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Daily Archives: July 18, 2010

आचार्यान् mAp

Today we will look at the derivation of the द्वितीया-विभक्तिः, बहुवचनम् form of the noun ‘आचार्य’ (भगवद्गीता 1.26)

1. आचार्य (gets the प्रातिपदिक संज्ञा by कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। 1.2.46, since it is a कृदन्त form)

2. आचार्य शस् (The सुँप् affixes are ordained by the sutram स्वौजसमौट्छस्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। 4.1.2, since आचार्य has a प्रातिपदिक संज्ञा. These 21 प्रत्ययs are grouped into 7 groups of 3 pratyayas and in each group, the three प्रत्ययs gets the संज्ञाs एकवचनम्, द्विवचनम्, बहुवचनम् respectively by the sutram सुपः। 1.4.103. Since our विवक्षा is to derive a द्वितीया विभक्ति बहुवचनम् form, the appropriate प्रत्यय is शस्)

3. आचार्य अस् (शकार is an इत् letter by लशक्वतद्धिते। 1.3.8 and is removed by the sutram तस्य लोपः। 1.3.9 Also, शस् gets the विभक्ति संज्ञा by the sutram विभक्तिश्च। 1.4.104 and this prevents the ending सकार to not get the इत् संज्ञा because of न विभक्तौ तुस्माः। 1.3.4, even though the rule हलन्त्यम्। 1.3.3 would have made it a candidate to get the इत् संज्ञा)

4. आचार्यास् (We have three rules that can come into operation here. First is अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः। 6.1.101 But the rule अतो गुणे। 6.1.97 stops its operation. The operation of अतो गुणे। 6.1.97 is further stopped by the rule प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः। 6.1.102, which gives the पूर्वसवर्ण दीर्घ as an एकादेश for both the अकारs)

5. आचार्यान् (By the rule तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि। 6.1.103, the शस् प्रत्यय ordained after a masculine प्रातिपदिक, following a पूर्वसवर्णदीर्घ that was ordained in the previous rule, gets a नकार आदेश. By अलोऽन्त्यस्य। 1.1.52, it replaces the ending सकार)

6. आचार्यान् (By the rule अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेऽपि। 8.4.2, the नकार gets a णकार आदेश, since it is preceded by रेफ in the same पद and the only letters between them are यकार and आकार, which are both members of the अट् प्रत्याहार. However, since the नकार is पदान्त, this णकार आदेश is stopped by the rule पदान्तस्य। 8.4.37)

Thus we get the final form आचार्यान्.

The operation of this rule can be seen in several masculine forms, not necessarily अदन्तs. For instance, look at the following भगवद्गीता lines (1.26, 1.27)

तत्रापश्यत्स्थितान्पार्थः पितॄनथ पितामहान्।
श्वशुरान् सुहृदश्चैव सेनयोरुभयोरपि।

In these lines, all the words पितॄन्, पितामहान्, आचार्यान्, मातुलान्, भ्रातॄन्, पुत्रान्, पौत्रान्, सखीन्, श्वशुरान् have the same kind of form. Here we have examples of अकारान्त and ऋकारान्त प्रातिपदिकs.

Question for the day:

1. What are the kinds of situations when you would expect this नकारादेश (by तस्माच्छसो नः पंसि। 6.1.103) to not happen?

2. What are the conditions necessary for नकार to get a णकारादेश?

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July 2010