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त्रिभुवनगुरोः mGs

Today we will look at the form त्रिभुवनगुरोः mGs from रघुवंशम् 16.88.

इत्थं नागस्त्रिभुवनगुरोरौरसं मैथिलेयं लब्ध्वा बन्धुं तमपि च कुशः पञ्चमं तक्षकस्य ।
एकः शङ्कां पितृवधरिपोरत्यजद्वैनतेयाच्छान्तव्यालामवनिमपरः पौरकान्तः शशास ॥ 16-88॥

टीका –
इत्थं नागः कुमुदः । त्रिभुवनगुरोः त्रयाणां भुवनानां समाहारस्त्रिभुवनम् । ‘2-1-51 तद्धितार्थ-‘ इत्यादिना तत्पुरुषः । अदन्तद्विगुत्वेऽपि पात्राद्यदन्ततत्वान्नपुंसकत्वम्। ‘पात्राद्यदन्तैरेकार्थो द्विगुर्लक्ष्यानुसारतः’ इत्यमरः । तस्य गुरू रामः । तस्य औरसं धर्मपत्नीजं पुत्रम् । ‘औरसो धर्मपत्नीजः’ इति याज्ञवल्क्यः । मैथिलेयं कुशं बन्धुं लब्ध्वाकुशोऽपि च तक्षकस्य पञ्चमं पुत्रं तं कुमुदं बन्धुं लब्ध्वा एकः तयोरन्यतरः कुमुदः [पितृवधरिपोः] पितृवधेन रिपोः वैनतेयात् गरुडात् । गुरुणा वैष्णवांशेन कुशेन त्याजितक्रौर्यादिति भावः । शङ्कां भयम् अत्यजत्अपरः कुशः शान्तव्यालां कुमुदाज्ञया वीतसर्पभयाम् अवनिम् अत एव पौरकान्तः पौरप्रियः सन् शशास ।। ८८ ।।

Translation – Thus the serpent (Kumuda), having obtained Kuśa – a legitimate son of Rāma (the master of (the collection of) the three worlds) and Sītā (the princess of Mithilā) – as a relative, abandoned fear from the enemy Garuḍa (son of Vinatā) who had slain his father. And in turn Kuśa, loved by his subjects, having obtained Kumuda – the fifth son of Takṣaka – as a relative , ruled the earth freed from the fear of serpents (88).

(1) त्रयाणां भुवनानां समाहारः = त्रिभुवनम् – collection of the three worlds.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) त्रि आम् + भुवन आम् । By 2-1-51 तद्धितार्थोत्तरपदसमाहारे च – In the following three situations a सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting either a direction of the compass or a numeral combines with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् referring to the same item and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष: –
i) in the context where the sense of a तद्धित: affix is to be expressed
ii) when a उत्तरपदम् (a final member) of a compound follows
iii) when the compound denotes a समाहार: (aggregate.)

(3) As per 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् the term ‘त्रि आम्’ – which denotes a numeral – gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-51 (which prescribes the compounding) the term दिक्संख्ये (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from the सूत्रम् 2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌) ends in the nominative case. And hence the term ‘त्रि आम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.
Note: ‘त्रि आम् + भुवन आम्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) त्रि + भुवन । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= त्रिभुवन ।

(5) This compound is used only in the neuter gender as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌ – A द्विगुः/द्वन्द्व: compound which expresses a समाहार: (aggregation) is used (only) in the neuter gender.
Note: This compound would have been used only in the feminine gender as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌) अकारान्तोत्तरपदो द्विगु: स्त्रियामिष्ट: – A द्विगुः compound which expresses a समाहार: (aggregation) and whose final member ends in the letter ‘अ’ is used (only) in the feminine gender.
But this is overruled by the वार्तिकम् (under 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌) पात्राद्यन्तस्य न – A द्विगुः compound which expresses a समाहार: (aggregation) and whose final member belongs to the पात्रादि-गण: (list of words ‘पात्र’ etc) is not used in the feminine gender. (It is used exclusively in the neuter gender as per 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌।)
Note: The पात्रादि-गण: is a आकृतिगण: – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. The word ‘भुवन’ is considered to be in the पात्रादि-गण:।

This compound is used only in the singular as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-1 द्विगुरेकवचनम्‌ – A द्विगुः compound which expresses a समाहार: (aggregation) is used (only) in the singular.

(6) Now we form the षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः compound त्रिभुवनगुरुः = त्रिभुवनस्य गुरुः – master of the three worlds. Here it qualifies रामः।
Note: The sixth case affix in त्रिभुवनस्य is as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-50 षष्ठी शेषे।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(7) त्रिभुवन ङस् + गुरु सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(8) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘त्रिभुवन ङस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘त्रिभुवन ङस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘त्रिभुवन ङस् + गुरु सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(9) त्रिभुवन + गुरु । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= त्रिभुवनगुरु ।

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘त्रिभुवनगुरु’ is masculine since the latter member ‘गुरु’ of the compound is masculine.

