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सूत्र-सूचिः part IV

ओ३म्

विभक्त्यर्थ-प्रकरणम् (सुबर्थ-प्रकरणम्/कारक-प्रकरणम्) ।

2-3-46 प्रातिपदिकार्थलिङ्गपरिमाणवचनमात्रे प्रथमा । Video

वृत्तिः नियतोपस्‍थितिकः प्रातिपदिकार्थः । मात्रशब्‍दस्‍य प्रत्‍येकं योगः । प्रातिपदिकार्थमात्रे लिङ्गमात्राद्याधिक्‍ये संख्‍यामात्रे च प्रथमा स्‍यात् । A first case affix (‘सुँ’, ‘औ’, ‘जस्’) is used to denote (i) only the meaning of the प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) or (ii) only the additional sense of gender or (iii) only the additional sense of measure or (iv) only number.

Note: यद्यपि लिङ्गमात्रे परिमाणमात्रे इत्येवाक्षरार्थस्तथापि प्रातिपदिकार्थं विना लिङ्गादिप्रतीतेरसम्भवादिति तदाधिक्य इत्युक्तम्।

उदाहरणानि –

प्रातिपदिकार्थमात्रे – उच्‍चैः । नीचैः । कृष्‍णः । श्रीः । ज्ञानम् ।

Note: अलिङ्गा नियतलिङ्गाश्च प्रातिपदिकार्थमात्र इत्यस्योदाहरणम् । Those प्रातिपदिकानि (nominal stems) which have no gender or have a fixed gender are examples of प्रातिपदिकार्थमात्रे (denoting only the meaning of the nominal stem.)

अनियतलिङ्गास्तु लिङ्गमात्राधिक्यस्य । Those प्रातिपदिकानि (nominal stems) which have no fixed gender are examples of लिङ्गमात्राधिक्‍ये (denoting only the additional sense of gender.)

लिङ्गमात्राधिक्‍ये – तटः, तटी, तटम् ।

परिमाणमात्राधिक्‍ये – द्रोणो व्रीहिः । द्रोणरूपं यत्परिमाणं तत्परिच्छिन्नो व्रीहिरित्यर्थ:।

वचनमात्रे – वचनं संख्‍या । एकः, द्वौ, बहवः ।

2-3-47 सम्बोधने च । Video

वृत्तिः इह प्रथमा स्‍यात् । A first case affix (‘सुँ’, ‘औ’, ‘जस्’) is used to denote ‘address’ (in addition to the meaning of the nominal stem) also. Note: सम् (सम्मुखीकृत्य) बोधनम् (ज्ञापनम्) = सम्बोधनम्। सम्बोधनम् means drawing someone’s attention (to inform him/her of something.)

उदाहरणम् – हे राम मां पालय।

1-4-49 कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म । Video

वृत्तिः कर्तुः क्रियया आप्‍तुमिष्‍टतमं कारकं कर्मसंज्ञं स्‍यात् । That कारकम् (participant in the action) which the doer most desires to obtain/reach thru the action is called कर्म (object.)
Note: कर्तु: किम्? माषेष्वश्वं बध्नाति। कर्मण ईप्सिता माषा न तु कर्तु:। तमब्ग्रहणं किम्? उपदंशेन शाकं भुङ्क्ते। Note: विवक्षात: कारकाणि भवन्ति।

उदाहरणम् – हरिं भजति । Since the doer most desires to propitiate/reach ‘हरि’ thru the action (of worship), ‘हरि’ gets the designation of कर्म as per 1-4-49.

Example continued under 2-3-2

2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया । Video

वृत्तिः अनुक्ते कर्मणि द्वितीया स्‍यात् । A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used to denote कर्म (object of the action) provided it has not been expressed otherwise.

Example continued from 1-4-49

In the sentence हरिं भजति since ‘हरि’ has the designation कर्म (object) it takes the second case affix (‘अम्’) as per 2-3-2.

यल्लिङ्गं यद्वचनं या च विभक्तिर्विशेष्यस्य ।
तल्लिङ्गं तद्वचनं सैव विभक्तिर्विशेषणस्यापि ॥
An adjective takes the same gender, number and case as that taken by the word it qualifies. For example – कृष्णं वन्दे जगद्गुरुम्।

Note: अभिहिते तु कर्मणि प्रातिपदिकार्थमात्र इति प्रथमैव – But if the object has already been expressed then a first case affix is used to denote only the meaning of the प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) – ref. 2-3-46.

अभिधानं तु प्रायेण तिङ्कृत्तद्धितसमासै:।

तिङ् – हरि: सेव्यते।

कृत् – लक्ष्म्या सेवित:।

Consider the sentence सुग्रीव: श्रीरामेण हतं वालिनं ददर्श। Here ‘वालिन्’ is the object of two actions – the action of killing (done by श्रीराम:) and the action of seeing (done by सुग्रीव:।) ‘वालिन्’ as the object of the action of killing is already described by the कृत् affix ‘क्त’ used in ‘हत’। But ‘वालिन्’ still takes the second case affix (‘अम्’) because there is nothing describing ‘वालिन्’ as an object of the action of seeing.

तद्धित: – शतेन क्रीत: शत्य: (ref. 5-1-21).

समास: – प्राप्त आनन्दो यं स प्राप्तानन्द:।

क्वचिन्निपातेनाभिधानं यथा – विषवृक्षोऽपि संवर्ध्य स्वयं छेत्तुमसाम्प्रतम्। साम्प्रतमित्यस्य हि युज्यत इत्यर्थ:।
इदं शरीरं कौन्तेय क्षेत्रमित्यभिधीयते |
एतद्यो वेत्ति तं प्राहुः क्षेत्रज्ञ इति तद्विदः || गीता 13-2||
Here ‘क्षेत्रज्ञ’ does not take the second case affix because it has already been expressed by इति।

1-4-51 अकथितं च । Video

वृत्तिः अपादानादिविशेषैरविविक्षतं कारकं कर्मसंज्ञं स्‍यात् । A कारकम् (participant in the action) which has no other specific designation like अपादानम् (ablation) etc gets the designation कर्म (object.)
Note:
दुह्‍याच्‍पच्‍दण्‍ड्रुधिप्रच्‍छिचिब्रूशासुजिमथ्‍मुषाम् ।
कर्मयुक् स्‍यादकथितं तथा स्‍यान्नीहृकृष्‍वहाम् ।।

दुहादीनां द्वादशानां तथा नीप्रभृतीनां चतुर्णां कर्मणा यद्युज्यते तदेवाकथितं कर्मेति परिगणनं कर्तव्यमित्यर्थ:।
A कारकम् (participant in the action) which connects with the primary object of any one of only the following 12 + 4 = 16 verbal roots (and their synonyms) gets the designation कर्म as long as no other specific designation like अपादानम् etc has been assigned to it –
(i) √दुह् (दुहँ प्रपूरणे २. ४)
(ii) √याच् (टुयाचृँ याच्ञायाम् १. १००१)
(iii) √पच् (डुपचँष् पाके १. ११५१)
(iv) √दण्ड् (दण्ड दण्डनिपाते १०. ४७२)
(v) √रुध् (रुधिँर् आवरणे ७. १)
(vi) √प्रच्छ् (प्रच्छँ ज्ञीप्सायाम् ६.१४९)
(vii) √चि (चिञ् चयने ५. ५)
(viii) √ब्रू (ब्रूञ् व्यक्तायां वाचि २. ३९)
(ix) √शास् (शासुँ अनुशिष्टौ २. ७०)
(x) √जि (जि अभिभवे १. १०९६)
(xi) √मन्थ् (मन्थँ विलोडने १. ४४, ९. ४७)
(xii) √मुष् (मुषँ स्तेये ९. ६६)

and

(xiii) √नी (णीञ् प्रापणे १. १०४९)
(xiv) √हृ (हृञ् हरणे १. १०४६)
(xv) √कृष् (कृषँ विलेखने १. ११४५)
(xvi) √वह् (वहँ प्रापणे १. ११५९)

Note: The above 12 + 4 = 16 verbal roots (and their synonyms) are called द्विकर्मका: because they are capable of taking two objects – a primary object (प्रधान-कर्म/मुख्य-कर्म) and a secondary object (गौण-कर्म)। The प्रधान-कर्म/मुख्य-कर्म gets the कर्म-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-49 कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म and the गौण-कर्म gets the कर्म-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-51 अकथितं च।

गौणे कर्मणि दुह्यादे:, प्रधाने नीहृकृष्‍वहाम् । In a passive construct (कर्मणि प्रयोग:) the secondary object (गौण-कर्म) of the 12 verbal roots √दुह् etc is expressed (अभिहितम्) while the primary object (प्रधान-कर्म/मुख्य-कर्म) of the 4 verbal roots √नी etc is expressed (अभिहितम्)। This is the reason for splitting the 16 verbal roots in to two classes.

उदाहरणानि –

गोर्दोग्धि पय:। अथवा – गां दोग्‍धि पयः। Passive voice (कर्मणि प्रयोग:) – गौर्दुह्यते पय:।
बलेर्याचते वसुधाम्। अथवा – बलिं याचते वसुधाम्। Passive voice (कर्मणि प्रयोग:) – बलिर्याच्यते वसुधाम्।
तण्‍डुलैरोदनं पचति। अथवा – तण्‍डुलानोदनं पचति। Passive voice (कर्मणि प्रयोग:) – तण्‍डुला ओदनं पच्यन्ते।
गर्गेभ्य: शतं दण्‍डयति। अथवा – गर्गान् शतं दण्‍डयति। Passive voice (कर्मणि प्रयोग:) – गर्गा: शतं दण्ड्यन्ते।
व्रजेऽवरुणद्धि गाम्। अथवा – व्रजमवरुणद्धि गाम्। Passive voice (कर्मणि प्रयोग:) – व्रजोऽवरुध्यते गाम्।
माणवकात्पन्‍थानं पृच्‍छति। अथवा – माणवकं पन्‍थानं पृच्‍छति। Passive voice (कर्मणि प्रयोग:) – माणवक: पन्थानं पृच्छ्यते।
वृक्षादवचिनोति फलानि। अथवा – वृक्षमवचिनोति फलानि। Passive voice (कर्मणि प्रयोग:) – वृक्षोऽवचीयते फलानि।
माणवकाय धर्मं ब्रूते शास्‍ति वा। अथवा – माणवकं धर्मं ब्रूते शास्‍ति वा। Passive voice (कर्मणि प्रयोग:) – माणवको धर्ममुच्यते/धर्मं शिष्यते वा।
शतं जयति देवदत्तात्। अथवा – शतं जयति देवदत्तम्। Passive voice (कर्मणि प्रयोग:) – शतं जीयते देवदत्त:।
सुधां क्षीरनिधेर्मथ्‍नाति। अथवा – सुधां क्षीरनिधिं मथ्‍नाति। Passive voice (कर्मणि प्रयोग:) – सुधां क्षीरनिधिर्मथ्यते।
देवदत्ताच्छतं मुष्‍णाति। अथवा – देवदत्तं शतं मुष्‍णाति। Passive voice (कर्मणि प्रयोग:) – देवदत्त: शतं मुष्यते।

ग्रामेऽजां नयति हरति कर्षति वहति वा । अथवा – ग्राममजां नयति हरति कर्षति वहति वा। कर्मणि – ग्राममजा नीयते/ह्रियते/कृष्यते/उह्यते वा।

अर्थनिबन्‍धनेयं संज्ञा । बलिं भिक्षते वसुधाम् । माणवकं धर्मं भाषतेऽभिधत्ते वक्तीत्‍यादि ।

1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ । Video

वृत्तिः गत्याद्यर्थानां शब्दकर्मकाणामकर्मकाणां चाणौ य: कर्ता स णौ कर्म स्यात् । A कर्ता (agent) of a non-causal verbal root becomes the कर्म (object) of the causal verbal root provided the verbal root either –
(i) denotes either गति: (movement) or बुद्धि: (perception) or प्रत्यवसानम् (consuming) or
(ii) has शब्द: (sound) as its object or
(iii) has no object at all.

उदाहरणम् –

शत्रूनगमयत्स्वर्गं वेदार्थं स्वानवेदयत् ।
आशयच्चामृतं देवान् वेदमध्यापयद्विधिम् ।
आसयत्सलिले पृथ्वीं य: स मे श्रीहरिर्गति: ॥

तत्त्वबोधिनी –

शत्रवः स्वर्गमगच्छन्, तान् श्रीहरिः स्वर्गमगमयदिति – गमेरण्यन्तावस्थायां शत्रवः कर्तारस्ते ण्यन्तावस्थायां कर्म अभवन्।
वेदार्थमिति । स्वे = स्वकीया वेदार्थमविदुः, तान् श्रीहरिर्वेदार्थमवेदयत्। तथा देवा अमृतम् आश्नन्, तानाशयत्। विधिः वेदमध्यैत, तं ब्रह्माणं वेदमध्यापयत् – अपाठयत्। सलिले पृथ्वी आस्त, तां यो हरिरासयत्स्थापयति स्म स हरिर्मे गतिरित्यन्वयः।

वार्तिकम् (under 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ) दृशेश्च। Video
A कर्ता (agent) of the non-causal verbal root √दृश् (दृशिँर् प्रेक्षणे १. ११४३) becomes the कर्म (object) of the causal verbal root.

उदाहरणम् – दर्शयति हरिं भक्तान्।

सूत्रे ज्ञानसामान्यार्थानामेव ग्रहणं न तु तद्विशेषार्थानामित्यनेन ज्ञाप्यते। तेन स्मरतिजिघ्रतीत्यादीनां न। स्मारयति घ्रापयति वा देवदत्तेन।

वार्तिकम् (under 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ) अदिखादिनीवहीनां प्रतिषेध:। Video
A कर्ता (agent) of the non-causal verbal root √अद् (अदँ भक्षणे २. १), √खाद् (खादृँ भक्षणे १. ५१), √नी (णीञ् प्रापणे १. १०४९) or √वह् (वहँ प्रापणे १. ११५९) does not become the कर्म (object) of the causal verbal root.

उदाहरणम् – आदयति/खादयति वान्नं बटुना। नाययति वाहयति वा भारं भृत्येन।

1-4-53 हृक्रोरन्यतरस्याम् । Video

वृत्तिः हृक्रोरणौ य: कर्ता स णौ वा कर्म स्यात् । A कर्ता (agent) of the non-causal verbal root √हृ (हृञ् हरणे १. १०४६) or √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) optionally becomes the कर्म (object) of the causal verbal root.

उदाहरणम् – हारयति कारयति वा भृत्यं भृत्येन वा कटम्।

1-4-46 अधिशीङ्स्थासां कर्म । Video

वृत्तिः अधिपूर्वाणामेषामाधार: कर्म स्यात् । That कारकम् (participant in the action) which is the location of the action denoted by any one of the following verbal roots preceded by the prefix ‘अधि’ is designated as कर्म –
(i) √शी (शीङ् स्वप्ने २. २६)
(ii) √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७)
(iii) √आस् (आसँ उपवेशने २. ११)
Note: This सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to the prior सूत्रम् 1-4-45 आधारोऽधिकरणम् which would have assigned the designation अधिकरणम् to the location of the action.

उदाहरणम् – अधिशेते/अधितिष्ठति/अध्यास्ते वा वैकुण्ठं हरि:।

1-4-47 अभिनिविशश्च । Video

वृत्तिः अभिनीत्येतत्सङ्घातपूर्वस्य विशतेराधार: कर्म स्यात् । That कारकम् (participant in the action) which is the location of the action denoted by the verbal root √विश् (विशँ प्रवेशने ६. १६०) preceded by the combination of prefixes ‘अभि + नि’ is designated as कर्म।
Note: This सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to the सूत्रम् 1-4-45 आधारोऽधिकरणम् which would have assigned the designation अधिकरणम् to the location of the action.

उदाहरणम् – अभिनिविशते सन्मार्गम्।

Note: ‘1-4-44 परिक्रयणे सम्प्रदानमन्यतरस्याम्’ इति सूत्रादिह मण्डूकप्लुत्याऽन्यतरस्यांग्रहणमनुवर्त्य व्यवस्थितविभाषाश्रयणात्क्वचिन्न। पापेऽभिनिवेश:।

1-4-48 उपान्वध्याङ्वसः । Video

वृत्तिः उपादिपूर्वस्य वसतेराधार: कर्म स्यात् । That कारकम् (participant in the action) which is the location of the action denoted by the verbal root √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०) along with the prefix ‘उप’ or ‘अनु’ or ‘अधि’ or ‘आङ्’ is designated as कर्म।
Note: This सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to the सूत्रम् 1-4-45 आधारोऽधिकरणम् which would have assigned the designation अधिकरणम् to the location of the action.

उदाहरणम् – उपवसति/अनुवसति/अधिवसति/आवसति वा वैकुण्ठं हरि:।

वार्तिकम् (under 1-4-48 उपान्वध्याङ्वसः) अभुक्त्यर्थस्य न। Video

The सूत्रम् 1-4-48 उपान्वध्याङ्वसः does not apply in the case where the verbal root denotes ‘fasting.’

उदाहरणम् – वने उपवसति।

वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया in the महाभाष्यम्) उभसर्वतसोः कार्या धिगुपर्यादिषु त्रिषु। द्वितीयाम्रेडितान्तेषु ततोऽन्यत्रापि दृश्यते। Video
Note: आम्रेडितान्तेषु = कृतद्विर्वचनेषु।

A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with ‘उभयत:’ or ‘सर्वत:’ or ‘धिक्’ or the duplicated terms ‘उपर्युपरि’, ‘अध्यधि’ or ‘अधोऽध:’ and may be seen being used in other instances also. Note: The duplication in ‘उपर्युपरि’, ‘अध्यधि’ and ‘अधोऽध:’ is by 8-1-7 उपर्यध्यधसः सामीप्ये।
Note: This वार्तिकम् prescribes a उपपद-विभक्ति: – a case affix added to a word on account of the presence of another word (not possessing any verbal activity) requiring the addition. On the other hand 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया prescribes a कारक-विभक्ति: – a case affix governed by a verb or a verbal derivative.
Note: The परिभाषा – उपपदविभक्ते: कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी states that the force of a कारक-विभक्ति: is greater than that of a उपपद-विभक्ति:। For example शिवं नमस्करोमि। Here 2-3-2 over-rules 2-3-16.

उभयत: कृष्णं गोपा: Cowherds on both sides of Śrī Kṛṣṇa
सर्वत: कृष्णम् On all sides of Śrī Kṛṣṇa
धिक् कृष्णाभक्तम् Shame on the non-devotee of Śrī Kṛṣṇa
उपर्युपरि लोकं हरि: Lord Viṣṇu is just above the world
अध्यधि लोकम् Just above the world
अधोऽधो लोकम् Just below the world

ततोऽन्यत्रापि दृश्यते –

ऋतेऽपि त्वां न भविष्यन्ति सर्वे येऽवस्थिताः प्रत्यनीकेषु योधाः || गीता 11-32|| Even without you all those warriors arrayed in the enemy’s camp shall cease to be.

वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया in the महाभाष्यम्) अभितःपरितःसमयानिकषाहाप्रतियोगेऽपि। Video
Note: ‘अभितःपरितः’ इत्यत्राद्यस्योभयत इत्यर्थोऽन्त्यस्य सर्वत इत्यर्थ इति ‘५-३-९ पर्यभिभ्यां च’ इत्यत्र भाष्ये। In the भाष्यम् under the सूत्रम् 5-3-9 पर्यभिभ्यां च it is stated that here the meaning of अभितः is उभयतः (on both sides) and that of परितः is सर्वतः (on all sides.)

A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with ‘अभितः’ or ‘परितः’ or ‘समया’ or ‘निकषा’ or ‘हा’ or ‘प्रति’।

अभितः कृष्णम् On both sides of Śrī Kṛṣṇa
परितः कृष्णम् On all sides of Śrī Kṛṣṇa
ग्रामं समया Near the village
निकषा लङ्काम् Near Laṅkā
हा कृष्णाभक्तम् (तस्य शोच्यते) Sorry for the non-devotee of Śrī Kṛṣṇa
बभुक्षितं न प्रतिभाति किञ्चित् Nothing occurs to one who is hungry (desires to eat) – which means that one who is hungry cannot think of anything (but food.) Note: Here प्रति is a उपसर्ग: (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे) and not a कर्मप्रवचनीय: (ref. 1-4-90 लक्षणेत्थम्भूताख्यानभागवीप्सासु प्रतिपर्यनवः।) Hence 2-3-8 does not apply here.

