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सप्तर्षिभिः mIp

Today we will look at the form सप्तर्षिभिः mIp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 8.24.34.

त्वं तावदोषधीः सर्वा बीजान्युच्चावचानि च । सप्तर्षिभिः परिवृतः सर्वसत्त्वोपबृंहितः ।। ८-२४-३४ ।।
आरुह्य बृहतीं नावं विचरिष्यस्यविक्लवः । एकार्णवे निरालोके ऋषीणामेव वर्चसा ।। ८-२४-३५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
ओषधीः आदायेति शेषः ।। ३४ ।। ऋषीणामेवालोकेन विचरिष्यसि ।। ३५ ।।

Gita Press translation – Take (with you) in the meanwhile all the herbs and annual plants as well as seeds of all types (both great and small) and, surrounded by the seven seers, and accompanied by all (varieties of) animals, you shall board that commodious vessel and sail about undaunted in that undivided expanse of water devoid of light, guided by the effulgence of the Ṛṣis alone (34-35).

(1) सप्तर्षयः – The seven sages ‘मरीचि’, ‘अत्रि’, ‘अङ्गिरस्’, ‘पुलस्त्य’, ‘पुलह’, ‘क्रतु’, and ‘वसिष्ठ’ by name.
Note: We cannot form a लौकिक-विग्रह: for this compound because सप्तर्षयः is a proper name and a proper name cannot be expressed via a sentence.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) सप्तन् जस् + ऋषि जस् । By 2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌ – In a तत्पुरुष: compound, a सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting either a direction of the compass or a numeral combines with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् referring to the same item only if the resulting compound denotes a proper name.
Note: सञ्ज्ञायामेवेति नियमार्थं सूत्रम्‌ – This is a नियम-सूत्रम् – a restriction rule. Compounding is already available by the सूत्रम् 2-1-57 विशेषणं विशेष्येण बहुलम्‌। All this सूत्रम् does is that (if the prior member of the compound denotes either a direction of the compass or a numeral) it allows 2-1-57 to apply only if the resulting compound denotes a proper name.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘सप्तन् जस्’ – which denotes a numeral –  gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-50 (which prescribes the compounding) the term दिक्संख्ये ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘सप्तन् जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘सप्तन् जस् + ऋषि जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) सप्तन् + ऋषि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्। Note: ‘सप्तन्’ has the designation पदम् here by the सूत्रम् 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(5) सप्त + ऋषि । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

(6) सप्तर्षि । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः – In place of a preceding अवर्ण: letter (‘अ’ or ‘आ’) and a following अच् letter, there is a single substitute of a गुण: letter (‘अ’, ‘ए’, ‘ओ’)। As per 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (‘अ’, ‘इ’, ‘उ’) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a ‘रँ’ (‘र्’, ‘ल्’) letter.

Note: 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति limits the authority of 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् and says that the elision of the letter ‘न्’ (done by 8-2-7) is not visible only to those rules that are in the four categories mentioned below – others do see the elision of the letter ‘न्’।
The four categories are:
1. सुँब्विधौ – rules relating to सुँप् affixes
2. स्वरविधौ – rules relating to accents (in the वेद:)
3. सञ्ज्ञाविधौ – rules that give names or designations
4. कृति तुँग्विधौ – rules that prescribe a तुँक् augment in connection with a कृत्-प्रत्यय:।
The operation (substitution of a गुण: letter) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 6-1-87 does not fall under any of the above categories. Hence the elision of the letter ‘न्’ (done by 8-2-7) is visible to 6-1-87 allowing it to apply.

See question 1.

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सप्तर्षि’ is masculine since the latter member ‘ऋषि’ of the compound is masculine.

The विवक्षा is तृतीया-बहुवचनम्।

(7) सप्तर्षि + भिस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘भिस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) सप्तर्षिभिः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. What would be the optional form of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् if we were to apply the सूत्रम् 6-1-128 ऋत्यकः in step 6?

2. Consider verse 46 of Chapter Eleven of the गीता –
किरीटिनं गदिनं चक्रहस्तमिच्छामि त्वां द्रष्टुमहं तथैव |
तेनैव रूपेण चतुर्भुजेन सहस्रबाहो भव विश्वमूर्ते || 11-46||
Why doesn’t the नियम-सूत्रम् (restriction rule) 2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌ stop the formation of the compound ‘चतुर्भुज’ which does not denote a proper name? Hint: Is the compound ‘चतुर्भुज’ used in this verse a तत्पुरुष: compound?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन been used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) in the form आरुह्य used in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Tell me the names of the seven sages.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Among these five students who is the most intelligent?” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धीमत्तम’ for ‘most intelligent.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-33 स्यतासी लृलुटोः been used in the verses?

2. From which प्रातिपदिकम् is the form नावम् (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses derived?


1 Comment

  1. 1. What would be the optional form of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् if we were to apply the सूत्रम् 6-1-128 ऋत्यकः in step 6?
    Answer: The alternate form is ‘सप्तऋषि’। As per the सूत्रम् 6-1-128 ऋत्यकः – A letter (in the present example, the letter ‘अ’) of the प्रत्याहार: ‘अक्’ occurring at the end of a पदम् (in the present example, the पदम् ’सप्त’) is optionally substituted by its short counterpart (in the present example, the letter ‘अ’) when the letter ‘ऋ’ follows.

