Home » Example for the day » महादेव mVs

महादेव mVs

Today we will look at the form महादेव mVs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 8.7.21.

श्रीप्रजापतय ऊचुः
देवदेव महादेव भूतात्मन्भूतभावन । त्राहि नः शरणापन्नांस्त्रैलोक्यदहनाद्विषात् ।। ८-७-२१ ।।
त्वमेकः सर्वजगत ईश्वरो बन्धमोक्षयोः । तं त्वामर्चन्ति कुशलाः प्रपन्नार्तिहरं गुरुम् ।। ८-७-२२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
“निर्गुणं सगुणं चैव शिवं हरिपराक्रमैः ।। स्तुवन्तस्तु प्रजेशाना नामन्यन्ताऽन्तरं तयोः” इति ।। २१ ।।

Gita Press translation – The lords of created beings prayed: O God of gods, O supreme Deity, the Protector, nay, the very Self of (all) created beings, save us, that have sought refuge in You, from this poison, which is burning (all) the three worlds (21). You are the one Lord competent to enthrall and liberate the whole world. Such as You are, the wise worship You, the Preceptor (of the universe), capable of relieving the agony of those who have sought refuge in You (22).

(1) महांश्चासौ देव: = महादेव: – supreme Deity

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) महत् सुँ + देव सुँ । By 2-1-61 सन्महत्परमोत्तमोत्कृष्टाः पूज्यमानैः – A सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् which is (composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) ‘सत्’/’महत्’/’परम’/’उत्तम’/’उत्कृष्ट’ optionally compounds with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् which denotes the one being respected/honored – provided both the सुबन्त-पदे refer to the same item – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।
Note: The compounds prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-1-61 could also be constructed using the सूत्रम् 2-1-57 विशेषणं विशेष्येण बहुलम्‌। Then what is the purpose of composing the सूत्रम् 2-1-61? गुणक्रियाशब्दैः सह समासे सदादीनां पूर्वनिपातनियमार्थं सूत्रम् – The सूत्रम् 2-1-61 is composed for the purpose of placing the terms सन्महत्परमोत्तमोत्कृष्टाः in the prior position in the compound. In the absence of this सूत्रम्, the terms सन्महत्परमोत्तमोत्कृष्टाः would not necessarily be placed in the prior position of the compound when the other member of the compound is a गुणशब्द: (a term denoting a quality) or a क्रियाशब्द: (a term denoting an action.)

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘महत् सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-61 (which prescribes the compounding) the term सन्महत्परमोत्तमोत्कृष्टाः ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘महत् सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘महत् सुँ + देव सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) महत् + देव । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) मह आ + देव । By 6-3-46 आन्महतः समानाधिकरणजातीययोः – The ending letter (‘त्’) of ‘महत्’ is substituted by ‘आ’ when ‘महत्’ is followed by either –
i) a latter member (of a compound) which has समानाधिकरणम् (refers to the same item as does ‘महत्’) or
ii) affix ‘जातीय’ (ref. 5-3-69 प्रकारवचने जातीयर्)।
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य only the ending letter ‘त्’ of ‘महत्’ is substituted by ‘आ’।

(6) महादेव । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महादेव’ is masculine since the latter member ‘देव’ of the compound is masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is सम्बुद्धिः। By 2-3-49 एकवचनं सम्बुद्धि: – The nominative singular affix (‘सुँ’) when used in a vocative form gets the designation सम्बुद्धि:।

(7) (हे) महादेव + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। By 2-3-47 सम्बोधने च – A first case affix (‘सुँ’, ‘औ’, ‘जस्’) is used to denote ‘address’ (in addition to the meaning of the nominal stem) also. Note: सम् (सम्मुखीकृत्य) बोधनम् (ज्ञापनम्) = सम्बोधनम्। सम्बोधनम् means drawing someone’s attention (to inform him/her of something.)

(8) (हे) महादेव + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(9) (हे) महादेव । By 6-1-69 एङ्ह्रस्वात्‌ सम्बुद्धेः – Following a अङ्गम् ending in ‘एङ्’ (letter ‘ए’ or ‘ओ’) or a short vowel, a consonant is dropped if it belongs to a सम्बुद्धि: affix.

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-61 सन्महत्परमोत्तमोत्कृष्टाः पूज्यमानैः (used in step 2) been used along with the सूत्रम् 6-3-46 आन्महतः समानाधिकरणजातीययोः (used in step 5) in verses 10-15 of Chapter One of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-3-46 आन्महतः समानाधिकरणजातीययोः the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – समानाधिकरणे किम्‌? महत: सेवा महत्सेवा। Please explain.

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन been used in the verses?