1-4-90 लक्षणेत्थम्भूताख्यानभागवीप्सासु प्रतिपर्यनवः । Video

वृत्तिः एतेष्वर्थेषु विषयभूतेषु प्रत्यादय: कर्मप्रवचनीय-सञ्ज्ञा: स्यु: । The terms ‘प्रति’, ‘परि’ and ‘अनु’ get the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: in the context where either लक्षणम् (mark/aim) or इत्थम्भूताख्यानम् (description of someone/something being thus) or भाग: (portion/share) or वीप्सा (pervasion/entirety) is denoted.
Note: कर्मप्रवचनीय: is a technical term used in connection with a preposition/prefix (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः) which showed a verbal activity formerly but at the present time it does not show it; the word is used as a technical term in grammar in connection with prefixes which are not used along with a verbal root.
Note: गत्युपसर्गसञ्ज्ञापवाद: – The designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: is a अपवाद: (exception) to the designation गति: (ref. 1-4-60 गतिश्च) and उपसर्ग: (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे।)
Note: The अधिकार: of 1-4-83 कर्मप्रवचनीयाः runs down to 1-4-98 विभाषा कृञि।

उदाहरणानि –

In the following examples ‘प्रति’/’परि’/’अनु’ gets the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: by 1-4-90

लक्षणे – वृक्षं प्रति पर्यनु वा वोद्योतते विद्युत् ।
इत्थम्भूताख्याने – भक्तो विष्णुं प्रति पर्यनु वा ।
भागे – लक्ष्मीर्हरिं प्रति पर्यनु वा । (हरेर्भाग इत्यर्थ:।)
वीप्‍सायाम् – वृक्षं वृक्षं प्रति पर्यनु वा सिञ्चति । Here वीप्‍सा is denoted by the duplication (by 8-1-4 नित्यवीप्सयोः) and not by ‘प्रति’/’परि’/’अनु’। The purpose of assigning the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: (by 1-4-90) to ‘प्रति’/’परि’/’अनु’ is to prevent 8-3-65 from substituting the letter ‘ष्’ in place of the letter ‘स्’ of सिञ्चति।

Examples continued under 2-3-8

2-3-8 कर्मप्रवचनीययुक्ते द्वितीया । Video

वृत्तिः एतेन योगे द्वितीया स्यात् । A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with a कर्मप्रवचनीय: (ref. 1-4-83 to 1-4-98.)

Examples continued from 1-4-90

लक्षणे – वृक्षं प्रति पर्यनु वा वोद्योतते विद्युत् । ‘वृक्ष’ takes the second case affix by 2-3-8
इत्थम्भूताख्याने – भक्तो विष्णुं प्रति पर्यनु वा । ‘विष्णु’ takes the second case affix by 2-3-8
भागे – लक्ष्मीर्हरिं प्रति पर्यनु वा । (हरेर्भाग इत्यर्थ:।) ‘हरि’ takes the second case affix by 2-3-8
वीप्‍सायाम् – वृक्षं वृक्षं प्रति पर्यनु वा सिञ्चति । Here वीप्‍सा is denoted by the duplication (by 8-1-4 नित्यवीप्सयोः) and not by ‘प्रति’/’परि’/’अनु’। The purpose of assigning the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: (by 1-4-90) to ‘प्रति’/’परि’/’अनु’ is to prevent 8-3-65 from substituting the letter ‘ष्’ in place of the letter ‘स्’ of सिञ्चति। For ‘वृक्ष’ to take the second case affix the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: (for ‘प्रति’/’परि’/’अनु’) is not required because the second case affix is already available by 2-3-2.

1-4-91 अभिरभागे । Video

वृत्तिः भागवर्जे लक्षणादावभि: कर्मप्रवचनीय-सञ्ज्ञ: स्यात् । The term ‘अभि’ gets the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: in the context where either लक्षणम् (mark/aim) or इत्थम्भूताख्यानम् (description of someone/something being thus) or वीप्सा (pervasion/entirety) is denoted. Note: 1-4-90 mentions लक्षणेत्थम्भूताख्यानभागवीप्सासु। After removing ‘भाग’ from the list, what remains is लक्षणेत्थम्भूताख्यानवीप्सासु। Hence अभागे means लक्षणेत्थम्भूताख्यानवीप्सासु।

उदाहरणानि –

In the following examples ‘अभि’ gets the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: by 1-4-91

लक्षणे – भवन्ति सम्पदं दैवीमभिजातस्य भारत || गीता 16-3|| ‘दैवी’ and ‘सम्पद्’ take the second case affix by 2-3-8
इत्थम्भूताख्याने – भक्तो हरिमभि । ‘हरि’ takes the second case affix by 2-3-8
वीप्‍सायाम् – देवं देवमभि सिञ्चति । Here वीप्‍सा is denoted by the duplication (by 8-1-4 नित्यवीप्सयोः) and not by ‘अभि’। The purpose of assigning the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: (by 1-4-91) to ‘अभि’ is to prevent 8-3-65 from substituting the letter ‘ष्’ in place of the letter ‘स्’ of सिञ्चति। For ‘देव’ to take the second case affix the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: (for ‘अभि’) is not required because the second case affix is already available by 2-3-2.

2-3-4 अन्तरान्तरेण युक्ते । Video

वृत्तिः आभ्यां योगे द्वितीया स्यात् । A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with ‘अन्तरा’ or ‘अन्तरेण’। Note: As per the महाभाष्यम्, the terms ‘अन्तरा’ and ‘अन्तरेण’ used in 2-3-4 have the निपात-सञ्ज्ञा। They also have the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-37 स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम्। (Here अन्तरेण is not the instrumental singular of ‘अन्तर’)।

उदाहरणे –

अन्तरा/अन्तरेण त्वां च मां च कमण्डलु: The water pot is between you and me.
अन्तरेण हरिं न सुखम् There is no happiness without Hari.

2-3-5 कालाध्वनोरत्यन्तसंयोगे । Video

वृत्तिः इह द्वितीया स्यात् । A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) denoting (measure of) time or (measure of) path/road when continuous connection (with a quality or action or thing) is meant.

उदाहरणानि –

मासमधीते – (Someone) studies continuously for a month
क्रोशं कुटिला नदी – The river is winding for the entire distance of one Krośa (approx. two miles.)
क्रोशं पर्वत: – The mountain covers the entire distance of one Krośa (approx. two miles.)

अत्यन्तसंयोगे किम्?

मासस्य द्विरधीते – (Someone) studies twice during a month
क्रोशस्यैकदेशे पर्वत: – The mountain covers one part of the distance of one Krośa (approx. two miles.)

वार्तिकम् (under 2-4-18 अव्ययीभावश्च in the काशिका) क्रियाविशेषणानां कर्मत्वं नपुंसकत्वमेकवचनान्तत्वं चेष्यते। Video

Adverbs are treated as having the designation कर्म (object) and are used in the neuter singular.

उदाहरणे –

मन्दं गच्छति (Someone) goes slowly. Here ‘मन्द’ gets the designation ‘कर्म’ by the above वार्तिकम् and hence takes the second case ending (अम्) by 2-3-2.
सूक्ष्ममीक्षते (Someone) observes minutely. Here ‘सूक्ष्म’ gets the designation ‘कर्म’ by the above वार्तिकम् and hence takes the second case ending (अम्) by 2-3-2.

1-4-42 साधकतमं करणम् । Video

वृत्तिः क्रियासिद्धौ प्रकृष्‍टोपकारकं करणसञ्ज्ञं स्‍यात् । That कारकम् (participant in the action) which is most effective/helpful in accomplishing the action gets the designation करणम् (instrument.) Note: The instrument is the most effective/helpful in accomplishing the action because immediately after the use of the instrument the action is accomplished.

विवक्षात: कारकाणि भवन्ति – When the speaker wants to express the eye as the doer he says चक्षु: पश्यति । On the other hand when he wants to express the eye as the instrument he says चक्षुषा पश्यति ।

उदाहरणम् –

रामेण बाणेन हतो वाली। ‘बाण’ gets the designation करणम् by 1-4-42.

Example continued under 2-3-18

2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया । Video

वृत्तिः अनभिहिते कर्तरि करणे च तृतीया स्‍यात् । A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) is used to denote कर्ता (the doer of the action) as well as करणम् (the instrument of the action) provided the doer/instrument has not been expressed otherwise.

Example continued from 1-4-42

रामेण बाणेन हतो वाली। Here ‘राम’ has the कर्तृ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-54 and ‘बाण’ has the करण-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-42. The participle हत: has expressed the object वाली and not ‘राम’। The instrument ‘बाण’ also has not been expressed. Hence ‘राम’ as well as ‘बाण’ takes the third case affix (‘टा’) by 2-3-18.

अनभिहिते किम्?

हरि: करोति । Here the कर्ता ‘हरि’ is already expressed by the verb करोति and hence 2-3-18 cannot apply because the condition अनभिहिते is not satisfied. As per 2-3-46, ‘हरि’ takes the first case affix (‘सुँ’) in the sense of प्रातिपदिकार्थमात्रे।

Similarly, in पचतीति पाचक: the कर्ता ‘पाचक’ is already expressed by the कृत् affix ‘ण्वुल्’ (prescribed by 3-1-133 ण्वुल्तृचौ) and hence 2-3-18 cannot apply and the first case affix (‘सुँ’) is used (as per 2-3-46.)

खनत्यनेनेति खनित्रम् । Here the करणम् ‘खनित्र’ is already expressed by the कृत् affix ‘इत्र’ (prescribed by 3-2-184 अर्तिलूधूसूखनसहचर इत्रः) and hence 2-3-18 cannot apply because the condition अनभिहिते is not satisfied. As per 2-3-46, ‘खनित्र’ takes the first case affix (‘सुँ’) in the sense of प्रातिपदिकार्थमात्रे।

Similarly, in ऊढो रथो येन स: = ऊढरथोऽनड्वान् the करणम् ‘ऊढरथ’ is already expressed by the बहुव्रीहि: compound and hence 2-3-18 cannot apply and the first case affix (‘सुँ’) is used (as per 2-3-46.)

वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया) प्रकृत्यादिभ्य उपसङ्ख्यानम्। Video

A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) is used following the प्रातिपदिकानि (nominal stems) ‘प्रकृति’ etc.

उदाहरणानि –

प्रकृत्या चारु: Naturally charming
प्रायेण वैयाकरण: A grammarian for the most part
गोत्रेण गार्ग्य: Gārgya by family name
समेन धावति Runs evenly
विषमेन धावति Runs unevenly
साहस्रेणाश्वान् क्रीणाति Buys horses a thousand at a time
सुखेन याति Goes happily

आकृति-गणोऽयम्। The list ‘प्रकृति’ etc is a आकृति-गण: – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations.

तेन ‘नाम्ना सुतीक्ष्णश्चरितेन दान्त:’ इत्यादि सिद्धम्। This explains usages such as ‘नाम्ना सुतीक्ष्ण: Sutīkṣṇa by name’ and ‘चरितेन दान्त: naturally restrained.’

2-3-6 अपवर्गे तृतीया । Video

वृत्तिः अपवर्ग: फलप्राप्तिस्तस्यां द्योत्यायां कालाध्वनोरत्यन्तसंयोगे तृतीया स्‍यात् । A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) denoting (measure of) time or (measure of) path/road when there is continuous connection with an action and completion of the action (i.e. attainment of the result) is meant.
Note: The third case affix prescribed by this सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to the second case affix prescribed by the prior सूत्रम् 2-3-5 कालाध्वनोरत्यन्तसंयोगे।

उदाहरणम् –

अह्ना क्रोशेन वानुवाकोऽधीत: An Anuvāka (section of the Veda) was continuously studied and completed in one day or in (traveling the distance of) one Krośa (approx. two miles.)

अपवर्गे किम्?

मासमधीतो नायात:। An Anuvāka (section of the Veda) was continuously studied for one month but the study was incomplete. (The student did not master the Anuvāka.)

2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने । Video

वृत्तिः सहार्थेन युक्ते अप्रधाने तृतीया स्‍यात् । A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with सह or a synonym of सह, provided the प्रातिपदिकम् does not denote the primary (agent.)
Note: ‘सहेनाप्रधाने’ इत्येव वाच्ये युक्तग्रहणादर्थग्रहणमित्याह– सहार्थेनेति। सहार्थकशब्देन सह–साकं–सार्धमित्यादिनेत्यर्थः। If पाणिनि: did not want to include the synonyms of सह he could have composed the सूत्रम् as सहेनाप्रधाने। The fact that he has included युक्ते in the सूत्रम् tells us that it applies not only when सह itself is used but also when a synonym of सह is used. The synonyms of सह are साकम्, सार्धम्, समम् etc.
Note: पितुरेवागमनक्रियासम्बन्धः शाब्दः, पुत्रस्य त्वार्थ इत्येतावतैवास्याप्राधान्यमुच्यते। The father connects explicitly with the action of coming. On the other hand the son connects with the action only thru interpretation (of the meaning of the sentence.) This alone is the basis of deciding that the father is primary and the son secondary in this sentence.

उदाहरणम् –

पुत्रेण सहागत: पिता The father has come with his son.

एवं साकंसार्धंसमंयोगेऽपि – पुत्रेण साकमागत:/सार्धमागत:/सममागत: पिता The father has come with his son.

विनापि तद्योगं तृतीया। ‘1-2-65 वृद्धो यूना तल्लक्षणश्चेदेव विशेषः’ इति निर्देशात्। The third case affix may be used even without explicit connection with सह because पाणिनि: has himself used it in the word यूना in the सूत्रम् 1-2-65 which does not explicitly contain the word सह।

2-3-20 येनाङ्गविकारः । Video

वृत्तिः येनाङ्गेन विकृतेनाङ्गिनो विकारो लक्ष्यते ततस्तृतीया स्यात् । A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes a deformed body-part by which a deformation of the body is indicated.

उदाहरणम् –

अक्ष्णा काण: Blind in one eye

अक्षिसम्बन्धिकाणत्वविशिष्ट इत्यर्थ: The meaning of the above sentence is – A person who is characterized by blindness relating to one eye.

Similarly,

पादेन खञ्ज: Crippled in one leg

अङ्गविकार: किम्?

अक्षि काणमस्य – This person’s one eye is blind.

2-3-21 इत्थंभूतलक्षणे । Video

वृत्तिः कञ्चित्प्रकारं प्राप्तस्य लक्षणे तृतीया स्यात् । A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes a characteristic mark indicating that someone/something is thus.

उदाहरणम् –

जटाभिस्तापस: An ascetic recognized by his matted hair. (An ascetic whose peculiarity (characteristic mark) is his matted hair.)

जटाज्ञाप्यतापसत्वविशिष्ट इत्यर्थ: The meaning of the above sentence is – A person who is characterized by asceticism which is recognized by his matted hair.

Similarly,

कमण्डलुना छात्र: A student recognized by his water pot. (A student whose peculiarity (characteristic mark) is his water pot.)

2-3-23 हेतौ । Video

वृत्तिः हेत्वर्थे तृतीया स्यात् । A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes a cause/reason (for a thing or quality or action.)
Note: The term हेतु: used in this सूत्रम् has the meaning of cause/reason as used in popular parlance and is not to be confused with the technical term हेतु: defined by 1-4-55. That which is designated as हेतु: by 1-4-55 is also designated as कर्ता। Hence the third case affix is already available by 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया। 2-3-23 is not required there.
Note: The non-technical term हेतु: is a cause/reason for a thing or a quality or an action and it does not directly participate in the action. On the other hand a करणम् – being a कारकम् – is only possible when there is an action and it always directly participates in the action.

उदाहरणानि –

दण्डेन घट: A pot (made possible) on account of a stick
पुण्येन गौरवर्ण: Fair complexioned on account of merit
पुण्येन दृष्टो हरि: Lord Viṣṇu was seen on account of merit

फलमपीह हेतु: A purpose is also considered to be a हेतु: here.

अध्ययनेन वसति Someone resides (at school) for the purpose of studying.

वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-23 हेतौ in the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी) गम्यमानापि क्रिया कारकविभक्तौ प्रयोजिका। Video

Even an implied (not explicitly mentioned) action can dictate a case affix following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes a participant in the (implied) action.

उदाहरणम् –

अलं श्रमेण। Enough with exertion. (Stop exerting.)
साध्यं नास्तीत्यर्थ:। Here अलम् stands for साध्यं नास्ति – There is nothing to be accomplished (by exertion.)
साधनक्रियां प्रति श्रम: करणम्। श्रम: is the instrument with regard to the (implied) action of accomplishing. (Hence it takes the third case affix by 2-3-18.)

2-3-32 पृथग्विनानानाभिस्तृतीयान्यतरस्याम्‌ । Video

वृत्तिः एभिर्योगे तृतीया स्यात् पञ्चमीद्वितीये च । A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) or a fifth case affix (‘ङसिँ’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) or a second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with पृथक्, विना or नाना।
Note: अन्यतरस्यांग्रहणं समुच्चयार्थम्। पञ्चमीद्वितीये चानुवर्तेते। The mention of the term अन्यतरस्याम् in this सूत्रम् is for the purpose of accumulation (of the fifth and second case affixes along with the third case affix.) The अनुवृत्ति: of पञ्चमी (from 2-3-28) and द्वितीया (from 2-3-31) comes in to this सूत्रम्।

उदाहरणानि –

पृथक्/विना/नाना रामेण रामात् रामं वा न सुखम् – There is no happiness without (separate from) Śrī Rāma.

1-4-32 कर्मणा यमभिप्रैति स सम्प्रदानम् । Video

वृत्तिः दानस्‍य* कर्मणा यमभिप्रैति स सम्‍प्रदानसञ्ज्ञः स्‍यात् । That कारकम् (participant in the action) whom the doer wishes to connect/endow with the object of an action is called सम्‍प्रदानम् (recipient.)
*Note: As per the वृत्ति:, in order for this सूत्रम् to apply the action has to be that of giving. But according to the महाभाष्यम् we may apply this सूत्रम् even when the action is other than that of giving.

उदाहरणे –

उपाध्यायाय गां ददाति – (Someone) gives a cow to the teacher. ‘उपाध्याय’ gets the designation सम्‍प्रदानम् by 1-4-32
मित्राय पत्रं लिखति – (Someone) writes a letter to his friend. ‘मित्र’ gets the designation सम्‍प्रदानम् by 1-4-32

Examples continued under 2-3-13

2-3-13 चतुर्थी सम्प्रदाने । Video

वृत्तिः अनुक्ते सम्प्रदाने चतुर्थी स्‍यात् । A fourth case affix (‘ङे’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used to denote the सम्‍प्रदानम् (recipient) provided it has not been expressed otherwise.

Examples continued from 1-4-32

उपाध्यायाय गां ददाति – Since ‘उपाध्याय’ has the designation सम्‍प्रदानम् it takes the fourth case affix (‘ङे’) by 2-3-13
मित्राय पत्रं लिखति – Since ‘मित्र’ has the designation सम्‍प्रदानम् it takes the fourth case affix (‘ङे’) by 2-3-13

अनभिहित इत्येव –

दीयतेऽस्मै = दानीयो विप्र:। The affix अनीयर् (in दानीय:) denotes the recipient (सम्प्रदानम्)। This usage is justified by taking recourse to the बहुलम् mentioned in 3-3-113 कृत्यल्युटो बहुलम्। Since the recipient (सम्प्रदानम्) is already expressed by the कृत् affix अनीयर्, we cannot apply 2-3-13 and ‘दानीय’ does not take the fourth case affix.

दत्तं भोजनं यस्मै स दत्तभोजन: सेवक:। Here the recipient (सम्प्रदानम्) is already expressed by the समास: and hence 2-3-13 cannot apply and ‘दत्तभोजन’ does not take the fourth case affix.

वार्तिकम् (under 1-4-32 कर्मणा यमभिप्रैति स सम्प्रदानम्) क्रियया यमभिप्रैति सोऽपि सम्प्रदानम्। Video
That कारकम् (participant in the action) for (aiming at) whom/which the doer does an action is also called सम्‍प्रदानम् (recipient.)

उदाहरणे –

युद्धाय सन्नह्यते (Someone) gets ready for war.
श्राद्धाय निगर्हते (Someone) despises (aiming at) the Śrāddha ceremony.

वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-13 चतुर्थी सम्प्रदाने) कॢपि सम्पद्यमाने चतुर्थी वाच्या। Video
When the verbal root √कॢप् (कृपूँ सामर्थ्ये १. ८६६) or any of its synonyms is employed, a fourth case affix (‘ङे’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes that which is produced/effected (brought about.)

उदाहरणे –

भक्तिर्ज्ञानाय कल्पते/सम्पद्यते/जायते इत्यादि Devotion ‘produces’/’brings about’/’is conducive to’ knowledge.
कल्पसे रक्षणाय You bring about (our) protection. (You are fit/adequate for protecting (us.))

वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-13 चतुर्थी सम्प्रदाने) हितयोगे चतुर्थी वाच्या। Video
A fourth case affix (‘ङे’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which is in connection with the word ‘हित’ (beneficial.)
Note: चतुर्थीसमासविधानाज्ज्ञापकादेतल्लब्धमिति भाव:। एवं सुखयोगेऽपि चतुर्थी बोध्या। The fact that compounding between a word which ends in a fourth case affix and the word ‘हित’/’सुख’ is prescribed (by 2-1-36 चतुर्थी तदर्थार्थबलिहितसुखरक्षितैः) indicates that a fourth case affix is to be used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which is in connection with the word ‘हित’/’सुख’।

उदाहरणम् –

गोभ्यो हितम्/सुखम् Beneficial/pleasant for the cows.

1-4-33 रुच्यर्थानां प्रीयमाणः । Video

वृत्तिः रुच्यर्थानां धातूनां प्रयोगे प्रीयमाणोऽर्थ: सम्प्रदानं स्यात् । When the verbal root √रुच् (रुचँ दीप्तावभिप्रीतौ च १. ८४७) or any of its synonyms is employed, that कारकम् (participant in the action) who is being pleased gets the designation सम्‍प्रदानम् (recipient.)
Note: In the absence of this सूत्रम् the designation कर्म (by 1-4-49) would have applied.
Note: यद्यपि रुचिर्दीप्तावपि पठ्यते तथापीह दीप्तिर्न विवक्षिता – Even though the verbal root √रुच् is also used in the sense of दीप्तौ (to shine) that meaning is not intended here.

