तवानुचरेषु मुख्यास्ते वयं दितिसुतेन शिबिकावाहकत्वं प्रापिताःपञ्चतां मृत्युम् । हे पञ्चविंश चतुर्विंशतितत्त्वनियामक ।। ५२ ।। किंपुरुषास्तु त्वां स्तोतुं के वयं वराका इत्याहुः – वयमिति । वयं किंपुरुषास्तुच्छप्राणिनस्त्वं तु महानद्‍भुतप्रभावः पुरुषः । नन्वयं महान्दैत्यो हत इति न वर्ण्यत इत्याशङ्क्य कियदेतदित्याहुः – अयमिति । यदा साधुभिर्भगवद्भक्तैस्तिरस्कृतस्तदैव नष्टः ।। ५३ ।।

Gita Press translation – The Yakṣas said: We, who are well-known as the chief among Your servants by virtue of (our) agreeable actions, had hitherto been reduced to the position of mere palanquin-bearers by Hiraṇyakaśipu (Diti’s son). He, however, has (now) been put to death by You, O Narasiṁha, the Controller of the twenty-four categories, knowing as You did the agony caused to the people by him (52). The Kimpuruṣas said: We are Kimpuruṣas (insignificant creatures), while You are the almighty Supreme Person. This wretched fellow was no more (even) when he was reproached by pious souls (53).

(1) कुत्सितः पुरुषः = कुपुरुषः – a wretched fellow

(2) अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
कु + पुरुष सुँ । By 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः – The indeclinable ‘कु’, terms having the designation ‘गति’ (ref. 1-4-60 गतिश्च etc) as well as the terms ‘प्र’ etc. (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः) invariably compound with a syntactically related term and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of नित्यम् (invariably) comes down from the prior सूत्रम् 2-2-17 नित्यं क्रीडाजीविकयोः।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘कु’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 (which prescribes the compounding) the term कुगतिप्रादयः ends in the nominative case. Hence the term ‘कु’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘कु + पुरुष सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) कु + पुरुष । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= कुपुरुष ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कुपुरुष’ is masculine since the latter member ‘पुरुष’ of the compound is masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(5) कुपुरुष + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) कुपुरुष + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) कुपुरुष: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः (used in step 2) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – ‘कु’शब्दोऽत्राव्ययं गृह्यते न तु पृथिवीवाचको गत्यादिसाहचर्यात्। Please explain.

2. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form कर्मभि: (and मनोज्ञै:) used in the verses?

3. What is the लौकिक-विग्रह: of the compound ‘किम्पुरुष’ (used in the form किम्पुरुषा: (प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) in the verses)?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-3-46 आन्महतः समानाधिकरणजातीययोः been used in the verses?

5. In which word in the verses has the substitution ‘शतृँ’ (in place of ‘लँट्’) taken place?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Not getting a son is better than getting a despicable son.” Paraphrase to “Non-obtaining of a son is better than obtaining of a despicable son.” Use the कृत् affix ‘क्तिन्’ with the verbal root √आप् (आपॢँ व्याप्तौ ५. १६) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘प्र’ to form a feminine प्रातिपदिकम् for ‘obtaining.’ Construct a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound for ‘non-obtaining.’ Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वर’ (feminine ‘वरा’) for ‘better.’

Easy questions:

1. From which verbal root is the form ऊचुः derived?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the affix णिच् in the form वर्ण्यते used in the commentary?

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