The विवक्षा is षष्ठी-एकवचनम्।

(10) त्रिभुवनगुरु + ङस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

Note: ‘त्रिभुवनगुरु’ gets the घि-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि – When a short ‘इ’ ending or short ‘उ’ ending term – except for ‘सखि’ – does not have the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा then it gets the घि-सञ्ज्ञा।

(11) त्रिभुवनगुरु + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘ङस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(12) त्रिभुवनगुरो + अस् । By 7-3-111 घेर्ङिति – When a ङित् (having the letter ‘ङ्’ as a इत्) सुँप् affix follows, then a अङ्गम् having the घि-सञ्ज्ञा takes the गुण: substitution. Note: As per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, the गुण: substitution takes place only for the ending letter (in this case the letter ‘उ’) of the अङ्गम्।

(13) त्रिभुवनगुरोस् । By 6-1-110 ङसिँङसोश्च – In place of a preceding एङ् (‘ए’, ‘ओ’) letter and the following short ‘अ’ of the affix ‘ङसिँ’ or ‘ङस्’, there is a single substitute of the former (एङ् letter.)

(14) त्रिभुवनगुरोः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌ (used in step 5) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – परवल्लिङ्‌गापवाद:। Please explain.

2. What is the विग्रह-वाक्यम् of the compound ‘पितृवधरिपु’ used (in the form पितृवधरिपोः (षष्ठी-एकवचनम्)) in the verses? Hint: First form the षष्ठी-समास: ‘पितृवध’ and then use that to form the तृतीया-समास: ‘पितृवधरिपु’।

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले been used in the verses?

4. Which कृत् affix is used to form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शङ्का’ (used in the form शङ्काम् (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?

5. Can you spot the affix ‘ड’ in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
Rāvaṇa said to Sītā – “In (the collection of) three worlds there is none equal to me.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-3-14 रो रि been used in the commentary?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘त्रय’ in the form त्रयाणाम् (used in the commentary)?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌ (used in step 5) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – परवल्लिङ्‌गापवाद:। Please explain.
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌ which says that a द्विगुः/द्वन्द्व: compound which expresses a समाहार: (aggregation) is used (only) in the neuter gender is a अपवाद: (exception) to the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः which states that the gender of a तत्पुरुष: compound as well as a द्वन्द्व: compound is the same as the gender of the latter member of the compound.

    2. What is the विग्रह-वाक्यम् of the compound ‘पितृवधरिपु’ used (in the form पितृवधरिपोः (षष्ठी-एकवचनम्)) in the verses? Hint: First form the षष्ठी-समास: ‘पितृवध’ and then use that to form the तृतीया-समास: ‘पितृवधरिपु’।
    Answer: The विग्रह-वाक्यम् for the षष्ठी-समास: ‘पितृवध’ is as follows –
    पितुर्वधः = पितृवधः।

    अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
    पितृ ङस् + वध सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी।
    By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘पितृ ङस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘पितृ ङस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌।
    Note: ’पितृ ङस् + वध सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
    = पितृवध । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः।

    The विग्रह-वाक्यम् for the तृतीया-समास: ‘पितृवधरिपु’ is as follows –
    पितृवधेन रिपुः = पितृवधरिपुः।

    अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
    = पितृवध टा + रिपु सुँ । By 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌
    Note: बहुलग्रहणं सर्वोपाधिव्यभिचारार्थम्‌। The mention of बहुलम्‌ in the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम् tells us that all conditions may be relaxed. तेन दात्रेण लूनवानित्यादौ न – hence no compounding is allowed in examples such as दात्रेण लूनवान् (someone) has cut off with a sickle, हस्तेन कुर्वन् making by hand, etc.
    And conversely, we sometimes do see compounding taking place even when the condition कर्तृकरणे is not satisfied as in the current example where the third case affix used in पितृवधेन denotes the हेतु: (cause/reason) and not the doer or the agent. But still compounding has taken place. The mention of बहुलम्‌ in this सूत्रम् may be used to justify such compounds.
    The सूत्रम् 2-3-23 हेतौ justifies the third case affix used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पितृवध’ which denotes the हेतु: (cause/reason) for (becoming) an enemy.

    By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘पितृवध टा’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 (which justifies the compounding) the term तृतीया (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from 2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन) ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘पितृवध टा’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌।
    Note: ‘पितृवध टा + रिपु सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
    = पितृवधरिपु । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः ।
    As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पितृवधरिपु’ is masculine since the latter member ‘रिपु’ of the compound is masculine.

    3. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले is used in the form लब्ध्वा – derived from the verbal root √लभ् (डुलभँष् प्राप्तौ १. ११३०).