उदाहरणम् –

हरये रोचते भक्ति: Devotion is pleasing unto Lord Viṣṇu. (Lord Viṣṇu is pleased by devotion.) ‘हरि’ gets the designation सम्‍प्रदानम् by 1-4-33 and hence takes the fourth case affix (‘ङे’) by 2-3-13.

Similarly,
देवदत्ताय स्वदते मोदक: A sweetmeat is pleasing unto Devadatta. (Devadatta likes a sweetmeat.)

प्रीयमाण: किम्?

देवदत्ताय रोचते मोदक: पथि A sweetmeat is pleasing unto Devadatta on the path. (The one being pleased is Devadatta and not the path. Hence ‘देवदत्त’ alone gets the designation सम्‍प्रदानम्। ‘पथिन्’ does not.)

1-4-35 धारेरुत्तमर्णः । Video

वृत्तिः धारयते: प्रयोगे उत्तमर्ण: सम्प्रदानसञ्ज्ञ: स्यात् । When a causative form of the verbal root √धृ (धृङ् अवस्थाने ६. १४८) is employed, that कारकम् (participant in the action) who is the creditor gets the designation सम्‍प्रदानम् (recipient.)
Note: उत्तमर्णो धनस्वामी – उत्तमर्ण: refers to one who is the creditor (the owner of the money.)

उदाहरणम् –

भक्ताय धारयति मोक्षं हरि: Lord Viṣṇu ‘owes’ liberation to the devotee. ‘भक्त’ gets the designation सम्‍प्रदानम् by 1-4-35 and hence takes the fourth case affix (‘ङे’) by 2-3-13.
Note: मोक्षोऽप्यवश्यदेयत्वेन ऋणं भवति – Liberation is also considered a ‘debt’ in the sense that it has to be given (to the devotee.)

उत्तमर्ण: किम्?

देवदत्ताय शतं धारयति ग्रामे (Someone) owes a hundred to Devadatta in the village. (The one being owed is Devadatta and not the village. Hence ‘देवदत्त’ alone gets the designation सम्‍प्रदानम्। ‘ग्राम’ does not.)

1-4-36 स्पृहेरीप्सितः । Video

वृत्तिः स्पृहयते: प्रयोगे इष्ट: सम्प्रदानं स्यात् । When the verbal root √स्पृह (स्पृह ईप्सायाम् १०. ४१०) is employed, that कारकम् (participant in the action) which is desired (by the agent) gets the designation सम्‍प्रदानम् (recipient.)

उदाहरणम् –

पुष्पेभ्य: स्पृहयति (Someone) longs for flowers. ‘पुष्प’ gets the designation सम्‍प्रदानम् by 1-4-36 and hence takes the fourth case affix (‘भ्यस्’) by 2-3-13

ईप्सित: किम्?

पुष्पेभ्यो वने स्पृहयति (Someone) longs for flowers in the forest. (The ones being longed for are the flowers and not the forest. Hence ‘पुष्प’ alone gets the designation सम्‍प्रदानम्। ‘वन’ does not.)

1-4-37 क्रुधद्रुहेर्ष्यासूयार्थानां यं प्रति कोपः । Video

वृत्तिः क्रुधाद्यर्थानां प्रयोगे यं प्रति कोप: स सम्प्रदानसञ्ज्ञ: स्यात् । When the verbal root √क्रुध् (क्रुधँ क्रोधे (कोपे) ४. ८६) or √द्रुह् (द्रुहँ जिघांसायाम् ४. ९४) or √ईर्ष्य् (ईर्ष्यँ ईर्ष्यार्थ: १. ५८८) or √असूय (derived by using 3-1-27 कण्ड्वादिभ्यो यक्) or a synonym of any one of these is employed, that कारकम् (participant in the action) against whom the ‘anger’ is directed gets the designation सम्‍प्रदानम् (recipient.)

उदाहरणम् –

देवदत्ताय कुध्यति/द्रुह्यति/ईर्ष्यति/असूयति (Someone) is angry/bears malice towards/is jealous of/invents faults with Devadatta. ‘देवदत्त’ gets the designation सम्‍प्रदानम् by 1-4-37 and hence takes the fourth case affix (‘ङे’) by 2-3-13

यं प्रति कोप: किम्?

भार्यामीर्ष्यति मैनामन्यो द्राक्षीदिति – (Someone) is jealous of his wife – meaning that (someone) does not want anyone else to see his wife.
नात्र भार्यां प्रति कोप:, किन्तु परैर्दृश्यमानां तां न सहत इत्येव। Here the anger is not directed towards the wife. Someone is just not able to tolerate her being seen by others. (So the anger is really directed towards others who see her.) Hence ‘भार्या’ does not get the designation सम्‍प्रदानम्।

2-3-12 गत्यर्थकर्मणि द्वितीयाचतुर्थ्यौ चेष्टायामनध्वनि । Video

वृत्तिः अध्वभिन्ने गत्यर्थानां कर्मणि द्वितीयाचतुर्थ्यौ स्तश्चेष्टायाम् । A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) or a fourth case affix (‘ङे’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used to denote the कर्म (object) of a verb implying motion provided the motion is physical and the object is not ‘अध्वन्’ (‘road’) or one of its synonyms.
Note: अध्वन्यर्थग्रहणम् – the exclusion अनध्वनि applies not just to the single प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अध्वन्’ but also to any प्रातिपदिकम् used in the sense of ‘अध्वन्’ (‘road.’)

उदाहरणम् –

ग्रामं ग्रामाय वा गच्छति/व्रजति (Someone) goes to the village.

चेष्टायां किम्?

मनसा हरिं व्रजति (Someone) mentally goes to Lord Viṣṇu.

अनध्वनीति किम्?

पन्थानं गच्छति – (Someone) goes on the road.

गन्त्राधिष्ठितेऽध्वन्येवायं निषेध:। The prohibition (against using a fourth case affix when the object is ‘अध्वन्’ (‘road’) or one of its synonyms) only applies when the goer actually travels on the road. यदातूत्पथात्पन्था एवाक्रमितुमिष्यते तदा चतुर्थी भवत्येव। But when someone desires to approach the right road from a wrong road, the fourth case ending certainly applies. उत्पथेन पन्थानं/पथे गच्छति (Someone) goes to the right road by the wrong road.

2-3-14 क्रियार्थोपपदस्य च कर्मणि स्थानिनः । Video

वृत्तिः क्रियार्था क्रिया उपपदं यस्य तस्य स्थानिनोऽप्रयुज्यमानस्य तुमुन: कर्मणि चतुर्थी स्यात् । A fourth case affix (‘ङे’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used to denote the कर्म (object) of an implied (but not actually expressed) verbal participle ending in the affix ‘तुमुँन्’/’ण्वुल्’ (prescribed by 3-3-10 तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम्‌) which is in conjunction with another action done for the sake of the implied (future) action.
Note: द्वितीयापवादोऽयम् – The fourth case affix prescribed by this सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to the second case affix which would have been prescribed by 2-3-2.

उदाहरणम् –

फलेभ्यो याति। (फलान्याहर्तुं/फलान्याहारको यातीत्यर्थ:।) (Someone) goes for fruits – meaning that someone goes to fetch fruits.

नमस्कुर्मो नृसिंहाय नृसिंहमनुकूलयितुमित्यर्थ:। We offer salutations to Lord Nṛsiṁha – meaning that we offer salutations to propitiate Lord Nṛsiṁha.
2-3-16 नमःस्वस्ति -‘ इत्यादिना तु न चतुर्थी, उपपदविभक्ते: कारकविभक्तिबलीयस्त्वात्। The सूत्रम् 2-3-16 cannot be invoked here to justify the fourth case affix used in नृसिंहाय। The reason is that 2-3-16 prescribes a उपपदविभक्ति: while 2-3-2 prescribes a कारकविभक्ति: and since a कारकविभक्ति: has greater force than that of a उपपदविभक्ति:, 2-3-2 over-rules 2-3-16.

2-3-16 नमःस्वस्तिस्वाहास्वधालंवषड्योगाच्च । Video

वृत्तिः एभिर्योगे चतुर्थी स्यात् । A fourth case affix (‘ङे’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with ‘नमः’ or ‘स्वस्ति’ or ‘स्वाहा’ or ‘स्वधा’ or ‘अलम्’ or ‘वषट्’।
Note: ‘नमः’, ‘स्वाहा’, ‘स्वधा’, ‘अलम्’ and ‘वषट्’ are indeclinables. ‘स्वस्ति’ is used both as an indeclinable as well as a feminine/neuter noun.

उदाहरणानि –

हरये नम: Salutations to Lord Viṣṇu

But –

नमस्करोति देवान् (Someone) offers salutations to the gods.
Here 2-3-2 (which prescribes a कारकविभक्ति:) over-rules 2-3-16 (which prescribes a उपपदविभक्ति:) as per the परिभाषा – उपपदविभक्ते: कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी the force of a कारक-विभक्ति: is greater than that of a उपपद-विभक्ति:।

प्रजाभ्य: स्वस्ति May it be well with the subjects
स्वस्तिर्भवतु ते (तुभ्यम्) Good luck to you

अग्नये स्वाहा Offering an oblation to the Fire God. (स्वाहा is exclamation used in offering oblations to the gods.)

पितृभ्य: स्वधा Offering an oblation of food to the Manes of deceased ancestors

अलमिति पर्याप्त्यर्थग्रहणम् – The term अलम् used in the सूत्रम् 2-3-16 stands for words meaning ‘a match for.’ We infer this from the fact that पाणिनि: himself has used the fourth case affix (in तस्मै) in the सूत्रम् 5-1-101 तस्मै प्रभवति संतापादिभ्यः।
Hence –
दैतेभ्यो हरिरलं प्रभु: समर्थ: शक्त इत्यादि Lord Viṣṇu is a match for the demons.

प्रभवादियोगे षष्ठ्यपि साधु: – A sixth case affix may also be used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with ‘प्रभु’ etc. (but not अलम्)।
We infer this from the fact that पाणिनि: himself has used the sixth case affix (in एषाम्) in the सूत्रम् 5-2-78 स एषां ग्रामणीः।

वषडिन्द्राय Offering an oblation to Indra. (वषट् is exclamation used on offering an oblation to a deity.)

वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-13 चतुर्थी सम्प्रदाने in the महाभाष्यम्) तादर्थ्ये चतुर्थी वाच्या। Video

A fourth case affix (‘ङे’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes the purpose (‘for the sake of that’).

Note: The existence of this वार्तिकम् is inferred from the सूत्रम् 2-1-36 चतुर्थी तदर्थार्थबलिहितसुखरक्षितैः which allows compounding between a पदम् which ends in a fourth case affix and another पदम् which ends in a सुँप् affix and denotes a thing whose purpose is denoted by the पदम् ending in the fourth case affix.

उदाहरणानि –

काव्यं यशसे A poem (composed) for fame

कुण्डलाय हिरण्यम् Gold for (making) a ear-ring

अवहननाय उलूखलम् A mortar (used) for threshing (grain.)

1-4-24 ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् । Video

वृत्तिः अपायो विश्‍लेषस्‍तस्‍मिन्‍साध्‍ये यद् ध्रुवमवधिभूतं कारकं तदपादानं स्‍यात् । When detachment (moving away) is to be denoted, that कारकम् (participant in the action) which serves as a limiting (starting) point (uninfluenced by the detachment) gets the designation अपादानम् (that from which detachment takes place.)

उदाहरणे –

ग्रामादायाति (Someone) comes from the village. ‘ग्राम’ (village) gets the designation अपादानम् by 1-4-24

धावतोऽश्वात्‍पतति (Someone) falls from a running horse. ‘अश्व’ (horse) gets the designation अपादानम् by 1-4-24 because even though the horse is running it is uninfluenced by the detachment (falling.)

Examples continued under 2-3-28

कारकं किम्? वृक्षस्य पर्णं पतति – ‘वृक्ष’ does not get the designation अपादानम् because it is not a कारकम् (participant in the action.)

2-3-28 अपादाने पञ्चमी । Video

वृत्तिः अनुक्तेऽपादाने पञ्चमी स्‍यात् । A fifth case affix (‘ङसिँ’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used to denote the अपादानम् (that from which detachment/ablation takes place) provided it has not been expressed otherwise.

Examples continued from 1-4-24

ग्रामादायाति Comes from the village. Since ‘ग्राम’ has the designation अपादानम् (by 1-4-24) it takes the fifth case affix by 2-3-28.

धावतोऽश्वात्‍पतति (Someone) falls from a running horse. Since ‘अश्व’ has the designation अपादानम् (by 1-4-24) it takes the fifth case affix by 2-3-28.

अनभिहित इत्येव –

बिभेत्यस्मादिति भीम: Since the अपादानम् (that from which detachment/ablation takes place) is already expressed by the कृत् affix मक्, we cannot apply 2-3-28 and ‘भीम’ does not take the fifth case affix.

उद्धृत ओदनो यस्या: = उद्धृतौदना स्थाली Here the अपादानम् (that from which detachment/ablation takes place) is already expressed by the समास: and hence 2-3-28 cannot apply and ‘उद्धृतौदना’ does not take the fifth case affix.

वार्तिकम् (under 1-4-24 ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम्) जुगुप्साविरामप्रमादार्थानामुपसङ्ख्यानम्। Video

Note: जुगुप्सा निन्दा, विरामो विरति:, प्रमादोऽनवधानता, एतदर्थकानां धातूनां कारकमपादानसञ्ज्ञं स्यादित्यर्थ:। When a verbal root having the meaning of जुगुप्सा (censure/dislike/disgust) or विराम: (cessation/turning away) or प्रमाद: (negligence/inattentiveness) is used, the कारकम् (participant in the action) – that is the विषय: (topic) of the जुगुप्सा/विराम:/प्रमाद: – is designated as अपादानम्।

उदाहरणानि –

पापाज्जुगुप्सते (Someone is) disgusted with sin.

पापाद्विरमति (Someone) turns away from (ceases to commit) sin.

धर्मात्प्रमाद्यति (Someone is) negligent towards duty.

Note: As per the महाभाष्यम् we can manage without this वार्तिकम्। Since there is a mental अपाय: (moving away) the सूत्रम् 1-4-24 ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् itself may be used here to assign the designation अपादानम्।

1-4-25 भीत्रार्थानां भयहेतुः । Video

वृत्तिः भयार्थानां त्राणार्थानां च प्रयोगे भयहेतुरपादानं स्यात् । When a verbal root having the meaning of भयम् (fear) or त्राणम् (protection) is used, the कारकम् (participant in the action) which denotes the cause of the fear is designated as अपादानम्।

उदाहरणे –

चोराद्बिभेति (Someone) is afraid of the thief.

चोरात्त्रायते (Someone) protects from the thief.

Note: As per the महाभाष्यम् we can manage without this सूत्रम्। Since there is a mental अपाय: (moving away) the सूत्रम् 1-4-24 ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् may be used here to assign the designation अपादानम्।

भयहेतुः किम्?

अरण्ये बिभेति त्रायते इति वा – (Someone) is afraid or protects in the forest. (Since the forest is the location and not the cause of the fear, it does not get the designation अपादानम्।)

1-4-27 वारणार्थानामीप्सितः । Video

वृत्तिः प्रवृत्तिविघातो वारणम् । वारणार्थानां धातूनां प्रयोगे ईप्सितोऽपादानं स्यात् । वारणम् (warding off) stands for प्रवृत्तिविघात: (preventing from advancing.) When a verbal root having the meaning of वारणम् (warding off) is used, the कारकम् (participant in the action) which denotes the thing desired to be reached/affected (by the doer thru the action) is designated as अपादानम्।

उदाहरणम् –

यवेभ्यो गां वारयति (Someone) wards off the cow from the barley.

Note: As per the महाभाष्यम् we can manage without this सूत्रम्। Since there is a mental अपाय: (moving away) the सूत्रम् 1-4-24 ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् may be used here to assign the designation अपादानम्।

ईप्सित: किम्?

यवेभ्यो गां वारयति क्षेत्रे – (Someone) wards off the cow from the barley in the field. (That which is desired to be reached/affected by the action of warding off is the barley and not the field. Hence ‘यव’ alone gets the designation अपादानम्। ‘क्षेत्र’ does not.)

1-4-28 अन्तर्धौ येनादर्शनमिच्छति । Video

वृत्तिः व्यवधाने सति यत्कर्तृकस्यात्मनो दर्शनस्याभावमिच्छति तदपादानं स्यात् । When there is concealment, the कारकम् (participant in the action) which denotes the person by whom one desires not to be seen is designated as अपादानम्।

उदाहरणम् –

मातुर्निलीयते कृष्ण: Śrī Kṛṣṇa hides from his mother.

अन्तर्धौ किम्?

चौरान् न दिदृक्षते – (With the idea that the thieves should not see him, someone) does not wish to see the thieves. There is nothing to conceal him from the thieves. Hence ‘चौर’ does not get the designation अपादानम्।

इच्छति ग्रहणं किम्?

अदर्शनेच्छायां सत्यां सत्यपि दर्शने यथा स्यात् – As long as there is a desire not to be seen, the designation अपादानम् may be assigned even though there is actual seeing.

Note: As per the महाभाष्यम् we can manage without this सूत्रम्। Since there is a mental अपाय: (moving away) the सूत्रम् 1-4-24 ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् may be used here to assign the designation अपादानम्।

1-4-29 आख्यातोपयोगे । Video

वृत्तिः नियमपूर्वकविद्यास्वीकारे वक्तापादानसञ्ज्ञ: स्यात् । The कारकम् (participant in the action) which denotes a teacher/instructor from whom a student formally (observing the proper rules of conduct) receives knowledge is designated as अपादानम्।

उदाहरणम् –

उपाध्यायादधीते (Someone) studies (formally receives knowledge) from an instructor.

उपयोगे किम्?

नटस्य शृणोति – (Someone) listens to an actor. There is no formal reception of knowledge here and hence ‘नट’ does not get the designation अपादानम्।

Note: As per the महाभाष्यम् we can manage without this सूत्रम्। Since there is a अपाय: (knowledge transmitted from the teacher to the student) the सूत्रम् 1-4-24 ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् may be used here to assign the designation अपादानम्।

1-4-30 जनिकर्तुः प्रकृतिः । Video

वृत्तिः जायमानस्य हेतुरपादानं स्यात् । The कारकम् (participant in the action) which denotes a cause from which something/someone takes birth is designated as अपादानम्।

उदाहरणे –

मृत्पिण्डाद् घटो जायते – A pot born from a lump of clay.
पुत्रात् प्रमोदो जायते – Joy born from a son.

Note: As per the महाभाष्यम् we can manage without this सूत्रम्। Since there is a अपाय: (something/someone taking birth ‘out of’ something/someone) the सूत्रम् 1-4-24 ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् may be used here to assign the designation अपादानम्।

1-4-31 भुवः प्रभवः । Video

वृत्तिः भवनं भू: । भूकर्तुः प्रभवोऽपादानसञ्ज्ञ: स्यात् । The कारकम् (participant in the action) which denotes the place of first appearance of the agent of (the action of) being is designated as अपादानम्।

उदाहरणम् –

हिमवतो गङ्गा प्रभवति – तत्र प्रकाशत इत्यर्थ: – The Gaṅgā first appears in the Himālaya.

Note: As per the महाभाष्यम् we can manage without this सूत्रम्। Since there is a अपाय: (something/someone first appearing ‘out of’ something/someone) the सूत्रम् 1-4-24 ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् may be used here to assign the designation अपादानम्।

वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-28 अपादाने पञ्चमी in the महाभाष्यम्) ल्यब्लोपे कर्मण्यधिकरणे च । Video

When a verbal participle ending in the affix ‘ल्यप्’ (or ‘क्त्वा’) is elided, a fifth case affix (‘ङसिँ’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used to denote the object or the locus of the action.

उदाहरणे –

प्रासादात् प्रेक्षते (प्रासादमारुह्य प्रेक्षते) – (Someone) watches from the palace. (Having climbed up the palace, (someone) watches.)

आसनात् प्रेक्षते (आसने उपविश्य/स्थित्वा प्रेक्षते) – (Someone) watches from his seat. (Having sat on his seat, (someone) watches.)

वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-28 अपादाने पञ्चमी in the महाभाष्यम्) यतश्चाध्वकालनिर्माणं तत्र पञ्चमी । तद्युक्तादध्वन: प्रथमासप्तम्यौ । कालात् सप्तमी च वक्तव्या ॥ Video

A fifth case affix (‘ङसिँ’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used to denote that (point in space or time) from which distance in space or time is measured. In connection with such a term (which has thus taken a fifth case affix), a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes the distance in space takes a first case affix (‘सुँ’, ‘औ’, ‘जस्’) or a seventh case affix (‘ङि’, ‘ओस्’, ‘सुप्’) while a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes the distance in time takes a seventh case affix (‘ङि’, ‘ओस्’, ‘सुप्’)।

उदाहरणे –

वनाद्ग्रामो योजनं योजने वा – The village is at a distance of one Yojana (approx. eight or nine miles) from the forest.

कार्तिक्या आग्रहायणी मासे – The full moon day of the month of Māgraśīrṣa is a month from the full moon day of the month of Kārtika.

गम्यमानापि क्रिया कारकविभक्तौ प्रयोजिका – कस्मात् त्वम् (आगतोऽसि)? नद्या: (आगतोऽस्मि) – From where (have) you (come)? (I have come) from the river.

