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अपररात्रे mLs

Today we will look at the form अपररात्रे mLs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 6.8.22.

श्रीवत्सधामापररात्र ईशः प्रत्यूष ईशोऽसिधरो जनार्दनः । दामोदरोऽव्यादनुसन्ध्यं प्रभाते विश्वेश्वरो भगवान्कालमूर्तिः ।। ६-८-२२ ।।
चक्रं युगान्तानलतिग्मनेमि भ्रमत्समन्ताद्भगवत्प्रयुक्तम् । दन्दग्धि दन्दग्ध्यरिसैन्यमाशु कक्षं यथा वातसखो हुताशः ।। ६-८-२३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अपररात्रे ईशः श्रीवत्सधामा अवतु । प्रत्यूष ईशः श्रीजनार्दनः । श्रीदामोदरः प्रभाते श्रीविश्वेश्वरोऽनुसन्ध्यम् ।। २२ ।। युगान्तानलवत्तिग्मा तीक्ष्णा नेमिर्यस्य तच्चक्रं भगवता प्रयुक्तं सत् अरिसैन्यं दन्दग्धि दन्दग्धि अतिशयेन दहति । तस्यायं स्वभाव एव, नतु तस्मात्प्रार्थनीयमित्यर्थः । यद्वा दन्दग्धीति लोण्मध्यमपुरुषः । अत्र त्वमेवंभूतं चक्रमिति स्वरूपमुक्त्वा संबोध्य प्रार्थ्यतेऽतिशयेन दहेति । कक्षं शुष्कतृणम् ।। २३ ।।

Gita Press translation – May the Lord bearing the mark of Śrīvatsa (a white curl of hair representing the foot-print of the sage Bhṛgu) on His chest, protect me in the latter (fourth) part of the night; Lord Janārdana (who is supplicated by men), carrying a sword (in His hand), at the close (during the fifth part) of the night; Dāmodara (Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa as bound at the waist with a string to a wooden mortar used for threshing paddy etc., by mother Yaśodā as a punishment for His childish pranks) at dawn and Lord Viśweśwara (the Ruler of the universe), manifested as the Time-Spirit (or Death), during both twilights (morning and evening) (22). (Addressing Sudarśana, a divine attendant of Lord Viṣṇu, who when commanded by Him, assumes the form of a discus and is employed by Him is destroying His adversaries or the enemies of His devotees,) Revolving all round, (when) hurled by the Lord in the form of a discus with a rim fierce as the fire raging at the time of universal dissolution, (pray,) completely burn, (O) completely burn (my) enemy’s host at once, (even) as fire helped by the wind consumes (a pile of) hay (23).

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
(1) अपरं रात्रे: = अपररात्रः – After mid-night (latter part of the night.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) अपर सुँ + रात्रि ङस् । By 2-2-1 पूर्वापराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनैकाधिकरणे (A पदम् formed by adding a सुँप् affix to) either ‘पूर्व’ (front/prior part) or ‘अपर’ (back/latter part) or ‘अधर’ (lower part) or ‘उत्तर’ (upper part) optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting a single substance/thing consisting of parts and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

See question 1.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘अपर सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-1 (which prescribes the compounding) the term पूर्वापराधरोत्तरम् ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘अपर सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘अपर सुँ + रात्रि ङस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) अपर + रात्रि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) अपररात्रि + अच् । By 5-4-87 अह:सर्वैकदेशसंख्यातपुण्याच्च रात्रेः – The तद्धित: affix अच् is prescribed following a तत्पुरुष: compound ending in the word ‘रात्रि’ – provided ‘रात्रि’ is preceded by one of the following – and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound –
i) ‘अहन्’
ii) ‘सर्व’
iii) a word denoting a part (of the night)
iv) ‘संख्यात’
v) ‘पुण्य’
vi) a संख्या (numeral)
vii) a अव्ययम् (indeclinable)
Note: अहर्ग्रहणं द्वन्द्वार्थम् – The mention of ‘अहन्’ in this सूत्रम् is for the purpose of a द्वन्द्व: (and not a तत्पुरुष:) compound.

(6) अपररात्रि + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘अपररात्रि’ has the designation ‘भ’ here by 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(7) अपररात्र् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= अपररात्र ।

Note: Since ‘रात्रि’ is feminine in gender, as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अपररात्र’ would also be feminine in gender, but the सूत्रम् 2-4-29 रात्राह्नाहाः पुंसि intervenes.

(8) By 2-4-29 रात्राह्नाहाः पुंसि – The gender of a द्वन्द्व:/तत्पुरुष: compound ending in either ‘रात्र’ or ‘अह्न’ or ‘अह’ is always masculine.
Note: The सिद्धान्तकौमुदी makes the point that this सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to not only the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः but also to the सूत्रम् 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌।

अपररात्रे is सप्तमी-एकवचनम् of the पुंल्लिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अपररात्र’।

(9) अपररात्र + ङि । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(10) अपररात्र + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(11) अपररात्रे । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः

Questions:

1. The compounding prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-1 पूर्वापराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनैकाधिकरणे (used in step 2) is a अपवाद: (exception) to which compound prescribed by which सूत्रम्?

2. Derive the form दन्दग्धि। Note: There are two possibilities – लँट्, प्रथम-पुरुष:, एकवचनम् or लोँट्, मध्यम-पुरुष:, एकवचनम्।

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-135 इगुपधज्ञाप्रीकिरः कः been used in the verses?

4. Can you spot the affix अण् in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix अनीयर् used in the form प्रार्थनीयम् in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should not eat anything in the latter part of the night.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-86 एरुः been used in the commentary?

2. Can you spot the affix यक् in the commentary?

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