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पुरुषोत्तम mVs

Today we will look at the form पुरुषोत्तम mVs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.26.9.

देवहूतिरुवाच
प्रकृतेः पुरुषस्यापि लक्षणं पुरुषोत्तम । ब्रूहि कारणयोरस्य सदसच्च यदात्मकम् ।। ३-२६-९ ।।
श्रीभगवानुवाच
यत्तत्त्रिगुणमव्यक्तं नित्यं सदसदात्मकम् । प्रधानं प्रकृतिं प्राहुरविशेषं विशेषवत् ।। ३-२६-१० ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तदेवं संसारिणं पुरुषं तद्धेतुं प्रकृतिं च ज्ञात्वेदानीं जगत्कारणमीश्वरं तत्प्रकृतिं च पृच्छति – प्रकृतेरिति । अस्य विश्वस्य । सदसच्च स्थूलं सूक्ष्मं च कार्यं यदात्मकं तयोः प्रकृतिपुरुषयोः ।। ९ ।। तत्र प्रकृतिं लक्षयति । यत्प्रधानं तदेप्रकृतिं प्राहुः । किं तत्प्रधानम्, स्वतोऽविशेषं विशेषवद्विशेषाणामाश्रयः । तर्हि किं ब्रह्म, न, त्रिगुणम् । किं महत्तत्वादि, न, अव्यक्तमकार्यम् । किं कालादि, न, सदसदात्मकं कार्यकारणरूपम् ।। किं जीवः प्रकृतिः, न, नित्यम् ।। १० ।।

Gita Press translation – Devahūti said: Kindly also tell me, O Supreme Person, the characteristics of Prakṛti and Puruṣa, the two causes of this universe, which in its gross and subtle forms is nothing but a manifestation of these (9). The Lord resumed: The wise speak of Pradhāna (Primordial Matter) as Prakṛti – the Pradhāna, which consists of the three Guṇas (Sattva, Rajas and Tamas), nay, which is unmanifest and eternal and exists both as cause and effect and which, though undifferentiated (in its causal state) is the source of distinct categories (such as Mahat-tattva and so on) (10).

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
(1) पुरुषाणामुत्तम: = पुरुषोत्तम: – best among men (Supreme Person).
Note: The sixth case affix in पुरुषाणाम् is as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-41 यतश्च निर्धारणम्‌

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) पुरुष आम् + उत्तम सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-10 न निर्धारणे – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-3-41 यतश्च निर्धारणम्‌ cannot be compounded. अथ कथं पुरुषोत्तम इति? Then how do we explain the compound पुरुषाणामुत्तम: = पुरुषोत्तम:? The answer is – यस्मान्निर्धार्यते, यश्चैकदेशो निर्धार्यते, यश्च निर्धारणहेतुः – एतत्त्रितयसंनिधाने सत्येवायं निषेध इति ‘५-३-५७ द्विवचनविभज्योप-’ इति सूत्रे कैयटः। Commenting on the सूत्रम् 5-3-57 द्विवचनविभज्योपपदे तरबीयसुनौ, the grammarian कैयटः (who has written a well-acclaimed commentary on the महाभाष्यम्) says that the prohibition ordained by the सूत्रम् 2-2-10 न निर्धारणे applies only when all the following three are present – i) the group/whole from which an element/part is singled out ii) the item that is singled out and iii) the cause or basis for singling out. In the example पुरुषाणामुत्तम: = पुरुषोत्तम: compounding is not prohibited because ii) is not present. If the example were to be पुरुषाणां राम उत्तम: then the सूत्रम् 2-2-10 न निर्धारणे would prohibit पुरुषाणाम् (‘पुरुष आम्’) from compounding with राम: (‘राम सुँ’)।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘पुरुष आम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘पुरुष आम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘पुरुष आम् + उत्तम सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) पुरुष + उत्तम । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) पुरुषोत्तम । By 6-1-87 आद्‍गुणः

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ पुरुषोत्तम’ is masculine since the latter member ‘उत्तम’ of the compound is used here in the masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is सम्बुद्धिः। By 2-3-49 एकवचनं सम्बुद्धि: – The nominative singular affix (‘सुँ’) when used in a vocative form gets the designation सम्बुद्धि:।

(6) (हे) पुरुषोत्तम + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। By 2-3-47 सम्बोधने च – A first case affix (‘सुँ’, ‘औ’, ‘जस्’) is used to denote ‘address’ (in addition to the meaning of the nominal stem) also. Note: सम् (सम्मुखीकृत्य) बोधनम् (ज्ञापनम्) = सम्बोधनम्। सम्बोधनम् means drawing someone’s attention (to inform him/her of something.)

(7) (हे) पुरुषोत्तम + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। The letter ‘स्’ which is an एकाल् (single letter) affix gets the अपृक्त-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-41 अपृक्त एकाल् प्रत्ययः

(8) (हे) पुरुषोत्तम । By 6-1-69 एङ्ह्रस्वात्‌ सम्बुद्धेः – Following a अङ्गम् ending in ‘एङ्’ (letter ‘ए’ or ‘ओ’) or a short vowel, a consonant is dropped if it belongs to a सम्बुद्धि: affix.

Questions:

1. The compound ‘पुरुषोत्तम’ has been used in the first verse of which chapter of the गीता?

2. The कृत् affix ल्युट् used to construct the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रधान’ (used in the form प्रधानम् (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) in the verses) is prescribed by which सूत्रम्? Note: The विग्रह: is प्रधत्तेऽत्र (सर्वम्) इति प्रधानम्।

3. In which word in the verses has the affix णिच् been elided?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले been used in the commentary?

5.  How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In our village we have the best of temples.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Only the best of students would know the answer to this question.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘हि’ (in place of the affix ‘सि’) in the form ब्रूहि?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-77 तुदादिभ्यः शः been used in the commentary?

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