2-3-29 अन्यारादितरर्तेदिक्‌छब्दाञ्चूत्तरपदाजाहियुक्ते । Video

वृत्तिः एतैर्योगे पञ्चमी स्यात् । अन्य इत्यर्थग्रहणम् । A fifth case affix (‘ङसिँ’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with any one of the following:
i) ‘अन्य’ (other) or a synonym of ‘अन्य’
ii) ‘आरात्’ (far or near)
iii) ‘इतर’ (other) Note: इतरग्रहणं प्रपञ्चार्थम् । The mention of ‘इतर’ is only an elaboration since ‘इतर’ is a synonym of ‘अन्य’ already mentioned above
iv) ‘ऋते’ (without)
v) A word that denotes a direction (in space or time) even if it is a (compound) word ending in the verbal root √अञ्च् (अञ्चुँ गतिपूजनयोः १. २१५). Note: अञ्चूत्तरपदस्य दिक्शब्दत्वेऽपि ‘षष्ठ्यतसर्थ-‘ इति षष्ठीं बाधितुं पृथग्ग्रहणम्। Why has पाणिनि: separately mentioned (compound) words ending in the verbal root √अञ्च् (अञ्चुँ गतिपूजनयोः १. २१५) when they are words which denote direction? The reason is to prevent the sixth case affix which would have been prescribed by 2-3-30 षष्ठ्यतसर्थप्रत्ययेन।
vi) A word that ends in the affix ‘आच्’ (ref. 5-3-36 दक्षिणादाच्)
vii) A word that ends in the affix ‘आहि’ (ref. 5-3-37 आहि च दूरे)

उदाहरणानि –

अन्यो भिन्न इतरो वा कृष्णात् Other than Śrī Kṛṣṇa

आराद्वनात् Far from or near to the forest

ऋते कृष्णात् Without Śrī Kṛṣṇa

पूर्वो ग्रामात् To the East of the village

चैत्रात्पूर्व: फाल्गुन: The month of Phālguna comes before Chaitra

प्राक् प्रत्यग्वा ग्रामात् To the East or the West of the village

दक्षिणा ग्रामात् To the South of the village

दक्षिणाहि ग्रामात् To the far South of the village

Note: ‘अपादाने पञ्चमी’ इति सूत्रे कार्तिक्या: प्रभृतीति भाष्यप्रयोगात् प्रभृत्यर्थयोगे पञ्चमी – In the महाभाष्यम् on the सूत्रम् 2-3-28 अपादाने पञ्चमी we find the usage कार्तिक्या: प्रभृति which tells us that a fifth case affix is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with a word meaning ‘प्रभृति’ (beginning).
भवात् प्रभृति आरभ्य वा सेव्यो हरि: – Lord Viṣṇu is to be served starting from birth

Note: ‘अपपरिबहि:-‘ इति समासविधानज्ञापकाद्बहिर्योगे पञ्चमी – Compounding prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-1-12 अपपरिबहिरञ्चवः पञ्चम्या gives us an indication that a fifth case affix is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with ‘बहिस्’।
ग्रामाद्बहि: Outside the village

1-4-88 अपपरी वर्जने । Video

वृत्तिः एतौ वर्जने कर्मप्रवचनीयसञ्ज्ञौ स्त: । The terms ‘अप’ and ‘परि’ get the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: when used in the meaning of ‘excluding.’

उदाहरणम् –

In the following example ‘अप’/’परि’ gets the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: by 1-4-88

अप/परि हरे: संसार: – (हरिं वर्जयित्वा संसार इत्यर्थ:) – Excluding Lord Viṣṇu is the circuit of worldly life.

Example continued under 2-3-10

1-4-89 आङ् मर्यादावचने । Video

वृत्तिः आङ् मर्यादायां कर्मप्रवचनीयसञ्ज्ञ: स्यात् । The term ‘आङ्’ gets the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: when used in the meaning of ‘up to (but excluding) a limit.’
Note: वचनग्रहणादभिविधावपि – The mention of ‘वचन’ in the सूत्रम् tells us that ‘आङ्’ gets the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: even when used in the meaning of अभिविधौ – ‘up to (and including) a limit.’
Note: विना तेनेति मर्यादा – ‘up to (but excluding) a limit’ is termed as मर्यादा। सह तेनेत्यभिविधि: – ‘up to (and including) a limit’ is termed as अभिविधि:।

उदाहरणे –

In the following examples ‘आङ्’ gets the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: by 1-4-89. The ending letter ‘ङ्’ of ‘आङ्’ is a इत् by 1-3-3 and takes लोप: by 1-3-9.

आ मुक्ते: संसार: – (मुक्तिं मर्यादीकृत्य संसार इत्यर्थ:) – Up to (but excluding) liberation is the circuit of worldly life.

आ सकलाद् ब्रह्म – (सकलमभिव्याप्य ब्रह्मेत्यर्थ:) – Up to (and including) everything is the Supreme Being.

Example continued under 2-3-10

2-3-10 पञ्चम्यपाङ्परिभिः । Video

वृत्तिः एतै: कर्मप्रवचनीयैर्योगे पञ्चमी स्यात् । A fifth case affix (‘ङसिँ’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with ‘अप’/’परि’/’आङ्’ used as a कर्मप्रवचनीय: (ref. 1-4-88, 1-4-89.)
Note: For this सूत्रम् to apply ‘परि’ must be used in the sense of वर्जने ‘excluding.’ How do we infer this? वर्जनार्थेनापेन साहचर्यात् – from its association with ‘अप’ which is in the sense of वर्जने ‘excluding.’

Example continued from 1-4-88

अप/परि हरे: संसार: – (हरिं वर्जयित्वा संसार इत्यर्थ:) – Excluding Lord Viṣṇu is the circuit of worldly life. ‘हरि’ takes the fifth case affix by 2-3-10.

Note: परिरत्र वर्जने – ‘परि’ is used here in the sense of ‘excluding.’ लक्षणादौ तु हरिं परि – but if ‘परि’ is used in the sense of लक्षणम् (mark/aim) etc. (ref. 1-4-90) then ‘हरि’ takes the second case affix by 2-3-8 कर्मप्रवचनीययुक्ते द्वितीया।

Examples continued from 1-4-89

आ मुक्ते: संसार: – (मुक्तिं मर्यादीकृत्य संसार इत्यर्थ:) – Up to (but excluding) liberation is the circuit of worldly life. ‘मुक्ति’ takes the fifth case affix by 2-3-10.

आ सकलाद् ब्रह्म – (सकलमभिव्याप्य ब्रह्मेत्यर्थ:) – Up to (and including) everything is the Supreme Being. ‘सकल’ takes the fifth case affix by 2-3-10.

2-3-25 विभाषा गुणेऽस्त्रियाम्‌ । Video

वृत्तिः गुणे हेतावस्त्रीलिङ्गे पञ्चमी वा स्यात् । A fifth case affix (‘ङसिँ’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is optionally used following a non-feminine प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes a quality being a cause/reason.
Note: When the optional fifth case affix is not used, a third case affix is used as per 2-3-23 हेतौ।

उदाहरणम् –

जाड्याज्जाड्येन वा बद्ध: – (Someone) bound on account of stupidity.

गुणे किम्?

धनेन कुलम् – A (prestigious) family on account of wealth.

अस्त्रियां किम्?

बुद्ध्या मुक्त: (Someone) liberated on account of intelligence.

विभाषेति योगविभागादगुणे स्त्रियां च क्वचित् – The term ‘विभाषा’ is split in to a separate सूत्रम् allowing us to apply the fifth case affix even if the प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) does not denote a quality or is used in the feminine. For example –

धूमादग्निमान् (पर्वत:) – On account of smoke (it can be inferred that the mountain) possesses fire.

नास्ति घटोऽनुपलब्धे: On account of non-perception, there is no pot.

2-3-34 दूरान्तिकार्थैः षष्ठ्यन्यतरस्याम्‌ । Video

वृत्तिः एतैर्योगे षष्ठी स्यात् पञ्चमी च । A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) or a fifth case affix (‘ङसिँ’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with a word having the sense of either ‘far’ or ‘near.’

उदाहरणे –

दूरं ग्रामस्य/ग्रामाद् वा – Far from the village

निकटं ग्रामस्य/ग्रामाद् वा – Close to the village

2-3-35 दूरान्तिकार्थेभ्यो द्वितीया च । Video

वृत्तिः एभ्यो द्वितीया स्याच्चात् पञ्चमीतृतीये । A second case affix (‘अम्’) or a third case affix (‘टा’) or a fifth case affix (‘ङसिँ’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) having the sense of either ‘far’ or ‘near.’
Note: प्रातिपदिकार्थमात्रे विधिरयम् – The case affix prescribed by this सूत्रम् denotes only the meaning of the प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem.)

उदाहरणे –

ग्रामस्य दूरं/दूराद्/दूरेण वा – Far from the village

ग्रामस्य अन्तिकं/अन्तिकात्/अन्तिकेन वा – Close to the village

असत्त्ववचनस्येत्यनुवृत्तेर्नेह The अनुवृत्ति: of ‘असत्त्ववचनस्य’ comes down from 2-3-33 in to this सूत्रम् 2-3-35. Hence 2-3-35 does not apply in the following example –

दूर: पन्था: a distant road. Here दूर: is qualifying पन्था: which is a physical thing and hence 2-3-35 does not apply.

2-3-50 षष्ठी शेषे । Video

वृत्तिः कारकप्रातिपदिकार्थव्यतिरिक्त: स्वस्वामिभावादिसम्बन्ध: शेषस्तत्र षष्ठी स्यात् । A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) is used in the remaining sense, which is that of a syntactic relation – for example the relation between the owner and the owned – which is other than that expressed by a कारकम् (a participant in the action) and that of (only) the meaning of the प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem.)
Note: It is the qualifier (विशेषणम्) which takes the sixth case affix, and not the one qualified (विशेष्यम्)।

उदाहरणानि –

स्वस्वामिभावसम्बन्ध: A relationship between the owner and the owned –
राज्ञ: पुरुष: – A king’s man. (The man is being qualified by (his relation to) the king. Hence the qualifier ‘राजन्’ takes the sixth case affix.)

अवयवावयविभावसम्बन्ध: A relationship between the whole and a part –
तरो: शाखा – A branch of a tree. (The branch is being qualified by (its relation to) the tree. Hence the qualifier ‘तरु’ takes the sixth case affix.)

जन्यजनकभावसम्बन्ध: A relationship between the begetter and the begotten –
पितु: पुत्र: A father’s son. (The son is being qualified by (his relation to) the father. Hence the qualifier ‘पितृ’ takes the sixth case affix.)

A number of relationships are possible. The above three are not the only ones.

Note: Not all the relations expressed by ‘of’ in English can be expressed by the sixth case in Sanskrit. For example –
A man of strength – बलवान् नर: or सबलो नर: but not बलस्य नर:
In the month of Vaiśākha – वैशाखे मासे and not वैशाखस्य मासे

Note: कर्मादीनापि संबन्‍धमात्रविवक्षायां षष्‍ठ्येव – When the speaker wishes to express the कर्म (object) etc as having a mere relationship (to the action) – and not specifically as an object etc. – then a sixth case affix alone is used.

भजे शम्‍भोश्‍चरणयोः I perform worship relating to the feet of Lord Śiva. (The speaker does not wish to express the feet as specifically being the object of the action of worshiping. He simply wants to express a connection between the feet and the action.)
Note: Usages such as the one above should be considered as deviations from usual practice and should not be imitated.

वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-23 हेतौ in the महाभाष्यम्) निमित्तपर्यायप्रयोगे सर्वासां प्रायदर्शनम् । Video
Note: नागेश: clarifies this वार्तिकम् as निमित्तादिप्रयोगे तेभ्यस्तत्समानाधिकरणशब्देभ्यश्चेत्यर्थ:।

When the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘निमित्त’ (motive) or any of its synonyms – ‘कारण’ (reason), ‘हेतु’ (cause), ‘प्रयोजन’ (purpose) etc is used – generally any case affix may be assigned (following both the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘निमित्त’ etc as well as any प्रातिपदिकम् that is in apposition (has the same substratum) as ‘निमित्त’ etc.)

उदाहरणानि –

किं निमित्तं वसति। केन निमित्तेन। कस्मै निमित्तायेत्यादि – With what motive/objective does (someone) reside?

एवं किं कारणं को हेतु: किं प्रयोजनमित्यादि – Same meaning as above.

प्रायग्रहणादसर्वनाम्न: प्रथमाद्वितीये न स्त: – The mention of ‘प्राय’ gives us the indication that (when ‘निमित्त’ or any of its synonyms is used) the first and second case affixes may only be used if there is a सर्वनाम (pronoun) in apposition with ‘निमित्त’ etc.

ज्ञानेन निमित्तेन हरि: सेव्य:। ज्ञानाय निमित्तायेत्यादि – Lord Viṣṇu is to be served with the motive/objective of (gaining) knowledge.

Note: This वार्तिकम् makes the सूत्रम् 2-3-26 षष्ठी हेतुप्रयोगे as well as 2-3-27 सर्वनाम्नस्तृतीया च redundant.

2-3-30 षष्ठ्यतसर्थप्रत्ययेन । Video

वृत्तिः एतद्योगे षष्ठी स्यात् । A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with a word ending in an affix having the same meaning as that of the affix ‘अतसुँच्’ (ref. 5-3-28 दक्षिणोत्तराभ्यामतसुच्)।
Note: ‘दिक्‌छब्द-‘ इति पञ्चम्या अपवाद: – The sixth case affix prescribed by this सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to the fifth case affix which would have been prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-3-29 अन्यारादितरर्तेदिक्‌छब्दाञ्चूत्तरपदाजाहियुक्ते।
Note: The section in which पाणिनि: prescribes affixes having the same meaning as that of the affix ‘अतसुँच्’ runs from 5-3-27 दिक्‌शब्देभ्यः सप्तमीपञ्चमीप्रथमाभ्यो दिग्देशकालेष्वस्तातिः down to 5-3-41 विभाषावरस्य।

उदाहरणानि –

ग्रामस्य दक्षिणत: To the south of the village.

ग्रामस्य पुर:/पुरस्तात् In front (or to the east) of the village.

ग्रामस्योपरि/ग्रामस्योपरिष्टात् Above the village.

2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति । Video

वृत्तिः कृद्योगे कर्तरि कर्मणि च षष्ठी स्यात् । A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) is used to denote कर्ता (the doer) as well as कर्म (the object) of an action denoted by a (word ending in a) कृत् affix, provided the doer/object has not been expressed otherwise.

उदाहरणानि –

कृष्णस्य कृति: An act of Śrī Kṛṣṇa

जगत: कर्ता कृष्ण: Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the maker of the universe. Note: The agent ‘कृष्ण’ does not take a sixth case affix here because the agent is already expressed by the कृत् affix ‘तृच्’ (used in कर्ता)।

Note: गुणकर्मणि वेष्यते – A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) is used only optionally to denote गुणकर्म (the secondary object) of an action denoted by a (word ending in a) कृत् affix. (When the sixth case affix is not used, a second case affix is used as per 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया।)
नेताऽश्वस्य स्रुघ्नस्य स्रुघ्नं वा The leader/taker of the horse to Srughna.

2-3-67 क्तस्य च वर्तमाने । Video

वृत्तिः वर्तमानार्थस्य क्तस्य प्रयोगे षष्ठी स्यात् । A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) is used (to denote कर्ता (the doer)) of an action denoted by (a word ending in) the affix ‘क्त’, provided the affix ‘क्त’ denotes the action in the present tense.
Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of ‘कर्तृकर्मणोः’ is coming down from 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति in to this सूत्रम्। But since कर्म (the object) is already expressed by the affix ‘क्त’, the sixth case affix is used to denote only the कर्ता (the doer) and not the कर्म (the object.)
Note: ‘न लोकाव्यय-‘ इति निषेधस्यापवाद: – This सूत्रम् is an exception to the prohibition rule 2-3-69 न लोकाव्ययनिष्ठाखलर्थतृनाम्‌ which prevents 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति from applying when the action is denoted by a word ending in a निष्ठा affix (1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा)।

उदाहरणानि –

राज्ञां मतो/बुद्ध:/पूजितो वा (Someone is) desired/known/honored by the kings.

2-3-69 न लोकाव्ययनिष्ठाखलर्थतृनाम्‌ । Video

वृत्तिः एषां प्रयोगे षष्ठी न स्यात् । A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) is not used (to denote कर्ता (the doer) or कर्म (the object)) of an action denoted by any one of the following –
(i) (a word ending in a substitute in place of) the affix ‘ल्’ (लँट्, लिँट् etc.)
(ii) (a word ending in) the affix ‘उ’ or an affix ending in ‘उ’
(iii) (a word ending in) the affix ‘उक’
(iv) an indeclinable
(v) (a word ending in) a निष्ठा affix (ref. 1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा।)
(vi) (a word ending in) the affix ‘खल्’ or any affix having the same meaning as that of ‘खल्’
(vii) (a word ending in) an affix from the प्रत्याहार: ‘तृन्’ which is formed starting from ‘तृ’ in 3-2-124 लटः शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे down to 3-2-135 तृन्

उदाहरणानि –

लादेशा: –

कुर्वन् कुर्वाणो वा सृष्टिं हरि: Lord Viṣṇu doing creation. कुर्वन्/कुर्वाण: (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कुर्वत्’/’कुर्वाण’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) ends in the substitution ‘शतृँ’/’शानच्’ in place of लँट्।

‘उ’ –

हरिं दिदृक्षु:। अलंकरिष्णुर्वा – (Someone) desirous of seeing Lord Viṣṇu. ‘दिदृक्षु’ ends in the affix ‘उ’ (prescribed by 3-2-168 सनाशंसभिक्ष उः।) Or – one who is habituated to decorating Lord Viṣṇu. ‘अलंकरिष्णु’ ends in the affix ‘इष्णुच्’ (prescribed by 3-2-136 अलंकृञ्निराकृञ्प्रजनोत्पचोत्पतोन्मदरुच्यपत्रपवृतुवृधुसहचर इष्णुच्।)

‘उक’ –

दैत्यान् घातुको हरि: Lord Viṣṇu habitually destroys the demons. ‘घातुक’ ends in the affix ‘उकञ्’ (prescribed by 3-2-154 लषपतपदस्थाभूवृषहनकमगमशॄभ्य उकञ्।)

Note: कमेरनिषेध: This prohibition (against using a sixth case affix) does not apply when the verbal root √कम् (कमुँ कान्तौ १. ५११) is used. For example – लक्ष्म्या: कामुको हरि: – Lord Viṣṇu habitually longs for the Goddess Laxmi.

अव्ययम् –

जगत् सृष्ट्वा Having created the universe. ‘सृष्ट्वा’ ends in the affix ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ (prescribed by 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले।) ‘सृष्ट्वा’ gets the designation अव्ययम् by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः।

कृष्‍णं द्रष्‍टुं याति (Someone) goes to see Lord Kṛṣṇa. ‘द्रष्‍टुम्’ ends in the affix ‘तुमुँन्’ (prescribed by 3-3-10 तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम्‌।) ‘द्रष्‍टुम्’ gets the designation अव्ययम् by 1-1-39 कृन्मेजन्तः।

निष्ठा –

विष्णुना हता दैत्या: The demons were destroyed by Lord Viṣṇu. ‘हत’ ends in the affix ‘क्त’ (prescribed by 3-2-102 निष्ठा।) The affix ‘क्त’ gets the designation निष्ठा by 1-1-26.

दैत्यान् हतवान् विष्णु: Lord Viṣṇu destroyed the demons. हतवान् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हतवत्’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) ends in the affix ‘क्तवतुँ’ (prescribed by 3-2-102 निष्ठा।) The affix ‘क्तवतुँ’ gets the designation निष्ठा by 1-1-26.

खलर्था: –

ईषत्कर: प्रपञ्चो हरिणा The manifestation (of the universe) is easy to be done by Lord Viṣṇu. ‘ईषत्कर’ ends in the affix ‘खल्’ (prescribed by 3-3-126 ईषद्दुःसुषु कृच्छ्राकृच्छ्रार्थेषु खल्।)

सुपानं विषं शङ्करेण Poison is easy to be drunk by Lord Śiva. ‘सुपान’ ends in the affix ‘युच्’ (prescribed by 3-3-128 आतो युच्।) The affix ‘युच्’ is used in the same meaning as that of the affix ‘खल्’।

तृन्निति प्रत्याहार: शतृशानचाविति तृशब्दादारभ्या तृनो नकारात्।

‘शानन्’ – सोमं पवमान: (Someone) purifying the Soma juice. ‘पवमान’ ends in the affix ‘शानन्’ (prescribed by 3-2-128 पूङ्यजोः शानन्।)

‘तृन्’ – कर्ता लोकान् – A habitual creator of the worlds. कर्ता (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कर्तृ’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) ends in the affix ‘तृन्’ (prescribed by 3-2-135 तृन्।)

सर्वोऽयं कारकषष्ठ्या: प्रतिषेध:। शेषे षष्ठी तु स्यादेव – All this prohibition (by the सूत्रम् 2-3-69) applies to the sixth case prescribed by 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति। The sixth case affix prescribed by 2-3-50 षष्ठी शेषे is still available (unaffected by the prohibition.)
For example –

जिज्ञासुरपि योगस्य शब्दब्रह्मातिवर्तते || गीता 6-44||

2-3-71 कृत्यानां कर्तरि वा । Video

वृत्तिः षष्ठी वा स्यात् । A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) is optionally used to denote कर्ता (the doer) of an action denoted by a word ending in a ‘कृत्य’ affix (prescribed in the अधिकार: of 3-1-95 कृत्याः।) Note: When the sixth case affix is not used, a third case affix is used as per 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया।

उदाहरणम् –

मम मया वा सेव्यो हरि: Lord Viṣṇu ought to be served by me.