    Note: ह्रस्‍वविधिसामर्थ्यान्न स्‍वरसन्‍धिः – The very fact of the substitution of the short vowel prevents any further vowel सन्धि: operation from taking place because otherwise the substitution of the short vowel would be futile. Hence the सन्धि: operation (गुणादेशः) between ‘सप्त + ऋषि’ – prescribed by the सूत्रम् 6-1-87 आद्‍गुणः – does not take place after the application of the सूत्रम् 6-1-128 ऋत्यकः।

    2. Consider verse 46 of Chapter Eleven of the गीता –
    किरीटिनं गदिनं चक्रहस्तमिच्छामि त्वां द्रष्टुमहं तथैव |
    तेनैव रूपेण चतुर्भुजेन सहस्रबाहो भव विश्वमूर्ते || 11-46||
    Why doesn’t the नियम-सूत्रम् (restriction rule) 2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌ stop the formation of the compound ‘चतुर्भुज’ which does not denote a proper name? Hint: Is the compound ‘चतुर्भुज’ used in this verse a तत्पुरुष: compound?
    Answer: As per 2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌ – In a तत्पुरुष: compound, a सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting either a direction of the compass or a numeral combines with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् referring to the same item only if the resulting compound denotes a proper name.
    The compound ‘चतुर्भुज’ (as used in the above verse) is not a तत्पुरुष: compound. (It is a बहुव्रीहि: compound explained as चत्वारो भुजा यस्य सः = चतुर्भुजः।)
    Since the नियमसूत्रम् 2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌ is applicable only to तत्पुरुष: compounds it does not prevent the formation of the बहुव्रीहि: compound ‘चतुर्भुज’।

    3. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन has been used in the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सर्वसत्त्व’ which is part of the larger compound सर्वसत्त्वोपबृंहितः।

    सर्वाणि च तानि सत्त्वानि = सर्वसत्त्वानि – all (varieties of) animals.

    अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
    सर्व जस् + सत्त्व जस् । By 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन – A सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् which either i) denotes an action which naturally precedes in time or ii) is (composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) ‘एक’/‘सर्व’/’जरत्’/’पुराण’/’नव’/’केवल’ optionally compounds with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् – provided both the सुबन्त-पदे refer to the same item – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।
    By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘सर्व जस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-49 (which prescribes the compounding) the term पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘सर्व जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌।
    Note: ‘सर्व जस् + सत्त्व जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
    = सर्व + सत्त्व । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः।
    = सर्वसत्त्व ।
    Now we use this compound to form the तृतीया-तत्पुरुषः compound (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌) सर्वसत्त्वैरुपबृंहितः = सर्वसत्त्वोपबृंहितः – accompanied by all (varieties of) animals.

    4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) in the form आरुह्य used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ prescribes the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) in the form आरुह्य – derived from the verbal root √रुह् (रुहँ बीजजन्मनि प्रादुर्भावे च १. ९९५) preceded by the उपसर्गः ‘आङ्’।

    रुह् + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले।
    Note: The common agent of the actions आरुह्य (having boarded) and विचरिष्यसि (shall sail) is त्वम् (you). The earlier of the two actions is the action of ‘to board’ which is denoted by √रुह् and hence √रुह् takes the affix ‘क्त्वा’।
    Note: अव्ययकृतो भावे (from महाभाष्यम्) – कृत् affixes (such as ‘क्‍त्‍वा’) having the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा are used to denote भाव: (action) – and not the agent (ref. 3-4-67 कर्तरि कृत्‌) of the action.
    = आङ् रुह् + क्त्वा । ‘रुह् + क्त्वा’ is compounded with ‘आङ्’ using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः।
    = आङ् रुह् + ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ – When the affix ‘क्त्वा’ occurs at the end of a compound, it is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ provided the prior member of the compound is a अव्‍ययम् other than ‘नञ्’ (ref.2-2-6 नञ्)। The entire term ‘क्त्वा’ is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य।
    = आ रुह् + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = आरुह्य ।

    ‘आरुह्य’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः with the help of 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ।
    आरुह्य + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्।
    = आरुह्य । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः।

    5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “Tell me the names of the seven sages.”
    Answer: सप्तर्षीणाम्/सप्तऋषीणाम् नामानि मे वद/कथय = सप्तर्षीणां/सप्तऋषीणां नामानि मे वद/कथय।

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “Among these five students who is the most intelligent?” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धीमत्तम’ for ‘most intelligent.’
    Answer: एतेषाम् पञ्चानाम् छात्राणाम् कः अस्ति धीमत्तमः = एतेषां पञ्चानां छात्राणां कोऽस्ति धीमत्तमः?
    अथवा –
    एतेषु पञ्चसु छात्रेषु कः अस्ति धीमत्तमः = एतेषु पञ्चसु छात्रेषु कोऽस्ति धीमत्तमः?

    Easy questions:
    1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-33 स्यतासी लृलुटोः been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-1-33 स्यतासी लृलुटोः has been used in the form विचरिष्यसि – derived from the verbal root √चर् (चरँ गत्यर्थ: १. ६४०).

    The विवक्षा is लृँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, मध्यम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।
    चर् + लृँट् । By 3-3-13 लृट् शेषे च।
    = चर् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = चर् + सिप् । By 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्, 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्।
    = चर् + सि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = चर् + स्य + सि । By 3-1-33 स्यतासी लृलुटोः – The affixes ‘स्य’ and ‘तासिँ’ are prescribed after a धातुः when followed by ‘लृँ’ (लृँट् or लृँङ्) or लुँट् respectively.
    = चर् + इट् स्य + सि । By 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः, 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ।
    = चर् + इस्य + सि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = चरिष्यसि । By 8-3-59 आदेशप्रत्यययो:।

    ‘वि’ is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे, 1-4-80 ते प्राग्धातोः।)
    वि + चरिष्यसि = विचरिष्यसि।

    2. From which प्रातिपदिकम् is the form नावम् (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses derived?
    Answer: The form नावम् is derived from the स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नौ’।

    The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।
    नौ + अम् | By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्…। Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of ‘अम्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
    = नाव् + अम् | By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः।
    = नावम्।

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