    लभ् + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले – The affix ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same.
    Note: The action लब्ध्वा (having obtained) is associated with two agents. The common agent of the actions लब्ध्वा (having obtained) and अत्यजत् (abandoned) is नागः (the serpent कुमुदः)। And also, the common agent of the actions लब्ध्वा (having obtained) and शशास (ruled) is कुशः। In both cases, the earlier of the two actions is the action of ‘to obtain’ which is denoted by √लभ् and hence √लभ् takes the affix ‘क्त्वा’।
    Note: अव्ययकृतो भावे (from महाभाष्यम्) – कृत् affixes (such as ‘क्‍त्‍वा’) having the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा are used to denote भाव: (action) – and not the agent (ref. 3-4-67 कर्तरि कृत्‌) of the action.
    लभ् + त्वा । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ stops the augment ‘इट्’ (for the affix ‘त्वा’) which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः।
    = लभ् + ध्वा । By 8-2-40 झषस्तथोर्धोऽधः।
    = लब् + ध्वा । By 8-4-53 झलां जश् झशि।
    ‘लब्ध्वा ’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः।
    लब्ध्वा + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्।
    = लब्ध्वा । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः।

    4. Which कृत् affix is used to form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शङ्का’ (used in the form शङ्काम् (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?
    Answer: The कृत् affix ‘’ is used to form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शङ्का’ – derived from the verbal root √शङ्क् (शकिँ शङ्कायाम् १.९१).

    Please see answer to question 5 in the following comment for derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शङ्का’ – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2014/12/04/अनुनदि-ind/#comment-35025

    5. Can you spot the affix ‘ड’ in the commentary?
    Answer: The affix ‘ड’ is used in the form धर्मपत्नीजम् (प्रातिप्दिकम् ’धर्मपत्नीज’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्)।

    धर्मपत्न्या जातः = धर्मपत्नीजः – (Son) born to a lawfully wedded wife.

    ‘ज’ is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √जन् (जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४).
    The (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धर्मपत्नीज’ is derived as follows:
    धर्मपत्नी + ङसिँ + जन् + ड । By 3-2-98 पञ्चम्यामजातौ – When in composition with a पदम् which ends in the fifth (ablative) case, the verbal root √जन् (जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४) may take the the affix ‘ड’ provided the verbal root is used to denote an action in the past tense and the उपपदम् does not denote a class/genus.
    Note: In the सूत्रम् 3-2-98, the term पञ्चम्याम् ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence ‘धर्मपत्नी + ङसिँ’ gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌।
    = धर्मपत्नी + ङसिँ + जन् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = धर्मपत्नी + ङसिँ + ज् + अ । By 6-4-143 टेः। Note: The अङ्गम् does not have the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here. But still टि-लोप: is done because otherwise no purpose would be served by having the letter ‘ड्’ as a इत् in the affix ‘ड’। डित्वसामर्थ्यादभस्यापि टेर्लोपः।
    = धर्मपत्नी + ङसिँ + ज ।
    Now we form a compound between ‘धर्मपत्नी + ङसिँ’ (which is the उपपदम्) and ‘ज’ by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्। In the compound, ‘धर्मपत्नी + ङसिँ’ is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌। Note: Here ‘धर्मपत्नी + ङसिँ’ is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् (which prescribes the compounding) the term उपपदम् ends in the nominative case.
    ‘धर्मपत्नी + ङसिँ + ज’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।
    = धर्मपत्नी + ज । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः।
    = धर्मपत्नीज ।

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    Rāvaṇa said to Sītā – “In (the collection of) three worlds there is none equal to me.”
    Answer: त्रिभुवने न कश्चित् मम/मया समान: अस्ति इति रावणः सीताम् उवाच = त्रिभुवने न कश्चिन् मम/मया समानोऽस्तीति रावणः सीतामुवाच।

    Easy questions:
    1. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-3-14 रो रि been used in the commentary?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 8-3-14 रो रि has been used in the सन्धि-कार्यम् between गुरुः + रामः = गुरू रामः।

    गुरुस् + रामः
    = गुरुरुँ + रामः। By 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः।
    = गुरुर् + रामः। अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = गुरु रामः । By 8-3-14 रो रि – The letter ‘र्’ is dropped when followed by the letter ‘र्’।
    = गुरू रामः । By 6-3-111 ढ्रलोपे पूर्वस्य दीर्घोऽणः। Note: The situation of a ढकारलोप:/रेफलोप: only arises after applying 8-3-13/8-3-14. So even though 6-3-111 is an earlier rule (compared to 8-3-13/8-3-14) in the अष्टाध्यायी, it has to be allowed (in spite of 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्) to see the operation done by 8-3-13/8-3-14, for otherwise 6-3-111 would become useless.

    2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘त्रय’ in the form त्रयाणाम् (used in the commentary)?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 7-1-53 त्रेस्त्रयः prescribes the substitution ‘त्रय’ in the form त्रयाणाम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ’त्रि’, नपुंसकलिङ्गे षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्)।

    Please see answer to easy question 1 in the following comment for derivation of the form त्रयाणाम् – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/09/13/शक्यः-mns/#comment-4465

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