Note: As per the महाभाष्यम् this सूत्रम् should be split in to two parts – (i) कृत्यानां and (ii) कर्तरि वा । The अनुवृत्ति: of ‘उभयप्राप्तौ’ (from 2-3-66) and ‘न’ (from 2-3-69) comes in to (i). Hence the meaning of (i) becomes – When there is a possibility of using a sixth case affix with both कर्ता (the doer) and कर्म (the object) of an action denoted by a word ending in a ‘कृत्य’ affix, then a sixth case affix cannot be used to denote either of them.
For example –
नेतव्या व्रजं गाव: कृष्णेन The cows should be taken to the cow-pen by Lord Kṛṣṇa. (Here ‘व्रज’ as well as ‘कृष्ण’ could have taken a sixth case affix as per 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति।)

The अनुवृत्ति: of ‘कृत्यानाम्’ (from (i)) comes in to (ii). The meaning of (ii) has already been discussed above.

2-3-72 तुल्यार्थैरतुलोपमाभ्यां तृतीयान्यतरस्याम्‌ । Video

वृत्तिः तुल्यर्थैर्योगे तृतीया वा स्यात् पक्षे षष्ठी । A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) or a sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with ‘तुल्य’ (equal/similar to) or any of its synonyms – but not ‘तुला’ or ‘उपमा’।

उदाहरणम् –

तुल्य: सदृश: समो वा कृष्णस्य कृष्णेन वा (Someone is) an equal of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

अतुलोपमाभ्यां किम्?

तुला उपमा वा कृष्णस्य नास्ति There is no equal of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

1-4-45 आधारोऽधिकरणम् । Video

वृत्तिः कर्तृकर्मद्वारा तन्निष्‍ठक्रियाया आधारः कारकमधिकरणसञ्ज्ञ: स्‍यात् । That कारकम् (participant in the action) which denotes the location/support – via the agent/object – of an action subsisting in the agent/object is called अधिकरणम् (location.)
Note: औपश्‍लेषिको वैषयिकोऽभिव्‍यापकश्‍चेत्‍याधारस्‍त्रिधा – आधारः is of three kinds (i) औपश्‍लेषिक: involving contact or proximity (ii) वैषयिक: involving a subject matter (iii) अभिव्‍यापक: involving pervasion.

उदाहरणानि –

औपश्‍लेषिक आधारः –

कटे आस्‍ते (Someone) sits on a mat. (‘कट’ gets the अधिकरण-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-45.)
स्‍थाल्‍यां (ओदनं) पचति (Someone) cooks (rice) in an utensil. (‘स्‍थाली’ gets the अधिकरण-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-45.)
गङ्गायां घोष: A cattle station on (in the proximity of) the Ganges. (‘गङ्गा’ gets the अधिकरण-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-45.)
रात्रौ स्वपिति (Someone) sleeps at night. (‘रात्रि’ gets the अधिकरण-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-45.)

वैषयिक आधारः –

मोक्षे इच्‍छास्‍ति There is a desire centered on (the subject of) liberation. (‘मोक्ष’ gets the अधिकरण-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-45.)

अभिव्‍यापक आधारः –

सर्वस्‍मिन्नात्‍मास्‍ति The Self pervades (is present in) everything. (‘सर्व’ gets the अधिकरण-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-45.)

Examples continued under 2-3-36

2-3-36 सप्तम्यधिकरणे च । Video

वृत्तिः अधिकरणे सप्‍तमी स्‍यात्, चकाराद्दूरान्‍तिकार्थेभ्‍यः । A seventh case affix (‘ङि’, ‘ओस्’, ‘सुप्’) is used to denote अधिकरणम् (location), provided it has not been expressed otherwise. The use of ‘च’ in the सूत्रम् tells us that a seventh case affix is also used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) having the sense of either ‘far’ or ‘near.’

Examples continued from 1-4-45

औपश्‍लेषिक आधारः –

कटे आस्‍ते (Someone) sits on a mat. (‘कट’ takes a seventh case affix by 2-3-36.)
स्‍थाल्‍यां (ओदनं) पचति (Someone) cooks (rice) in an utensil. (‘स्‍थाली’ takes a seventh case affix by 2-3-36.)
गङ्गायां घोष: A cattle station on (in the proximity of) the Ganges. (‘गङ्गा’ takes a seventh case affix by 2-3-36.)
रात्रौ स्वपिति (Someone) sleeps at night. (‘रात्रि’ takes a seventh case affix by 2-3-36.)

वैषयिक आधारः –

मोक्षे इच्‍छास्‍ति There is a desire centered on (the subject of) liberation. (‘मोक्ष’ takes a seventh case affix by 2-3-36.)

अभिव्‍यापक आधारः –

सर्वस्‍मिन्नात्‍मास्‍ति The Self pervades (is present in) everything. (‘सर्व’ takes a seventh case affix by 2-3-36.)

अनभिहिते किम्?

वीरा: पुरुषा: सन्त्यस्मिन्निति वीरपुरुषको ग्राम: Here ‘ग्राम’ does not take the seventh case affix because the अधिकरणम् (location) has already been expressed by the compound.

दूरान्‍तिकार्थेभ्‍यः –

वनस्य दूरे/अन्तिके वा – Far from or in the proximity of the forest.

‘दूरान्तिकार्थेभ्य: -‘ इति विभक्तित्रयेण सह चतस्रोऽत्र विभक्तय: फलिता: Including the three case affixes prescribed by 2-3-35 दूरान्तिकार्थेभ्यो द्वितीया च, a total of four case affixes -second, third, fifth and seventh – may be used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) having the sense of either ‘far’ or ‘near.’

2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌ । Video

वृत्तिः यस्य क्रियया क्रियान्तरं लक्ष्यते तत: (ज्ञापकक्रियाश्रयवाचकात्) सप्तमी स्यात् । A seventh case affix (‘ङि’, ‘ओस्’, ‘सुप्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes the one (agent/object) whose action (the timing of which is known) gives an indication of (the timing of) another action.
Note: A सप्तमी used in this manner is called भावलक्षण-सप्तमी or भाव-सप्तमी or सत्-सप्तमी or सति-सप्तमी। In English it is called Locative Absolute.
Note: The action (लक्षण-क्रिया) in the absolute clause is generally expressed by using a participle ending in a कृत् affix. This participle – being in grammatical agreement with the प्रातिपदिकम् which denotes the agent/object of the action – also takes the seventh case affix.

उदाहरणानि –

गोषु दुह्यमानासु गत: – He left when the cows were being milked.

छात्रेष्वधीयानेषु गत: – He left when the students were studying.

विकारहेतौ सति विक्रियन्ते येषां न चेतांसि त एव धीरा: – Those whose minds are not disturbed (even) when there is a cause for disturbance, they alone are courageous.

त्वयि नाथे (सति) प्रजानामशुभं कुत: – You (being) the Lord, how can any mishap befall the subjects?

Note: It is not idiomatic to have the agent/object of the absolute clause repeated in the principal sentence. So for example – गोषु दुह्यमानासु ता जलमपाययत् is not idiomatically proper. We should instead say दुह्यमाना गा जलमपाययत्। Similarly आगतेषु विप्रेषु तेभ्यो दक्षिणां देहि is not idiomatically proper. We should instead say आगतेभ्यो विप्रेभ्यो दक्षिणां देहि।

2-3-38 षष्ठी चानादरे । Video

वृत्तिः अनादराधिक्ये (अनादरे गम्यमाने सति) भावलक्षणे षष्ठीसप्तम्यौ स्त: । A sixth case also (in addition to a seventh case affix) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes the one (agent/object) whose action (the timing of which is known) gives an indication of (the timing of) another action, provided there is a sense of disrespect/disregard (‘in spite of.’)
Note: In this sense, the genitive absolute is used more often than the locative absolute.

उदाहरणम् –

रुदति रुदतो वा प्राव्राजीत् । रुदन्तं पुत्रादिकमनादृत्य सन्न्यस्तवानित्यर्थ: । He went forth (to become an ascetic) in spite of (his son etc) crying.

Note: Oftentimes we find the genitive absolute being used to denote simultaneity of actions with no sense of disrespect/disregard. For example, मातापित्रो: संवदतो: पुत्रोऽखेलत् The son played while (his) parents conversed.

2-3-39 स्वामीश्वराधिपतिदायादसाक्षिप्रतिभूप्रसूतैश्च । Video

वृत्तिः एतै: सप्तभिर्योगे षष्ठीसप्तम्यौ स्त: । A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) or a seventh case affix (‘ङि’, ‘ओस्’, ‘सुप्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with ‘स्वामी’ (master) or ‘ईश्वर’ (lord) or ‘अधिपति’ (ruler) or ‘दायाद’ (heir) or ‘साक्षिन्’ (witness) or ‘प्रतिभू’ (guarantor) or ‘प्रसूत’ (offspring.)
Note: षष्ठ्यामेव प्राप्तायां पाक्षिक-सप्तम्यर्थं वचनम् – This सूत्रम् is necessary for prescribing the optional seventh case in addition to the sixth case affix which is already available by 2-3-50 षष्ठी शेषे।

उदाहरणानि –

गवां गोषु वा स्वामी Master of the cows.

गवां गोषु वा प्रसूत: (गा एवानुभवितुं जात इत्यर्थ:) Born among the cows. (Born to experience cows only.)

But –

ग्रामस्य राजा King of the village. (ग्रामे राजा is incorrect.)

2-3-41 यतश्च निर्धारणम्‌ । Video

वृत्तिः जातिगुणक्रियासञ्ज्ञाभि: (विशिष्टस्य) समुदायादेकदेशस्य पृथक्करणं निर्धारणं यत: तत: षष्ठीसप्तम्यौ स्त: । A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) or a seventh case affix (‘ङि’, ‘ओस्’, ‘सुप्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes a group/whole from which an element/part is to be singled out based on a genus or quality or action or proper name.

उदाहरणानि –

नृणां नृषु वा क्षत्रिय: शूरतम: Among men, the Kṣatriya is the bravest.

गवां गोषु वा कृष्णा बहुक्षीरा Among cows, the black one gives much milk.

गच्छतां गच्छत्सु वा धावन् शीघ्र: Among those who are on the move, the one who runs is fast.

छात्राणां छात्रेषु वा मैत्र: पटु: Among the students, Maitra is smart.

2-3-42 पञ्चमी विभक्ते । Video

वृत्तिः विभागो विभक्तम् । निर्धार्यमाणस्य यत्र भेद एव तत्र पञ्चमी स्यात् । A fifth case affix (‘ङसिँ’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes a class or individual (thing or person) from which a separate class or individual is being distinguished (based on a genus or quality or action or name.)

उदाहरणम् –

माथुरा: पाटलिपुत्रकेभ्य आढ्यतरा: The people of Mathurā are more prosperous than those of Pāṭaliputra.

Note: इदं च सूत्रं बुद्धिप्रकल्पितापायमाश्रित्यापादानप्रकरणे भाष्ये प्रत्याख्यातम् As per the महाभाष्यम् we can manage without this सूत्रम्। Since there is a mental अपाय: (moving away) the सूत्रम् 1-4-24 ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् itself may be used here to assign the designation अपादानम् (and hence the fifth case affix by 2-3-28 अपादाने पञ्चमी।)

समास-प्रकरणम् ।

वृत्ति: (integration/aggregation) is defined as परार्थाभिधानम् – a word-form giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of its constituents. In Sanskrit, there are five kinds of वृत्ति: – (i) कृदन्तवृत्ति: (ref. 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) (ii) तद्धितघटितवृत्ति: (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) (iii) समासवृत्ति: (ref. 2-1-3 प्राक् कडारात्‌ समासः) (iv) एकशेषवृत्ति: (ref. 1-2-64 सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ) (v) सनाद्यन्तधातुवृत्ति: (ref. 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः)।

Note: सविशेषणानां वृत्तिर्न, वृत्तस्य वा विशेषणयोगो न। For example, ऋद्धस्य राज्ञ: पुरुष: – here we cannot compound राज्ञ: with पुरुष: because राज्ञ: is qualified by the adjective ऋद्धस्य। Conversely, once we form the compound राज्ञ: पुरुष: = राजपुरुष: we cannot bring in an adjective ऋद्धस्य to qualify राज्ञ:।

विभक्तिर्लुप्यते यत्र तदर्थस्तु प्रतीयते।
पदानां चैकपद्यं च समास: सोऽभिधीयते॥

A समास: (compound) is said to be that in which – (i) the case-ending (of its components) is lost but its sense remains and (ii) terms having the designation पदम् combine to form a single पदम्।

2-1-1 समर्थः पदविधिः । Video

वृत्तिः पदसंबन्‍धी यो विधिः स समर्थाश्रितो बोध्‍यः । An operation relating to terms having the designation पदम् (ref.1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम्) is to be understood to be conditioned on the terms being connected in sense.

उदाहरणम्

राज्ञ: पुरुष: = राजपुरुष:।

But –
भार्या राज्ञ: पुरुषो देवदत्तस्य – here we cannot form a compound between राज्ञ: and पुरुष: because they are not connected in sense. The connection is between – (i) राज्ञ: and भार्या and (ii) देवदत्तस्य and पुरुष:।

Note: This परिभाषा-सूत्रम् applies only to a पदविधिः and not to a वर्णविधिः। For example – तिष्ठतु दध्यानय तक्रम्। Even though दधि and आनय are not connected in sense, the सन्धि: operation between दधि + आनय = दध्यानय does take place because 6-1-77 इको यणचि is a वर्णविधिः and not a पदविधिः।

2-1-3 प्राक् कडारात्‌ समासः । Video

वृत्तिः कडाराः कर्मधारय इत्‍यतः प्राक् समास इत्‍यधिक्रियते । The designation समास: governs the section from this सूत्रम् down to the सूत्रम् 2-2-38 कडाराः कर्मधारये।

Note: प्राग्ग्रहणमावर्तते, तेन पूर्वं समाससञ्ज्ञा तत: सञ्ज्ञान्तरमपीति लभ्यते। तेनाव्ययीभावादिभि: समावेश: सिध्यति। The word प्राक् is taken twice – once as explicitly mentioned in the सूत्रम् and again as implied by the word कडारात्‌ (in which the fifth case has been used in connection with a word denoting direction – ref. 2-3-29.) Thus the designation समास: applies first (प्राक्) following which another designation (such as अव्ययीभाव:) may also apply (in spite of the restriction placed by the सूत्रम् 1-4-1 आ कडारादेका संज्ञा।)
Note: समस्यते (= एकीक्रियते) प्रयोक्तृभिरिति समास:। A compound is a word-form that is compacted (made in to one) by the speakers. The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘समास’ is derived by adding the affix घञ् (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-3-19 अकर्तरि च कारके संज्ञायाम्) to the verbal root √अस् (असुँ क्षेपणे ४. १०६) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘सम्’। The affix घञ् used here denotes the object of the action.

2-1-4 सह सुपा । Video

वृत्तिः सुप् सुपा सह वा समस्‍यते । A term ending in a सुँप् affix optionally compounds with another term ending in a सुँप् affix. (This implies that – in the classical language – a तिङन्तं पदम् cannot enter in to a compound.)
Note: Traditionally this सूत्रम् has been split (योगविभाग:) in to two parts – ‘सह’ and ‘सुपा’। This is done in order to use the first part ‘सह’ to justify the formation of those compounds which contain a तिङन्तं पदम्। Such compounds are seen only छन्दसि (in the Veda) and not in the classical language. Since we’re studying the classical language only, there is no need for us to split this सूत्रम्।
Note: सुँप् is the प्रत्याहार: containing the 21 nominal case endings – from ‘सुँ‘ to ‘सुप्‘ – listed in the सूत्रम् 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of सुँप् runs from the सूत्रम् 2-1-2 सुबामन्त्रिते पराङ्गवत्‌ स्वरे to all the rules down to 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वंद्वः।
Note: This सूत्रम् 2-1-4 is interpreted as a अधिकार-सूत्रम् as well as a विधि-सूत्रम्। As a अधिकार-सूत्रम् (a governing rule) it exerts its influence on all the rules which prescribe compounding of one term with another term. This section goes from this सूत्रम् down to 2-2-22 क्त्वा च। As a विधि-सूत्रम् it prescribes (optional) compounding between one term ending in a सुँप् affix with another term ending in a सुँप् affix. When we encounter an accepted usage (शिष्ट-प्रयोग:) of a compound which does not fall in any one of the designated categories like अव्ययीभाव: (ref. 2-1-5 अव्ययीभावः) etc, then we have to use this सूत्रम् 2-1-4 to justify the compounding. A compound thus formed is called a केवल-समास: or सामान्य-समास: or सुप्सुपा or सह सुपा।
Note: वृत्त्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्‍यं विग्रहः – The sentence which explains the meaning of the वृत्ति: (integrated/aggregated word-form) is called विग्रह: (dissolution/analysis.) स च लौकिकोऽलौकिकश्‍चेति द्विधा । विग्रह: is of two kinds – (i) लौकिक: common/popular and (ii) अलौकिक: (शास्त्रीय:) technical.
Note: There is a अलौकिक-विग्रह: for every compound. But on the other hand a लौकिक-विग्रह: only exists for those compounds where the compounding is optional. In the case of a नित्य-समास: either there is no लौकिक-विग्रह: possible at all or if there is one it has to be अस्वपद-लौकिक-विग्रह: (constructed using words which are not actually present in the compound.)

उदाहरणम् –

पूर्वं भूत: = भूतपूर्व: meaning ‘(that which has) occurred/been before.’

The लौकिक-विग्रह: is as shown above. The अलौकिक-विग्रह: is as follows:

पूर्व अम् भूत सुँ । This compound gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम् by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।
= भूतपूर्व 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः। Note: भूतपूर्वे चरडिति निर्देशात्‍पूर्वनिपातः – In the compound the term ‘भूत’ is placed in the prior position so as to be in conformity with the way in which पाणिनि: himself has used the compound in the सूत्रम् 5-3-53 भूतपूर्वे चरट्। In general, when there is no rule to tell us which term is to be placed in the prior position in a compound, we have to make the decision in accordance with accepted usage (शिष्ट-प्रयोग:)।
In the masculine gender, the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भूतपूर्व’ declines like राम-शब्द:।

Similarly –
अदृष्टपूर्वं हृषितोऽस्मि दृष्ट्वा भयेन च प्रव्यथितं मनो मे |
तदेव मे दर्शय देव रूपं प्रसीद देवेश जगन्निवास || गीता 11-45||

and

तेषामहं समुद्धर्ता मृत्युसंसारसागरात्‌ |
भवामि नचिरात्पार्थ मय्यावेशितचेतसाम्‌ || गीता 12-7||

अव्ययीभावसमासप्रकरणम्‌

2-1-5 अव्ययीभावः । Video

वृत्तिः अधिकारोऽयं प्राक् तत्‍पुरुषात् । The designation अव्ययीभावः (becoming an indeclinable) governs the section from this सूत्रम् down to the सूत्रम् 2-1-21 अन्यपदार्थे च संज्ञायाम्‌, so the compounds which are prescribed by the rules in this section get the designation अव्ययीभावः।
Note: Generally in a अव्ययीभाव-समास: the पूर्वपदम् (prior member of the compound) is a अव्ययम् while the उत्तरपदम् (latter member) is not. But the entire compound is always a अव्ययम् as per 1-1-41 अव्ययीभावश्च। अव्ययीभावः compounds are generally used as adverbs.
Note: The (सञ्ज्ञा) designation अव्ययीभावः is अन्वर्था (denotes its etymological meaning.) अनव्ययमव्ययं भवति = अव्ययीभावः। Hence अव्ययीभावः means that which was not a अव्ययम् transforms in to a अव्ययम्।
Note: Generally the प्रधान-पदम् (dominant member) of a अव्ययीभाव-समास: is the पूर्वपदम्। For example –
ये तु धर्म्यामृतमिदं यथोक्तं पर्युपासते |
श्रद्दधाना मत्परमा भक्तास्तेऽतीव मे प्रियाः || गीता 12-20||
उक्तमनतिक्रम्य = यथोक्तम् – not transgressing what has been said (above.) The primary meaning of the compound is expressed by the पूर्वपदम् ‘यथा’ – ‘not transgressing’/’in keeping with’/’accordingly.’

2-4-18 अव्ययीभावश्च । Video

वृत्तिः अयं नपुंसकं स्‍यात् । A अव्ययीभावः compound also is neuter in gender.
Note: Please do not confuse this सूत्रम् with the identically worded सूत्रम् 1-1-41 अव्ययीभावश्च।
Note: The purpose of this सूत्रम् is to facilitate the application of the सूत्रम् 1-2-47 ह्रस्वो नपुंसके प्रातिपदिकस्य।

Please see the example निर्मक्षिकम्‌ under 2-1-6.

