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सप्तर्षिभिः mIp

Today we will look at the form सप्तर्षिभिः mIp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 8.24.34.

त्वं तावदोषधीः सर्वा बीजान्युच्चावचानि च । सप्तर्षिभिः परिवृतः सर्वसत्त्वोपबृंहितः ।। ८-२४-३४ ।।
आरुह्य बृहतीं नावं विचरिष्यस्यविक्लवः । एकार्णवे निरालोके ऋषीणामेव वर्चसा ।। ८-२४-३५ ।।

ओषधीः आदायेति शेषः ।। ३४ ।। ऋषीणामेवालोकेन विचरिष्यसि ।। ३५ ।।

Gita Press translation – Take (with you) in the meanwhile all the herbs and annual plants as well as seeds of all types (both great and small) and, surrounded by the seven seers, and accompanied by all (varieties of) animals, you shall board that commodious vessel and sail about undaunted in that undivided expanse of water devoid of light, guided by the effulgence of the Ṛṣis alone (34-35).

(1) सप्तर्षयः – The seven sages ‘मरीचि’, ‘अत्रि’, ‘अङ्गिरस्’, ‘पुलस्त्य’, ‘पुलह’, ‘क्रतु’, and ‘वसिष्ठ’ by name.
Note: We cannot form a लौकिक-विग्रह: for this compound because सप्तर्षयः is a proper name and a proper name cannot be expressed via a sentence.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) सप्तन् जस् + ऋषि जस् । By 2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌ – In a तत्पुरुष: compound, a सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting either a direction of the compass or a numeral combines with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् referring to the same item only if the resulting compound denotes a proper name.
Note: सञ्ज्ञायामेवेति नियमार्थं सूत्रम्‌ – This is a नियम-सूत्रम् – a restriction rule. Compounding is already available by the सूत्रम् 2-1-57 विशेषणं विशेष्येण बहुलम्‌। All this सूत्रम् does is that (if the prior member of the compound denotes either a direction of the compass or a numeral) it allows 2-1-57 to apply only if the resulting compound denotes a proper name.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘सप्तन् जस्’ – which denotes a numeral –  gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-50 (which prescribes the compounding) the term दिक्संख्ये ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘सप्तन् जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘सप्तन् जस् + ऋषि जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) सप्तन् + ऋषि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्। Note: ‘सप्तन्’ has the designation पदम् here by the सूत्रम् 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(5) सप्त + ऋषि । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

(6) सप्तर्षि । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः – In place of a preceding अवर्ण: letter (‘अ’ or ‘आ’) and a following अच् letter, there is a single substitute of a गुण: letter (‘अ’, ‘ए’, ‘ओ’)। As per 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (‘अ’, ‘इ’, ‘उ’) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a ‘रँ’ (‘र्’, ‘ल्’) letter.

Note: 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति limits the authority of 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् and says that the elision of the letter ‘न्’ (done by 8-2-7) is not visible only to those rules that are in the four categories mentioned below – others do see the elision of the letter ‘न्’।
The four categories are:
1. सुँब्विधौ – rules relating to सुँप् affixes
2. स्वरविधौ – rules relating to accents (in the वेद:)
3. सञ्ज्ञाविधौ – rules that give names or designations
4. कृति तुँग्विधौ – rules that prescribe a तुँक् augment in connection with a कृत्-प्रत्यय:।
The operation (substitution of a गुण: letter) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 6-1-87 does not fall under any of the above categories. Hence the elision of the letter ‘न्’ (done by 8-2-7) is visible to 6-1-87 allowing it to apply.

See question 1.

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सप्तर्षि’ is masculine since the latter member ‘ऋषि’ of the compound is masculine.

The विवक्षा is तृतीया-बहुवचनम्।

(7) सप्तर्षि + भिस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘भिस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) सप्तर्षिभिः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. What would be the optional form of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् if we were to apply the सूत्रम् 6-1-128 ऋत्यकः in step 6?

2. Consider verse 46 of Chapter Eleven of the गीता –
किरीटिनं गदिनं चक्रहस्तमिच्छामि त्वां द्रष्टुमहं तथैव |
तेनैव रूपेण चतुर्भुजेन सहस्रबाहो भव विश्वमूर्ते || 11-46||
Why doesn’t the नियम-सूत्रम् (restriction rule) 2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌ stop the formation of the compound ‘चतुर्भुज’ which does not denote a proper name? Hint: Is the compound ‘चतुर्भुज’ used in this verse a तत्पुरुष: compound?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन been used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) in the form आरुह्य used in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Tell me the names of the seven sages.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Among these five students who is the most intelligent?” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धीमत्तम’ for ‘most intelligent.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-33 स्यतासी लृलुटोः been used in the verses?

2. From which प्रातिपदिकम् is the form नावम् (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses derived?

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