4. Can you spot a द्वितीया-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a fifth case affix in the word विषात् (and त्रैलोक्यदहनात्) used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The killing of a cow is a great sin.” Construct a कर्मधार: compound for ‘great sin’ = महच्च तत् पापम्।

Easy questions:

1. Which प्रातिपदिकम् used in the verses has the designation ‘घि’?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि been used in the verses?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-61 सन्महत्परमोत्तमोत्कृष्टाः पूज्यमानैः (used in step 2) been used along with the सूत्रम् 6-3-46 आन्महतः समानाधिकरणजातीययोः (used in step 5) in verses 10-15 of Chapter One of the गीता?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 2-1-61 सन्महत्परमोत्तमोत्कृष्टाः पूज्यमानैः has been used along with the सूत्रम् 6-3-46 आन्महतः समानाधिकरणजातीययोः in the form महाशङ्खम् (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महाशङ्ख’, द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) in the following verse –

    पाञ्चजन्यं हृषीकेशो देवदत्तं धनञ्जयः |
    पौण्ड्रं दध्मौ महाशङ्खं भीमकर्मा वृकोदरः || 1-15||

    महांश्चासौ शङ्ख: = महाशङ्ख: – mighty conch.

    Derivation of the compound पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महाशङ्ख’ is similar to the derivation of the compound पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महादेव’ as shown in the post.

    2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-3-46 आन्महतः समानाधिकरणजातीययोः the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – समानाधिकरणे किम्‌? महत: सेवा महत्सेवा। Please explain.
    Answer: समानाधिकरणे किम्‌? In order to understand the importance of the condition समानाधिकरणे (when the latter member refers to the same item as referred to by the prior member ‘महत्’), consider the षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष: compound महत: सेवा = महत्सेवा – service of a great person. Since ‘महत्’ and ‘सेवा’ do not have समानाधिकरणम् here – ‘महत्’ refers to a person while ‘सेवा’ refers to an act (of service) – hence the सूत्रम् 6-3-46 does not apply. (The ending letter ‘त्’ of ‘महत्’ is not replaced by the letter ‘आ’)।

    3. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन has been used in the form सर्वजगतः (नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सर्वजगत्’, षष्ठी-एकवचनम्)।

    सर्वं च तज्जगत् = सर्वजगत् – whole world.

    अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
    सर्व सुँ + जगत् सुँ । By 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन – A सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् which either i) denotes an action which naturally precedes in time or ii) is (composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) ‘एक’/‘सर्व’/’जरत्’/’पुराण’/’नव’/’केवल’ optionally compounds with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् – provided both the सुबन्त-पदे refer to the same item – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।

    By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘सर्व सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-49 (which prescribes the compounding) the term पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘सर्व सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌।
    Note: ‘सर्व सुँ + जगत् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
    = सर्व + जगत् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः।
    = सर्वजगत् ।

    Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सर्वजगत्’ is neuter since the latter member ‘जगत्’ of the compound is neuter.

    4. Can you spot a द्वितीया-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?
    Answer: The form शरणापन्नान् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शरणापन्न’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्) is a द्वितीया-तत्पुरुष: compound.

    शरणमापन्नः = शरणापन्नः – (one who has) sought refuge.

    The derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शरणापन्न’ is similar to the derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कालातीत’ as shown in the following post – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2015/01/22/कालातीतम्-mas

    5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a fifth case affix in the word विषात् (and त्रैलोक्यदहनात्) used in the verses?
    Answer: The use of a fifth case affix in the word विषात् (and त्रैलोक्यदहनात्) is justified by the सूत्रम् 2-3-28 अपादाने पञ्चमी – A fifth case affix (‘ङसिँ’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used to denote the अपादानम् (that from which detachment/ablation takes place) provided it has not been expressed otherwise.

    Note: The सूत्रम् 2-3-28 अपादाने पञ्चमी applies here since ‘विष’ (poison) which denotes the cause of fear, gets the designation अपादानम् as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-25 भीत्रार्थानां भयहेतुः – When a verbal root having the meaning of भयम् (fear) or त्राणम् (protection) is used, the कारकम् (participant in the action) which denotes the cause of the fear is designated as अपादानम्। The सूत्रम् 1-4-25 applies here because the verbal root √त्रै (त्रैङ् पालने १. ११२०) – which denotes protection – is used in the form त्राहि।

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “The killing of a cow is a great sin.” Construct a कर्मधार: compound for ‘great sin’ = महच्च तत् पापम्।
    Answer: गोहत्या महापापम् अस्ति = गोहत्या महापापमस्ति।

    Easy questions:
    1. Which प्रातिपदिकम् used in the verses has the designation ‘घि’?
    Answer: The पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गुरु’ used in the form गुरुम् (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) has the designation ‘घि’ as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि – When a short ‘इ’ ending or short ‘उ’ ending term – except for ‘सखि’ – does not have the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा then it gets the घि-सञ्ज्ञा।

    2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि has been used in the form शरणापन्नान् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शरणापन्न’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्)।

    शरणापन्न + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा……..।
    = शरणापन्न + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘शस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
    = शरणापन्नास् । By 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः।
    = शरणापन्नान् । By 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि – In the masculine gender, when the letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘शस्’ follows a vowel which has been elongated by 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः, it is replaced by the letter ‘न्’।

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Recent Comments

Recent Posts

July 2015
M T W T F S S
« Jun   Aug »
 12345
6789101112
13141516171819
20212223242526
2728293031  

Topics