1-2-47 ह्रस्वो नपुंसके प्रातिपदिकस्य । Video

वृत्तिः क्लीबे प्रातिपदिकस्याजन्तस्य ह्रस्व: स्यात् । In the neuter gender, the ending vowel (if any) of a प्रातिपदिकम् is shortened.

Please see the example निर्मक्षिकम्‌ under 2-1-6.

2-4-83 नाव्ययीभावादतोऽम्त्वपञ्चम्याः । Video

वृत्तिः अदन्‍तादव्‍ययीभावात्‍सुपो न लुक् किंतु तस्‍य पञ्चमीं विना अमादेशश्‍च स्‍यात् । This सूत्रम् has two parts – (a) नाव्ययीभावादत: – following a अव्ययीभावः compound ending (ref. 1-1-72) in the letter ‘अ’ a सुँप् affix does not take the लुक् elision (which would have been done by 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः) and (b) अम्त्वपञ्चम्याः – following a अव्ययीभावः compound ending (ref. 1-1-72) in the letter ‘अ’ a सुँप् affix – other than a fifth case affix – is substituted by अम्।
Note: This implies that following a अव्ययीभावः compound ending in the letter ‘अ’ a fifth case affix neither takes the लुक् elision nor is it replaced by अम्। The fifth case affix stays as it is.

Please see the examples उपकृष्णम्‌ and उपकृष्णात् under 2-1-6.

अत: किम्? अधिहरि। Since the अव्ययीभावः compound ‘अधिहरि’ does not end in the letter ‘अ’, 2-4-83 cannot stop 2-4-82 here.

2-4-84 तृतीयासप्तम्योर्बहुलम्‌ । Video
वृत्तिः अदन्‍तादव्‍ययीभावात्तृतीयासप्‍तम्‍योर्बहुलमम्‍भावः स्‍यात् । Following a अव्ययीभावः compound ending in the letter ‘अ’, a third case affix or a seventh case affix is substituted by अम् variously.
Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of अव्‍ययीभावात्, अत: and अम् comes from the prior सूत्रम् 2-4-83 in to this सूत्रम्।

Please see the examples उपकृष्णेन/उपकृष्णम्‌ and उपकृष्णे/उपकृष्णम्‌ under 2-1-6.

2-1-6 अव्ययं विभक्तिसमीपसमृद्धिव्यृद्ध्यर्थाभावात्ययासम्प्रतिशब्दप्रादुर्भावपश्चाद्यथानुपूर्व्ययौगपद्यसादृश्यसम्पत्तिसाकल्यान्तवचनेषु । Video

वृत्तिः विभक्‍त्‍यर्थादिषु वर्तमानमव्‍ययं सुबन्‍तेन सह नित्‍यं समस्‍यते सोऽव्‍ययीभावः । A अव्ययम्‌ (indeclinable) used in any one of the following meanings invariably compounds with a (syntactically related) term ending in a सुँप् affix to yield a अव्ययीभाव: compound –
(i) विभक्ति: – a case affix
(ii) समीपम्‌ – close by
(iii) समृद्धि: (ऋद्धेराधिक्यम्‌) – prosperity
(iv) व्यृद्धि: (विगता ऋद्धि:) – adversity
(v) अर्थाभाव: – absence of something
(vi) अत्यय: (ध्वंस:) – disappearance (passing away)
(vii) असम्प्रति – presently inappropriate
(viii) शब्दप्रादुर्भाव: – manifestation of a sound
(ix) पश्चाद् – following
(x) यथा (योग्यतावीप्सापदार्थानतिवृत्तिसादृश्यानि यथार्था:) – appropriateness, repetition, non-transgression of something, similarity
(xi) आनुपूर्व्यम्‌ – in orderly succession
(xii) यौगपद्यम्‌ – simultaneity
(xiii) सादृश्यम्‌ – similarity/resemblance. Note: यथार्थत्वेनैव सिद्धे पुन: सादृश्यग्रहणं गुणभूतेऽपि सादृश्ये यथा स्यादित्येवमर्थम्‌ – सादृश्यम्‌ is mentioned here again (even though it is already given as one of the meanings of यथा in (x) above) in order to allow compounding even when सादृश्यम्‌ is used in a secondary (adjectival) sense
(xiv) सम्पत्ति: (अनुरूप आत्मभाव:) – befitting state
(xv) साकल्यम्‌ – totality/completeness
(xvi) अन्त: – termination/end
Note: The term ‘वचन’ used at the end of the compound विभक्ति……वचनेषु connects with each one of the prior terms ‘विभक्ति’ etc in the compound.

(i) विभक्तौ –

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
हरौ = अधिहरि। (सप्तम्यर्थस्यैवात्र द्योतकोऽधि:।) अधिहरि means ‘pertaining to Lord Viṣṇu.’

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
हरि ङि + अधि 2-1-6
= अधि + हरि ङि 1-2-43, 2-2-30. Note: ‘अधि + हरि ङि’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= अधिहरि 2-4-71

अधिहरि + सुँ 4-1-2
= अधिहरि 1-1-41, 2-4-82

Note: Since the सूत्रम्‌ 2-1-6 अव्ययं विभक्तिसमीप….वचनेषु says ‘विभक्ति’, a अव्ययम्‌ which denotes any विभक्ति: would qualify for compounding. But as per the commentators only a अव्ययम्‌ which denotes a कारकम्‌ and that too only the अधिकरणम्‌ may be compounded using this सूत्रम्‌।

(ii) समीपे –

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
कृष्णस्य समीपम्‌ = उपकृष्णम्‌ = The vicinity of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
कृष्ण ङस् + उप 2-1-6
= उप + कृष्ण ङस् 1-2-43, 2-2-30. Note: ‘उप + कृष्ण ङस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= उपकृष्ण 2-4-71

उपकृष्ण + सुँ 4-1-2
= उपकृष्ण + अम् 2-4-83
= उपकृष्णम्‌ 6-1-107
For example – उपकृष्णं रम्यम्‌ – The vicinity of Lord Kṛṣṇa is delightful.

उपकृष्ण + अम् 4-1-2
= उपकृष्ण + अम् 2-4-83
= उपकृष्णम्‌ 6-1-107
For example – गोपिका उपकृष्णं ययु: – The gopīs went to the vicinity of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

उपकृष्ण + टा 4-1-2
= उपकृष्णेन 2-4-84, 7-1-12, 6-1-87
Optionally –
= उपकृष्ण + अम् 2-4-84
= उपकृष्णम्‌ 6-1-107
For example – उपकृष्णेन/उपकृष्णं विना न सुखम्‌ – There is no happiness without the vicinity of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

उपकृष्ण + ङे 4-1-2
= उपकृष्ण + अम् 2-4-83
= उपकृष्णम्‌ 6-1-107
For example – उपकृष्णं नम: – Salutations to the vicinity of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

उपकृष्ण + ङसिँ 4-1-2
= उपकृष्ण + ङसिँ 2-4-83
= उपकृष्णात् 7-1-12, 6-1-101
For example – उपकृष्णात् परं नास्ति – There is nothing superior to the vicinity of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

उपकृष्ण + ङस् 4-1-2
= उपकृष्ण + अम् 2-4-83
= उपकृष्णम्‌ 6-1-107
For example – उपकृष्णं माहात्म्यम्‌ – The greatness of the vicinity of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

उपकृष्ण + ङि 4-1-2
= उपकृष्णे 2-4-84, 1-3-8, 1-3-9, 6-1-87
Optionally –
= उपकृष्ण + अम् 2-4-84
= उपकृष्णम्‌ 6-1-107
For example – उपकृष्णे/उपकृष्णं तिष्ठत्यर्जुन: – Arjuna stays in the vicinity of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

(iii) समृद्धौ –

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
मद्राणां समृद्धि: = सुमद्रम्‌ = The prosperity of the residents of the Madra territory.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
मद्र आम्‌ + सु 2-1-6
= सु + मद्र आम्‌ 1-2-43, 2-2-30. Note: ‘सु + मद्र आम्‌’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= सुमद्र 2-4-71

सुमद्र + सुँ 4-1-2
= सुमद्र + अम् 2-4-83
= सुमद्रम्‌ 6-1-107

(iv) व्यृद्धौ –

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
यवनानां व्यृद्धि: = दुर्यवनम्‌ = The adversity (lack of prosperity) of the Greeks.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
यवन आम्‌ + दुर् 2-1-6
= दुर् + यवन आम्‌ 1-2-43, 2-2-30. Note: ‘दुर् + यवन आम्‌’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= दुर्यवन 2-4-71

दुर्यवन + सुँ 4-1-2
= दुर्यवन + अम् 2-4-83
= दुर्यवनम्‌ 6-1-107

(v) अर्थाभावे –

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
मक्षिकाणामभाव: = निर्मक्षिकम् = Absence of flies. (Used idiomatically to refer to mean ‘loneliness.’)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
मक्षिका आम्‌ + निर् 2-1-6
= निर् + मक्षिका आम्‌ 1-2-43, 2-2-30. Note: ‘निर् + मक्षिका आम्‌’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= निर्मक्षिका 2-4-71
= निर्मक्षिक 2-4-18, 1-2-47, 1-1-52

निर्मक्षिक + सुँ 4-1-2
= निर्मक्षिक + अम् 2-4-83
= निर्मक्षिकम्‌ 6-1-107

Similarly भिक्षाणामभाव: = दुर्भिक्षम्‌ = Absence of alms.

(vi) अत्यये –

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
हिमस्यात्यय: = निर्हिमम्‌ = The passing away of winter.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
हिम ङस् + निर् 2-1-6
= निर् + हिम ङस् 1-2-43, 2-2-30. Note: ‘निर् + हिम ङस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= निर्हिम 2-4-71

निर्हिम + सुँ 4-1-2
= निर्हिम + अम् 2-4-83
= निर्हिमम्‌ 6-1-107

(vii) असम्प्रति –

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
निद्रा सम्प्रति न युज्यते = अतिनिद्रम्‌ = Sleep is presently inappropriate. (This is not the time for sleep.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
निद्रा सुँ + अति 2-1-6
= अति + निद्रा सुँ 1-2-43, 2-2-30. Note: ‘अति + निद्रा सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= अतिनिद्रा 2-4-71
= अतिनिद्र 2-4-18, 1-2-47, 1-1-52

अतिनिद्र + सुँ 4-1-2
= अतिनिद्र + अम् 2-4-83
= अतिनिद्रम्‌ 6-1-107

For example – उत्तिष्ठ! अतिनिद्रं वर्तते – Get up! This is not the time for sleep.

(viii) शब्दप्रादुर्भावे –

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
हरिशब्दस्य प्रकाश: = इतिहरि = The exclamation ‘Hari.’

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
हरि ङस् + इति 2-1-6
= इति + हरि ङस् 1-2-43, 2-2-30. Note: ‘इति + हरि ङस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= इतिहरि 2-4-71

इतिहरि + सुँ 4-1-2
= इतिहरि 1-1-41, 2-4-82

For example – भक्तस्य गृह इतिहरि वर्तते – There is the cry/exclamation ‘Hari’ in the home of the devotee.

Similarly, तत्पाणिनि – The popularity of the word ‘Paṇini.’

(ix) पश्चात् –

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
पदानां पश्चात् = अनुपदम् = Following/behind the steps.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
पद आम्‌ + अनु 2-1-6
= अनु + पद आम्‌ 1-2-43, 2-2-30. Note: ‘अनु + पद आम्‌’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= अनुपद 2-4-71

अनुपद + सुँ 4-1-2
= अनुपद + अम् 2-4-83
= अनुपदम्‌ 6-1-107

For example – पुरो गच्छतु भवान्, अहमप्यनुपदमागत एव – Please go ahead, sir. I’ll also follow immediately behind your footsteps.

Note: पश्चाच्छब्दस्य तु नायं समास:। ‘तत: पश्चात्‌ स्रंस्यते’ इति भाष्यप्रयोगात्‌। But the term पश्चात् itself cannot be used in the meaning of पश्चात् to form a अव्ययीभाव: compound using the सूत्रम् 2-1-6. We know this from the fact that in the महाभाष्यम् we find the usage ‘तत: पश्चात्‌ स्रंस्यते’ (under the सूत्रम् 1-1-57 अचः परस्मिन् पूर्वविधौ।) If ‘तत: पश्चात्‌’ were to be a compound (formed using the सूत्रम् 2-1-6), पश्चात्‌ would be placed in the prior position in the compound. Hence we know that ‘तत: पश्चात्‌’ is not a अव्ययीभाव: compound. And since the compounding prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-1-6 is obligatory we can conclude that the term पश्चात् itself cannot be used in the meaning of पश्चात् to form a अव्ययीभाव: compound using the सूत्रम् 2-1-6.

(x) यथा (योग्यतावीप्सापदार्थानतिवृत्तिसादृश्यानि यथार्था:) –

योग्यतायाम्‌ –

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
रूपस्य योग्यम्‌ = अनुरूपम्‌ = fit/appropriate for the form. (in a suitable manner.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
रूप ङस् + अनु 2-1-6
= अनु + रूप ङस् 1-2-43, 2-2-30. Note: ‘अनु + रूप ङस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= अनुरूप 2-4-71

अनुरूप + सुँ 4-1-2
= अनुरूप + अम् 2-4-83
= अनुरूपम्‌ 6-1-107

For example – मूर्तिमनुरूपमलङ्कुरु – Decorate the idol in a suitable manner.

वीप्सायाम्‌ (व्याप्तुमिच्छायाम्‌) –

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
दिने दिने = प्रतिदिनम्‌ = day after day = every day.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
दिन ङि + प्रति 2-1-6
= प्रति + दिन ङि 1-2-43, 2-2-30. Note: ‘प्रति + दिन ङि’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम् by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= प्रतिदिन 2-4-71

प्रतिदिन + सुँ 4-1-2
= प्रतिदिन + अम् 2-4-83
= प्रतिदिनम्‌ 6-1-107

For example – प्रतिदिनं भगवद्गीतां पठ – Read the Bhagawad Geeta everyday.

पदार्थानतिवृत्तौ –

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
शक्तिमनतिक्रम्य = यथाशक्ति = not transgressing one’s strength/ability = as per one’s strength/ability

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
शक्ति अम्‌ + यथा 2-1-6
= यथा + शक्ति अम्‌ 1-2-43, 2-2-30. Note: ‘यथा + शक्ति अम्‌’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम् by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= यथाशक्ति 2-4-71

यथाशक्ति + सुँ 4-1-2
= यथाशक्ति 1-1-41, 2-4-82

For example – यथाशक्ति युध्यस्व – Fight as per your strength/ability.

सादृश्ये –

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
हरे: सादृश्यम्‌ = सहरि = similarity to Lord Viṣṇu

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
हरि टा/ङस् + सह 2-1-6, 2-3-72
= सह + हरि टा/ङस् 1-2-43, 2-2-30. Note: ‘सह + हरि टा/ङस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम् by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= सहहरि 2-4-71
= सहरि 6-3-81, 1-1-55

सहरि + सुँ 4-1-2
= सहरि 1-1-41, 2-4-82

(xi) आनुपूर्व्ये –

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
ज्येष्ठस्यानुपूर्व्येण = अनुज्येष्ठम्‌ = In order of seniority

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
ज्येष्ठ ङस् + अनु 2-1-6
= अनु + ज्येष्ठ ङस् 1-2-43, 2-2-30. Note: ‘अनु + ज्येष्ठ ङस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= अनुज्येष्ठ 2-4-71

अनुज्येष्ठ + टा 4-1-2
= अनुज्येष्ठ + अम्/टा 2-4-84
= अनुज्येष्ठम्‌ 6-1-107 or अनुज्येष्ठेन 7-1-12, 6-1-87

For example – अनुज्येष्ठं प्रविशन्तु भवन्त: – You sirs enter in order of seniority.

(xii) यौगपद्ये –

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
चक्रेणैककाले = सचक्रम्‌ = Simultaneously with the wheel

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
चक्र टा + सह 2-1-6, 2-3-19
= सह + चक्र टा 1-2-43, 2-2-30. Note: ‘सह + चक्र टा’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= सहचक्र 2-4-71
= सचक्र 6-3-81, 1-1-55

सचक्र + सुँ 4-1-2
= सचक्र + अम् 2-4-83
= सचक्रम्‌ 6-1-107

For example – सचक्रं शङ्खं धेहि (शङ्खं चक्रेणैककाले धारय) – Hold the conch simultaneously with the wheel.

(xiii) सादृश्ये –

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
सख्या सदृश: = ससखि = Similar to (his) friend.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
सखि टा/ङस् + सह 2-1-6, 2-3-72
= सह + सखि टा/ङस् 1-2-43, 2-2-30. Note: ‘सह + सखि टा/ङस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= सहसखि 2-4-71
= ससखि 6-3-81, 1-1-55

ससखि + सुँ 4-1-2
= ससखि 1-1-41, 2-4-82

Note: यथार्थत्वेनैव सिद्धे पुन: सादृश्यग्रहणं गुणभूतेऽपि सादृश्ये यथा स्यादित्येवमर्थम्‌ – Note: सादृश्यम्‌ has already been stated as one of the meanings of यथा in (x) above. Then why is it being repeated here? It is to allow compounding even when सादृश्यम्‌ is secondary (adjectival) in meaning. For example – समन्दिरमिदं गृहम्‌ – This house is like a temple. (In this sentence the house is primary while similarity to the temple is secondary.)

(xiv) सम्पत्तौ –

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
क्षत्त्राणां सम्पत्ति: (क्षत्त्रियाणां योग्यं क्षत्त्रत्वम्) = सक्षत्त्रम् = Kṣhatriya character which is befitting Kṣhatriyas.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
क्षत्त्र आम् + सह 2-1-6
= सह + क्षत्त्र आम् 1-2-43, 2-2-30. Note: ‘सह + क्षत्त्र आम्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= सहक्षत्त्र 2-4-71
= सक्षत्त्र 6-3-81, 1-1-55

सक्षत्त्र + सुँ 4-1-2
= सक्षत्त्र + अम् 2-4-83
= सक्षत्त्रम्‌ 6-1-107

Note: ऋद्धेराधिक्यं समृद्धि:, अनुरूप: (योग्य:) आत्मभाव: (आत्मन: = समस्यमानोत्तरपदस्य भाव:) संपत्तिरिति भेद:। – Note: समृद्धि: stands for prosperity while सम्पत्ति: (as used in this सूत्रम्‌) stands for character/behavior which is befitting oneself.
For example – सक्षत्त्रमिक्ष्वाकूणाम्‌ – The descendants of Ikṣhwāku have a Kṣhatriya character which is befitting Kṣhatriyas.

(xv) साकल्ये –

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
तृणमप्यपरित्यज्य सतृणमत्ति। साकल्येनेत्यर्थ:। न त्वत्र तृणभक्षणे तात्पर्यम्‌। (Someone) eats everything down to a blade of grass. It means that someone eats everything. It doesn’t mean that someone literally eats a blade of grass.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
तृण टा + सह 2-1-6, 2-3-19
= सह + तृण टा 1-2-43, 2-2-30. Note: ‘सह + तृण टा’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= सहतृण 2-4-71
= सतृण 6-3-81, 1-1-55

सतृण + सुँ 4-1-2
= सतृण + अम् 2-4-83
= सतृणम्‌ 6-1-107

(xvi) अन्ते –

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
अग्निग्रन्थपर्यन्तम्‌ (अधीते) = साग्नि (अधीते) = (Someone studies) up to the end of the text concerning Fire.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
अग्नि टा + सह 2-1-6, 2-3-19
= सह + अग्नि टा 1-2-43, 2-2-30. Note: ‘सह + अग्नि टा’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= सह अग्नि 2-4-71
= स अग्नि 6-3-81, 1-1-55
= साग्नि 6-1-101

साग्नि + अम्‌ 4-1-2
= साग्नि 1-1-41, 2-4-82

Similarly सभाष्यमधीते।

Note: As per some grammarians (particularly नागेश:) – एतत्सूत्रोपात्तानामव्ययानां नाव्ययीभाव: – The अव्ययानि that are specifically mentioned in this सूत्रम्‌ cannot be used (in their own meaning) to form a अव्ययीभाव: compound using this सूत्रम्‌। Hence the अव्ययं पश्चात् itself cannot be compounded in the meaning of पश्चात्। Similarly the अव्ययं युगपत् itself cannot be compounded in the meaning of यौगपद्यम्‌। And the next सूत्रम् 2-1-7 यथासादृश्ये should be used to compound the अव्ययं यथा itself in the meaning of यथा।

6-3-81 अव्ययीभावे चाकाले । Video

वृत्तिः सहस्य स: स्यादव्ययीभावे, न तु काले । In a अव्ययीभाव: compound, the अव्ययम्‌ (indeclinable) ‘सह’ is replaced by ‘स’ provided the latter member of the compound does not denote a period of time.

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
तृणमप्यपरित्यज्य सतृणमत्ति। साकल्येनेत्यर्थ:। न त्वत्र तृणभक्षणे तात्पर्यम्‌। (Someone) eats everything without leaving out even a scrap (blade of grass.) It means that someone eats everything. (It doesn’t mean that someone literally eats a blade of grass.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
तृण टा + सह 2-1-6, 2-3-19
= सह + तृण टा 1-2-43, 2-2-30. Note: ‘सह + तृण टा’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम् by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= सहतृण 2-4-71
= सतृण 6-3-81, 1-1-55

सतृण + सुँ 4-1-2
= सतृण + अम् 2-4-83
= सतृणम्‌ 6-1-107

काले तु सहपूर्वाह्णम्‌ – But when the latter member of the compound does denote a period of time, ‘सह’ is not replaced by ‘स’। For example – सहपूर्वाह्णम्‌ (पूर्वाह्णमप्यपरित्यज्य) – without leaving out even the forenoon.

2-1-11 विभाषा । Video

वृत्तिः अधिकारोऽयम्‌ । This is a अधिकार-सूत्रम् (governing rule) which exerts its influence on the rules from here down to 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वंद्वः ।
Note: एतत्सामर्थ्यादेव प्राचीनानां नित्यसमासत्वम्‌। The fact that the अधिकार: of ‘विभाषा’ is starting from this सूत्रम् 2-1-11 implies that the compounds prescribed by the rules prior to 2-1-11 are obligatory (not optional.) सुप्सुपेति तु न नित्यसमास:। But the general compounding (prescribed by 2-1-4 सह सुपा with the help of the अनुवृत्ति: of ‘सुप्’ from 2-1-2) of one term ending in a सुँप् affix with another term ending in a सुँप् affix is not obligatory. (How do we know this?) ‘अव्ययम्‌ ‘ इत्यादिसमासविधानज्ञापकात्‌। Because if the general compounding prescribed by सुप्सुपा were obligatory there would have been no need to again prescribe obligatory compounding by 2-1-6 etc.

2-1-12 अपपरिबहिरञ्चवः पञ्चम्या । Video

वृत्तिः वा समस्यन्ते सोऽव्ययीभाव: । The indeclinables ‘अप’, ‘परि’, ‘बहिस्’ as well as those ending in the verbal root √अञ्च् (अञ्चुँ गतिपूजनयोः १. २१५) optionally compound with a पदम् ending in a fifth case affix to yield a अव्ययीभाव: compound.
Note: अपपरियोगे ‘पञ्चम्यपाङ्परिभि:’ इति पञ्चमी विहिता, अञ्चूत्तरपदयोगेऽपि ‘अन्यारात्’ इत्यादिना विहितैव। तेनात्र ‘पञ्चम्या’ इति ग्रहणं ‘बहिर्योगे पञ्चमी भवति’ इति ज्ञापनार्थम्। The सूत्रम् 2-3-10 पञ्चम्यपाङ्परिभिः prescribes a fifth case affix following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with ‘अप’/’परि’। Similarly the सूत्रम् 2-3-29 अन्यारादितरर्तेदिक्‌छब्दाञ्चूत्तरपदाजाहियुक्ते prescribes a fifth case affix following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with a (compound) word ending in the verbal root √अञ्च् (अञ्चुँ गतिपूजनयोः १. २१५). Hence the mention of ‘पञ्चम्या’ in this सूत्रम् 2-1-12 is to indicate that a fifth case affix is to be used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with ‘बहिस्’।
Note: The सूत्रम् 5-3-30 अञ्चेर्लुक् is used to form indeclinables ending in the verbal root √अञ्च् (अञ्चुँ गतिपूजनयोः १. २१५).

उदाहरणानि –

अपविष्णु/परिविष्णु संसार: or optionally अप/परि विष्णो: संसार:। (विष्णुं वर्जयित्वा संसार इत्यर्थ:) – Excluding Lord Viṣṇu is the circuit of worldly life.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
विष्णु ङसिँ + अप/परि 2-1-12. Note: As per 1-4-88 अपपरी वर्जने, ‘अप’/’परि’ has the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: here. Hence as per 2-3-10 पञ्चम्यपाङ्परिभिः, a fifth case affix (ङसिँ) is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विष्णु’ co-occurring with the कर्मप्रवचनीय: ‘अप’/’परि’।
= अप/परि + विष्णु ङसिँ 1-2-43, 2-2-30. Note: ‘अप/परि + विष्णु ङसिँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम् by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= अपविष्णु/परिविष्णु 2-4-71

अपविष्णु/परिविष्णु + सुँ 4-1-2
= अपविष्णु/परिविष्णु 1-1-41, 2-4-82

Similarly –

बहिर्वनम्‌ or optionally बहिर्वनात्‌ – Outside the village.
प्राग्वनम्‌ or optionally प्राग्वनात्‌ – To the East of or prior to the village.

2-1-13 आङ् मर्यादाभिविध्योः । Video

वृत्तिः एतयोराङ्‌ पञ्चम्यन्तेन वा समस्यते सोऽव्ययीभाव: । The indeclinable ‘आङ्’ – when used in the meaning of मर्यादा ‘up to (but excluding) a limit’ or अभिविधि: ‘up to (and including) a limit’ – optionally compounds with a पदम् ending in a fifth case affix to yield a अव्ययीभाव: compound.
Note: विना तेनेति मर्यादा – ‘up to (but excluding) a limit’ is termed as मर्यादा। सह तेनेत्यभिविधि: – ‘up to (and including) a limit’ is termed as अभिविधि:।

उदाहरणम् –

आमुक्ति संसार: or optionally आ मुक्ते: संसार:। The circuit of worldly life extend up to – but not including – liberation.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
मुक्ति ङसिँ + आङ् 2-1-13. Note: As per 1-4-89 आङ् मर्यादावचने, ‘आङ्’ has the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: here. Hence as per 2-3-10 पञ्चम्यपाङ्परिभिः, a fifth case affix (ङसिँ) is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मुक्ति’ co-occurring with the कर्मप्रवचनीय: ‘आङ्’।
= आङ् + मुक्ति ङसिँ 1-2-43, 2-2-30. Note: ‘आङ् + मुक्ति ङसिँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= आमुक्ति 2-4-71, 1-3-3, 1-3-9

आमुक्ति + सुँ 4-1-2
= आमुक्ति 1-1-41, 2-4-82

Similarly –

आबालं हरिभक्ति: – आ बालेभ्यो हरिभक्ति: । Devotion to Lord Viṣṇu extends up to the young boys (included.)

4-1-76 तद्धिताः । Video

वृत्तिः आपञ्चमसमाप्‍तेरधिकारोऽयम् । This is a अधिकार: (governing rule) which governs the section from this सूत्रम् all the way down to the end of the Fifth Chapter of the अष्टाध्यायी, so the affixes which are prescribed by the rules in this section get the designation ‘तद्धित’।
Note: The अधिकार: of 4-1-76 तद्धिताः is contained within the अधिकार: of 4-1-1 ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्‌ which itself is contained within the अधिकार: of 3-1-1 प्रत्ययः, 3-1-2 परश्च। All these three अधिकारा: end at the end of the Fifth Chapter of the अष्टाध्यायी।
Note: The commentators explain the term तद्धिताः as follows – तेभ्य: (प्रयोगेभ्य:) हिता: – The तद्धिताः affixes are useful in deriving शिष्ट-प्रयोगा: (word-forms that are used by scholars.)

5-4-68 समासान्ताः । Video

वृत्तिः आपादसमाप्‍तेरधिकारोऽयम् । This is a अधिकार: (governing rule) which governs the section from this सूत्रम् down to the end of (the fourth quarter of) the Fifth Chapter of the अष्टाध्यायी, so the affixes which are prescribed by the rules in this section become the ending members of the compounds to which they are prescribed.
Note: The अधिकार: of 5-4-68 समासान्ताः is contained within the अधिकार: of 4-1-76 तद्धिताः which itself is contained within the अधिकार: of 4-1-1 ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्‌ which itself is contained within the अधिकार: of 3-1-1 प्रत्ययः, 3-1-2 परश्च। All these four अधिकारा: end at the end of the Fifth Chapter of the अष्टाध्यायी।

5-4-107 अव्ययीभावे शरत्प्रभृतिभ्यः । Video

वृत्तिः शरदादिभ्यष्टच्‌ स्यात्समासान्तोऽव्ययीभावे । In a अव्ययीभाव: compound the तद्धित: affix टच् is prescribed following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शरद्’ etc and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.
Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of टच् comes in to this सूत्रम् from the सूत्रम् 5-4-91 राजाह:सखिभ्यष्टच्‌।
Note: The class of प्रातिपदिकानि ‘शरद्’ etc is listed as follows – शरद् । विपाश्‌ । अनस्‌ । मनस्‌ । उपानह्‌ । दिव्‌ । हिमवत्‌ । अनडुह्‌ । दिश्‌ । दृश्‌ । विश्‌ । चेतस्‌ । चतुर्‌ । त्यद् । तद् । यद् । कियत्‌ ।
Note: Some of the terms listed in the शरत्प्रभृतिगण: end in a letter belonging to the प्रत्याहार: ‘झय्’। In the absence of this सूत्रम् 5-4-107, the सूत्रम् 5-4-111 झयः would have only optionally prescribed the समासान्त-प्रत्यय: टच् following a अव्ययीभाव: compound ending in one of these terms. But now this सूत्रम् 5-4-107 prescribes it necessarily.

उदाहरणम् –

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
शरद: समीपम्‌ = उपशरदम्‌ = Close to autumn.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
शरद् ङस् + उप 2-1-6
= उप + शरद् ङस् 1-2-43, 2-2-30. Note: ‘उप + शरद् ङस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= उपशरद् 2-4-71
= उपशरद् + टच् 5-4-107
= उपशरद् + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-7, 1-3-9
= उपशरद

उपशरद + सुँ 4-1-2
= उपशरद + अम् 2-4-83. Note: Had the affix टच् not been added (by 5-4-107) we would not have been able to apply 2-4-83 because the compound would have ended in the letter ‘द्’ and not the letter ‘अ’। Hence 2-4-82 would have applied giving an undesirable form.
= उपशरदम्‌ 6-1-107

2-1-14 लक्षणेनाभिप्रती आभिमुख्ये । Video

वृत्तिः आभिमुख्यद्योतकावभिप्रती चिह्नवाचिना सह वा समस्येते सोऽव्ययीभाव: । The indeclinable ‘अभि’ or ‘प्रति’ – when used in the meaning of आभिमुख्यम् ‘facing towards’/’in the direction of’ – optionally compounds with a सुबन्तं पदम् (a पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix) which denotes the mark/target and the resulting compound is a अव्ययीभावः।

उदाहरणम् –

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
अग्निमभि = अभ्यग्नि = facing towards (in the direction of) fire.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
अग्नि अम् + अभि 2-1-14. Note: As per 1-4-91 अभिरभागे, ‘अभि’ has the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: here. Hence as per 2-3-8 कर्मप्रवचनीययुक्ते द्वितीया, a second case affix (अम्) is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अग्नि’ co-occurring with the कर्मप्रवचनीय: ‘अभि’।
= अभि + अग्नि अम् 1-2-43, 2-2-30. Note: ‘अभि + अग्नि अम्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम् by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= अभि + अग्नि 2-4-71
= अभ्यग्नि 6-1-77

अभ्यग्नि + सुँ 4-1-2
= अभ्यग्नि 1-1-41, 2-4-82

अभ्यग्नि शलभा: पतन्ति – अग्निमभि शलभा: पतन्ति – Moths fall towards the fire. (Moths fall making the fire their target.)

प्रतिपरसमनुभ्योऽक्ष्ण: । गण-सूत्रम् (in the शरत्प्रभृतिगण: of the गणपाठ:) । Video

In a अव्ययीभाव: compound the तद्धित: affix टच् is prescribed following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अक्षि’ – provided ‘अक्षि’ is preceded by either ‘प्रति’, ‘पर’, ‘सम्’ or ‘अनु’ – and this affix टच् becomes the ending member of the compound.

उदाहरणानि –

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
अक्षिणी प्रति = प्रत्यक्षम् = facing towards (in front of) the eyes

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
अक्षि औट् + प्रति 2-1-14. Note: As per 1-4-90 लक्षणेत्थम्भूताख्यानभागवीप्सासु प्रतिपर्यनवः, ‘प्रति’ has the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: here. Hence as per 2-3-8 कर्मप्रवचनीययुक्ते द्वितीया, a second case affix (‘औट्’) is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अक्षि’ co-occurring with the कर्मप्रवचनीय: ‘प्रति’।
= प्रति + अक्षि औट् 1-2-43, 2-2-30. Note: ‘प्रति + अक्षि औट्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम् by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= प्रति + अक्षि 2-4-71
= प्रत्यक्षि 6-1-77
= प्रत्यक्षि + टच् by the गण-सूत्रम् ‘प्रतिपरसमनुभ्योऽक्ष्ण:’
= प्रत्यक्षि + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-7, 1-3-9
= प्रत्यक्ष् + अ 1-4-18, 6-4-148
= प्रत्यक्ष

प्रत्यक्ष + सुँ 4-1-2
= प्रत्यक्ष + अम् 2-4-83
= प्रत्यक्षम्‌ 6-1-107

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
अक्ष्ण: परम् = परोक्षम् = beyond the range of sight (perception.)
Note: वृत्तिविषये ‘अक्षि’शब्द इन्द्रियमात्रपर: – in the compound ‘परोक्ष’ the word ‘अक्षि’ stands for not just the eye/sight but any sense organ in general.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
अक्षि ङसिँ + पर सुँ Note: समासान्तविधानसामर्थ्यादव्ययीभाव: – (Even though ‘पर’ is not a अव्ययम् and there is no rule that prescribes the formation of the अव्ययीभाव: compound ‘परोक्ष’,) the fact that a समासान्त-प्रत्यय: (an affix (‘टच्’) at the end of a compound) is being prescribed tells us that a अव्ययीभाव: compound is allowed here.
= परो सुँ + अक्षि ङसिँ Note: We know that the final form of the compound is ‘परोक्ष’ because पाणिनि: himself has used this form in the सूत्रम् 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिट्। In order to get this desired form ‘परोक्ष’, the term ‘पर सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound and the ending letter (‘अ’) of ‘पर’ is replaced by ‘ओ’।
‘परो सुँ + अक्षि ङसिँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम् by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= परो + अक्षि 2-4-71
= परोक्षि 6-1-109
= परोक्षि + टच् by the गण-सूत्रम् ‘प्रतिपरसमनुभ्योऽक्ष्ण:’
= परोक्षि + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-7, 1-3-9
= परोक्ष् + अ 1-4-18, 6-4-148
= परोक्ष

परोक्ष + सुँ 4-1-2
= परोक्ष + अम् 2-4-83
= परोक्षम्‌ 6-1-107

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
अक्ष्णोर्योग्यम् = समक्षम् = Visibly (literally – ‘fit/appropriate for the eyes’) which means ‘in the presence of.’

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
अक्षि ओस् + सम् 2-1-6
= सम् + अक्षि ओस् 1-2-43, 2-2-30. Note: ‘सम् + अक्षि ओस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= समक्षि 2-4-71
= समक्षि + टच् by the गण-सूत्रम् ‘प्रतिपरसमनुभ्योऽक्ष्ण:’
= समक्षि + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-7, 1-3-9
= समक्ष् + अ 1-4-18, 6-4-148
= समक्ष

समक्ष + सुँ 4-1-2
= समक्ष + अम् 2-4-83
= समक्षम्‌ 6-1-107

Similarly अक्ष्णो: पश्चात् = अन्वक्षम्‌ = Afterwards (literally – ‘behind the eyes.’)

5-4-108 अनश्च । Video

वृत्तिः अन्नन्तादव्ययीभावाट्टच्‌ स्यात्‌ । Following a अव्ययीभाव: compound ending in ‘अन्’ the तद्धित: affix टच् is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.
Note: The term अन: is qualifying अव्ययीभावात्। Hence as per 1-1-72 येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य, we get the meaning अन्नन्तादव्ययीभावात्‌।
Note: If a अव्ययीभाव: compound ends in a neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ending in ‘अन्’ then the next सूत्रम् 5-4-109 नपुंसकादन्यतरस्याम्‌ only optionally prescribes the affix टच् following such a compound. For example चर्मण: समीपम् = उपचर्मम् or उपचर्म।

उदाहरणम् –

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
आत्मनि = अध्यात्मम् = pertaining to the Self.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
आत्मन् ङि + अधि 2-1-6
= अधि + आत्मन् ङि 1-2-43, 2-2-30. Note: ‘अधि + आत्मन् ङि’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= अधि + आत्मन् 2-4-71
= अध्यात्मन् 6-1-77
= अध्यात्मन् + टच् 5-4-108
= अध्यात्मन् + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-7, 1-3-9

Example continued under 6-4-144

6-4-144 नस्तद्धिते । Video

वृत्तिः नान्तस्य भस्य टेर्लोप: स्यात्तद्धिते । The ‘टि’ portion (ref. 1-1-64 अचोऽन्त्यादि टि) of a अङ्गम् (base) is elided provided the अङ्गम् –
i) has the designation ‘भ’ (ref. 1-4-18 यचि भम्)
ii) ends in the letter ‘न्’ and
iii) is followed by a तद्धित: affix

Example continued from 5-4-108

अध्यात्मन् + अ Note: The अङ्गम् ‘अध्यात्मन्’ has the designation ‘भ’ here by 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows 6-4-144 to apply in the next step.
= अध्यात्म् + अ 6-4-144, 1-1-64
= अध्यात्म

अध्यात्म + सुँ 4-1-2
= अध्यात्म + अम् 2-4-83
= अध्यात्मम्‌ 6-1-107

अथ तत्पुरुषसमासप्रकरणम्‌

2-1-22 तत्पुरुषः । Video

वृत्तिः अधिकारोऽयम्‌। प्राग्बहुव्रीहे: । The designation तत्पुरुषः governs the section from this सूत्रम् down to (but not including) the सूत्रम् 2-2-23 शेषो बहुव्रीहिः, so the compounds which are prescribed by the rules in this section get the designation तत्पुरुषः।
Note: तत्पुरुषः is itself a compound of the तत्पुरुषः class. तस्य पुरुष: = तत्पुरुषः।
Note: Generally the प्रधान-पदम् (dominant member) of a तत्पुरुष-समास: is the उत्तरपदम्। For example when we say राजपुरुषमानय – bring the king’s man – only the man is brought and not the king. Hence ‘पुरुष’ (man) has प्राधान्यम् in the compound ‘राजपुरुष’।
Note: Recall that (as explained under 2-1-3) – the designation समास: co-exists with the designation तत्पुरुषः।

2-1-23 द्विगुश्च । Video

वृत्तिः द्विगुरपि तत्‍पुरुषसंज्ञकः स्‍यात् । A द्विगु: compound (ref. 2-1-52 संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः) also has the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: Recall that the सूत्रम् 2-1-22 तत्पुरुषः as well as 2-1-52 संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः is in the अधिकार: of 1-4-1 आ कडारादेका संज्ञा। Hence in the absence of this सूत्रम् a द्विगु: compound would not have got the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: समासान्त: प्रयोजनम्‌ – The purpose of assigning the designation तत्पुरुष: to a द्विगु: compound is to enable a समासान्त: affix (ref. 5-4-86 to 5-4-105) prescribed to a तत्पुरुष: compound to also apply to a द्विगु: compound. For example पञ्चराजम् (ref. 5-4-91 राजाह:सखिभ्यष्टच्‌।)
Note: इदं सूत्रं त्यक्तुं शक्यम्‌। संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुश्च इति पठित्वा चकारबलेन संज्ञाद्वयसमावेशस्य सुवचत्वात्‌। As per the सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी this सूत्रम् may be discarded. Why? Because it is easier to add ‘च’ to the सूत्रम् 2-1-52 संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः making it संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुश्। By force of the mention of ‘च’, the two designations तत्पुरुष: and द्विगु: would co-exist (in spite of 1-4-1 आ कडारादेका संज्ञा।)

2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः । Video

वृत्तिः एतयोः परपदस्‍येव लिङ्गं स्‍यात् । The gender of a तत्पुरुष: compound as well as a द्वन्द्व: compound is the same as the gender of the latter member of the compound.

For example –

कुक्कुटमयूर्याविमे । The द्वन्द्व: compound कुक्कुटमयूर्यौ (= कुक्कुटश्च मयूरी च) is feminine in gender because the latter member ‘मयूरी’ of the compound is feminine.
मयूरीकुक्कुटाविमौ । The द्वन्द्व: compound मयूरीकुक्कुटौ (= मयूरी च कुक्कुटश्च) is masculine in gender because the latter member ‘कुक्कुट’ of the compound is masculine.

राजपुरुषोऽयम् । The तत्पुरुष: compound राजपुरुष: (= राज्ञ: पुरुष:) is masculine in gender because the latter member ‘पुरुष’ of the compound is masculine.
आत्मज्ञानमिदम् । The तत्पुरुष: compound आत्मज्ञानम् (= आत्मनो ज्ञानम्) is neuter in gender because the latter member ‘ज्ञान’ of the compound is neuter.

2-1-24 द्वितीया श्रितातीतपतितगतात्यस्तप्राप्तापन्नैः । Video

वृत्तिः द्वितीयान्‍तं श्रितादिप्रकृतिकैः सुबन्‍तैः सह वा समस्‍यते स च तत्‍पुरुषः । A पदम् ending in a second case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to either ‘श्रित’ or ‘अतीत’ or ‘पतित’ or ‘गत’ or ‘अत्यस्त’ or ‘प्राप्त’ or ‘आपन्न’ and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: श्रितादीनां गतिविशेषवाचित्वात् ‘गत्यर्थाकर्मक-‘ इति कर्तरि क्तः – Since the terms ‘श्रित’ etc convey a kind of motion, as per 3-4-72 गत्यर्थाकर्मकश्लिषशीङ्स्थासवसजनरुहजीर्यतिभ्यश्च the affix ‘क्त’ used in these terms denotes the agent of the action.

उदाहरणानि –

कृष्‍णं श्रितः = कृष्‍णश्रित: – dependent on Lord Kṛṣṇa. Note: द्वितीया विभक्ति: is used in कृष्‍णम् as per 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया because 2-3-69 न लोकाव्ययनिष्ठाखलर्थतृनाम्‌ blocks 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
कृष्‍ण अम् + श्रित सुँ 2-1-24. As per 1-2-43 the term ‘कृष्‍ण अम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-24 (which prescribes the compounding) the term द्वितीया ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term ‘कृष्‍ण अम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘कृष्‍ण अम् + श्रित सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= कृष्‍णश्रित 2-4-71

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कृष्‍णश्रित’ is masculine here since the latter member ‘श्रित’ of the compound is masculine.
We can similarly construct the neuter compound कृष्‍णश्रितम् = कृष्‍णं श्रितम्।
The प्रातिपदिकानि ‘श्रित’, ‘अतीत’ etc (mentioned in the सूत्रम् 2-1-24) also represent their feminine counterparts ‘श्रिता’, ‘अतीता’ etc. This is as per the परिभाषा – प्रातिपदिकग्रहणे लिङ्गविशिष्टस्यापि ग्रहणम् – whenever a प्रातिपदिकम् is employed in grammar, it denotes not only itself but also that which is derived from it by adding an affix denoting gender.
Hence we can also construct the feminine compounds कृष्‍णश्रिता = कृष्‍णं श्रिता etc.

In the masculine gender ‘कृष्‍णश्रित’ declines like राम-शब्द: and in the neuter gender it declines like वन-शब्द:। In the feminine gender ‘कृष्‍णश्रिता’ declines like रमा-शब्द:।

Similarly –

दु:खमतीत: = दु:खातीत:।
कूपं पतितः = कूपपतितः।
ग्रामं गतः = ग्रामगतः।
तरङ्गानत्यस्त: = तरङ्गात्यस्तः।
सुखं प्राप्तः = सुखप्राप्तः।
दुःखमापन्नः = दुःखापन्नः।

वार्तिकम् (under 2-1-24 द्वितीया श्रितातीतपतितगतात्यस्तप्राप्तापन्नैः) गम्यादीनामुपसंख्यानम्‌। Video
The terms ‘गमिन्’ etc. should be added to the list of terms ‘श्रित’ etc (mentioned in the सूत्रम् 2-1-24 द्वितीया श्रितातीतपतितगतात्यस्तप्राप्तापन्नैः।) Hence a पदम् ending in a second case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to either ‘श्रित’ etc or ‘गमिन्’ etc and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गमिन्’ is formed using the उणादि-सूत्रम् 4-6 गमेरिनि:। As per the सूत्रम् 3-3-3 भविष्यति गम्यादयः, the affix ‘इनिँ’ used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गमिन्’ denotes an action in the future tense. गमिष्यतीति गमी।
Note: गम्यादयश्च प्रयोगतो ज्ञेया: – the list of terms ‘गमिन्’ etc is to be known from the usages (of the scholars) encountered in the language.

उदाहरणे –

ग्रामं गमी = ग्रामगमी। Note: द्वितीया विभक्ति: is used in ग्रामम् as per 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया because 2-3-70 अकेनोर्भविष्यदाधमर्ण्ययोः blocks 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति।

अन्नं बुभुक्षु: = अन्नबुभुक्षु:। Note: द्वितीया विभक्ति: is used in अन्नम् as per 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया because 2-3-69 न लोकाव्ययनिष्ठाखलर्थतृनाम्‌ blocks 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति।

2-1-29 अत्यन्तसंयोगे च । Video

वृत्तिः कालवाचिन: शब्दा द्वितीयान्ता अत्यन्तसंयोगे सुपा सह वा समस्‍यन्ते स च तत्‍पुरुषः । When uninterrupted connection is meant, words ending in a second case affix and denoting (a period of) time optionally compound with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of काला: comes down from the prior सूत्रम् 2-1-28 कालाः in to this सूत्रम् 2-1-29. But the अनुवृत्ति: of क्तेन does not come down (from the सूत्रम् 2-1-25 स्वयं क्तेन) in to this सूत्रम् 2-1-29.

उदाहरणम् –

मुहूर्तं सुखम् = मुहूर्तसुखम् – Happiness lasting for a moment.
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-5 कालाध्वनोरत्यन्तसंयोगे a second case affix is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मुहूर्त’।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
मुहूर्त अम् + सुख सुँ 2-1-29. As per 1-2-43 the term ‘मुहूर्त अम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-29 (which prescribes the compounding) the term द्वितीया (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from 2-1-24 द्वितीया श्रितातीतपतितगतात्यस्तप्राप्तापन्नैः) ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term ‘मुहूर्त अम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘मुहूर्त अम् + सुख सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= मुहूर्तसुख 2-4-71

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मुहूर्तसुख’ is neuter since the latter member ‘सुख’ of the compound is neuter. The compound declines like वन-शब्द:।

2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन । Video

वृत्तिः तृतीयान्‍तं तृतीयान्‍तार्थकृतगुणवचनेनार्थेन च सह वा समस्‍यते स च तत्‍पुरुषः । (As per the महाभाष्यम्) this सूत्रम् consists of two parts –
i) तृतीया तत्कृतेन गुणवचनेन – A पदम् ending in a third case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् which denotes that which possesses a property instrumentally caused by that which is denoted by the पदम् ending in a third case affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
ii) अर्थेन – A पदम् ending in a third case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् (composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) ‘अर्थ’ (wealth) and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

Note: तत्कृतेति लुप्ततृतीयाकम्‌ – In this सूत्रम्, a third case affix at the end of the term ‘तत्कृत’ has been irregularly elided. Hence ‘तत्कृत’ stands for ‘तत्कृतेन’।

उदाहरणे –

शङ्‌कुलया खण्ड: = शङ्‌कुलाखण्ड: (शङ्कुलाकृतखण्डत्वगुणविशिष्ट:) – A piece cut off with a pair of scissors.
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया a third case affix is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शङ्‌कुला’।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
शङ्‌कुला टा + खण्ड सुँ 2-1-30. As per 1-2-43 the term ‘शङ्‌कुला टा’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-30 (which prescribes the compounding) the term तृतीया ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term ‘शङ्‌कुला टा’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘शङ्‌कुला टा + खण्ड सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= शङ्‌कुलाखण्ड 2-4-71

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शङ्‌कुलाखण्ड’ is masculine/neuter since the latter member ‘खण्ड’ of the compound is masculine/neuter. The compound declines like राम-शब्द: in the masculine and वन-शब्द: in the neuter.

धान्येनार्थ: = धान्यार्थ: – Wealth on account of grain.
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-23 हेतौ a third case affix is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धान्य’।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
धान्य टा + अर्थ सुँ 2-1-30. As per 1-2-43 the term ‘धान्य टा’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-30 (which prescribes the compounding) the term तृतीया ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term ‘धान्य टा’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘धान्य टा + अर्थ सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= धान्य + अर्थ 2-4-71
= धान्यार्थ 6-1-101

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धान्यार्थ’ is masculine since the latter member ‘अर्थ’ of the compound is masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

‘तत्कृत’ इति किम्‌? Why does the सूत्रम् 2-1-30 contain the stipulation ‘तत्कृत’? Consider the example – अक्ष्णा काण: – Blind in one eye. There is no compounding possible here because the eye is not the instrument causing blindness. Note: The third case affix at the end of अक्ष्णा is prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-3-20 येनाङ्गविकारः।

2-1-31 पूर्वसदृशसमोनार्थकलहनिपुणमिश्रश्लक्ष्णैः । Video

वृत्तिः तृतीयान्तमेतै: सह वा समस्‍यते स च तत्‍पुरुषः । A पदम् ending in a third case affix optionally compounds with (a syntactically related पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) any one of the following and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष: –
i) ‘पूर्व’ (prior)
ii) ‘सदृश’ (like/similar)
iii) ‘सम’ (equal to)
iv) ‘ऊनार्थ’ – ‘ऊन’ (less) or any of its synonyms
v) ‘कलह’ (quarrel)
vi) ‘निपुण’ (skillful)
vii) ‘मिश्र’ (mixed)
viii) ‘श्लक्ष्ण’ (gentle/polished.)

Note: इह समसदृशाभ्यां योगे ‘2-3-72 तुल्यार्थैरतुलोपमाभ्यां तृतीयान्यतरस्याम्‌’ इति तृतीया। The सूत्रम् 2-3-72 justifies the use of a third case affix following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with ‘सम’ or ‘सदृश’। अन्यैर्योगे त्वत एव वचनात्, ‘2-3-23 हेतौ’ इति वा तृतीया। The use of a third case affix following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with any one of the other terms ‘पूर्व’ etc may be justified by the very fact that this सूत्रम् 2-1-31 prescribes compounding between a पदम् ending in a third case affix and ‘पूर्व’ etc. Or the सूत्रम् 2-3-23 हेतौ may be used to justify the third case affix.

उदाहरणम् –

मासेन पूर्व: = मासपूर्व: – Prior by one month.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
मास टा + पूर्व सुँ 2-1-31. As per 1-2-43 the term ‘मास टा’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-31 (which prescribes the compounding) the term तृतीया (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from 2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन) ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term ‘मास टा’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘मास टा + पूर्व सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= मासपूर्व 2-4-71

In the masculine gender ‘मासपूर्व’ declines like राम-शब्द: and in the neuter gender it declines like वन-शब्द:। In the feminine gender ‘मासपूर्वा’ declines like रमा-शब्द:।

Similarly –

मात्रा सदृश: = मातृसदृश:। Similar to a mother.
पित्रा सम: = पितृसम:। Equal to a father.
माषेणोनम् = माषोनं (कार्षापणम्‌।) माषेण विकलम्‌ = माषविकलं (कार्षापणम्‌।) A coin that is less (short) by a particular weight.
वाचा कलह: = वाक्कलह:। Quarrel with words.
आचारेण निपुण: = आचारनिपुण:। Skillful in conduct.
गुडेन मिश्र: = गुडमिश्र:। Mixed with molasses.
आचारेण श्लक्ष्ण: = आचारश्लक्ष्ण:। Gentle/polished in conduct.

Note: मिश्रग्रहणे सोपसर्गस्यापि ग्रहणम्‌ – Compounding is allowed even when ‘मिश्र’ is preceded by a उपसर्ग: (preposition.) How do we know this? ‘6-2-154 मिश्रं चानुपसर्गमसंधौ’ इत्यत्रानुपसर्गग्रहणात्‌ – The fact that पाणिनि: has put the condition अनुपसर्गम् in the सूत्रम् 6-2-154 tells us that a उपसर्ग: (preposition) is allowed with ‘मिश्र’। Otherwise there would be no point in specifying अनुपसर्गम्। Hence the following compound is allowed – गुडेन सम्मिश्रा (धाना:) = गुडसम्मिश्रा (धाना:) – (Cereals) well mixed with molasses.

Note: The वार्तिकम् ‘अवरस्योपसङ्‌ख्यानम्‌’ states that ‘अवर’ should be added to the list of terms ‘पूर्व’ etc mentioned in the सूत्रम् 2-1-31. For example –
मासेनावर: = मासावर: – junior (younger) by a month.
ऊनार्थेत्येव सिद्धत्वादिदं सुत्यजमेव – Actually the above वार्तिकम् is not required because ‘अवर’ can be included in the category ‘ऊनार्थ’।

2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ । Video

वृत्तिः कर्तरि करणे च तृतीया कृदन्तेन बहुलं समस्‍यते स च तत्‍पुरुषः । A पदम् ending in a third case affix – denoting either the agent or the instrument of the action – variously compounds with (a syntactically related पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) a term ending in a कृत् affix (ref. 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

उदाहरणे –

हरिणा त्रात: = हरित्रात: – protected by Lord Viṣṇu.
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया a third case affix is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हरि’ which denotes the agent of the action.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
हरि टा + त्रात सुँ 2-1-32. As per 1-2-43 the term ‘हरि टा’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 (which prescribes the compounding) the term तृतीया (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from 2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन) ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term ‘हरि टा’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘हरि टा + त्रात सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= हरित्रात 2-4-71

In the masculine gender ‘हरित्रात’ declines like राम-शब्द: and in the neuter gender it declines like वन-शब्द:। In the feminine gender ‘हरित्राता’ declines like रमा-शब्द:।

नखैर्भिन्न: = नखभिन्न: – Split by the nails.
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया a third case affix is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नख’ which denotes the instrument of the action.

The derivation of the compound नखभिन्न: is similar to that of हरित्रात: shown above.

Note: The परिभाषा ‘कृद्ग्रहणे गतिकारकपूर्वस्यापि ग्रहणम्‌’ says – whenever a (term ending in a) कृत् affix is employed in grammar, it also includes such terms as are (ending in that कृत् affix and) preceded by either a उपसर्ग: (preposition) or a कारक: (a word denoting a case relation with the word ending in the कृत् affix.)
Hence the following compound is allowed –
नखैर्निर्भिन्न: = नखनिर्भिन्न: – Completely split by the nails.

‘कर्तृकरणे’ इति किम्‌? Why does the सूत्रम् say कर्तृकरणे? It is to prevent compounding in examples such as भिक्षाभिरुषित: – (someone) stayed because of alms. The third case affix employed in भिक्षाभि: denotes neither the agent nor the instrument of the action. हेतावेषा तृतीया – It instead denotes the cause/reason.

बहुलग्रहणं सर्वोपाधिव्यभिचारार्थम्‌। The mention of बहुलम्‌ in this सूत्रम् tells us that all conditions may be relaxed. तेन दात्रेण लूनवानित्यादौ न – hence no compounding is allowed in examples such as दात्रेण लूनवान् (someone) has cut off with a sickle, हस्तेन कुर्वन् making by hand, etc.
And conversely, we sometimes do see compounding taking place even when the condition कर्तृकरणे is not satisfied. For example – मदेनान्ध: = मदान्ध: – blind on account of lust/passion. The third case affix used in मदेन denotes the हेतु: (cause/reason) and not the doer or the agent. But still compounding has taken place. The mention of बहुलम्‌ in this सूत्रम् may be used to justify such compounds.
विभक्त्यन्तरमपि समस्यत इत्यस्योदाहरणं तु – पादहारकः। And sometimes (a पदम् ending in an) affix other than the third case affix does compound. For example पादाभ्यां ह्रियमाण: = पादहारकः (something) being removed from the feet. ह्रियत इति हारकः। बाहुलकात्कर्मणि ण्वुल्। The affix ण्वुल् used in हारकः (irregularly) denotes the object of the action. पादाभ्यामित्यपादानपञ्चम्यन्तस्य समासः – the fifth case affix (and not the third case affix) used in पादाभ्याम् (which has entered in to the compound) denotes the अपादानम् (that from which detachment takes place.)
Note: The mention of बहुलम्‌ in this सूत्रम् may also be used to justify compounds like the following –
धर्माय नियम: = धर्मनियम: (चतुर्थी-समास:) – a precept for righteousness.
वामादितर: = वामेतर: (पञ्चमी-समास:) – other than left – meaning right.
भुवि देव: = भूदेव: (सप्तमी-समास:) – (like a) god on earth.
Some grammarians use the technique of योग-विभाग: (rule-splitting) to justify the above compounds while some others classify these compounds as being in the सह सुपा (ref. 2-1-4 सह सुपा) category.

कृता किम्‌? Why does पाणिनि: specify कृता in this सूत्रम्? Consider the example काष्ठै: पचतितराम्‌। There is no कृत् affix in पचतितराम्‌। Hence no compounding takes place even though the third case affix used in काष्ठै: does denote the करणम् (the instrument of the action.)

2-1-36 चतुर्थी तदर्थार्थबलिहितसुखरक्षितैः । Video

वृत्तिः चतुर्थ्यन्तार्थाय यत्तद्वाचिना, अर्थादिभिश्च चतुर्थ्यन्तं वा समस्‍यते स च तत्‍पुरुषः । A पदम् ending in a fourth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् denoting that which is for the purpose of that which is denoted by the पदम् ending in the fourth case affix, and so also with a (syntactically related) पदम् (formed by adding a सुँप् affix to) ‘अर्थ’ or ‘बलि’ or ‘हित’ or ‘सुख’ or ‘रक्षित’ and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: तदर्थेन प्रकृतिविकृतिभाव एव गृह्यते बलिरक्षितग्रहणाज्ज्ञापकात्‌ – By the expression ‘तदर्थ’ (for the purpose thereof) only the restricted sense of प्रकृतिविकृतिभाव: (a material cause and its effect) is accepted here (by the महाभाष्यम्)। We infer this from the fact that ‘बलि’ and ‘रक्षित’ have been mentioned (in addition to ‘तदर्थ’) in the सूत्रम्। (If ‘तदर्थ’ were intended to have the general meaning of ‘for the purpose thereof’ there would have been no need to separately mention ‘बलि’ and ‘रक्षित’ in the सूत्रम्।)
Hence the compound यूपाय दारु = यूपदारु is allowed but not रन्धनाय स्थाली (pan for frying) because there is no sense of material cause and its effect.
अश्वघासादयस्तु षष्ठी-समासा: – Compounds such as ‘अश्वघास’ (the horse’s grass) etc are षष्ठी-समासा: and not चतुर्थी-समासा:।

उदाहरणम् –

यूपाय दारु = यूपदारु – wood for the sacrificial post.
Note: As per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-13 चतुर्थी सम्प्रदाने in the महाभाष्यम्) तादर्थ्ये चतुर्थी वाच्या a fourth case affix is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘यूप’।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
यूप ङे + दारु सुँ 2-1-36. As per 1-2-43 the term ‘यूप ङे’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-36 (which prescribes the compounding) the term चतुर्थी ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term ‘यूप ङे’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘यूप ङे + दारु सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= यूपदारु 2-4-71

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘यूपदारु’ is neuter since the latter member ‘दारु’ of the compound is neuter. The compound declines like मधु-शब्द:।

We can similarly form the following compounds –

भूतेभ्यो बलि: = भूतबलि: – An offering/oblation for the spirits.
गोभ्यो हितम्‌ = गोहितम्‌ – Beneficial for the cows.
गोभ्यो सुखम्‌ = गोसुखम्‌ – Pleasant for the cows.
गोभ्यो रक्षितम्‌ = गोरक्षितम्‌ – Reserved for the cows.

वार्तिकम् (under 2-1-36 चतुर्थी तदर्थार्थबलिहितसुखरक्षितैः) अर्थेन नित्यसमासो विशेष्यलिङ्‌गता चेति वक्तव्यम्‌। Video
The compounding (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-1-36 चतुर्थी तदर्थार्थबलिहितसुखरक्षितैः of a पदम् ending in a fourth case affix) with a syntactically related पदम् formed by adding a सुँप् affix to ‘अर्थ’ is obligatory (not optional) and the gender of the resulting compound is the same as the gender of that which it qualifies.
Note: In the absence of this वार्तिकम्, compounding would have been optional as per the अधिकार-सूत्रम् 2-1-11 विभाषा। Also, as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः the gender of the compound would have been masculine because the latter member – ‘अर्थ’ – of the compound is masculine.

उदाहरणम् –

गुरवेऽयं गुर्वर्थो विष्टर: – A seat (stool/chair) for the teacher.
Note: As per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-13 चतुर्थी सम्प्रदाने in the महाभाष्यम्) तादर्थ्ये चतुर्थी वाच्या a fourth case affix is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गुरु’।
Note: The विग्रह-वाक्यम् ‘गुरवेऽयम्’ is not a स्वपद-विग्रह-वाक्यम् because the compound गुर्वर्थ: is a नित्य-समास: (as stated by the above वार्तिकम्।)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
गुरु ङे + अर्थ सुँ 2-1-36. As per 1-2-43 the term ‘गुरु ङे’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-36 (which prescribes the compounding) the term चतुर्थी ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term ‘गुरु ङे’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘गुरु ङे + अर्थ सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= गुरु + अर्थ 2-4-71
= गुर्वर्थ 6-1-77

As per the above वार्तिकम्, the compound ‘गुर्वर्थ’ takes the gender of that which it qualifies. Here the compound is masculine because it is qualifying ‘विष्टर’ which is masculine.

Similarly –

In the feminine: गुरव इयं गुर्वर्था पीठिका – A seat (stool) for the teacher.
In the neuter: गुरव इदं गुर्वर्थमासनम् – A seat for the teacher.

2-1-37 पञ्चमी भयेन । Video

वृत्तिः पञ्चम्यन्तं भयप्रकृतिकेन सुबन्तेन सह वा समस्यते स तत्पुरुष:। A पदम् ending in a fifth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् (formed by adding a सुँप् affix to) ‘भय’ and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

उदाहरणम् –

चोराद्भयम् = चोरभयम् – fear from the thief.
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-28 अपादाने पञ्चमी a fifth case affix is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘चोर’ which has the designation अपादानम् here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-25 भीत्रार्थानां भयहेतुः।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
चोर ङसिँ + भय सुँ 2-1-37. As per 1-2-43 the term ‘चोर ङसिँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-37 (which prescribes the compounding) the term पञ्चमी ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term ‘चोर ङसिँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘चोर ङसिँ + भय सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= चोरभय 2-4-71

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘चोरभय’ is neuter since the latter member ‘भय’ of the compound is neuter. The compound declines like वन-शब्द:।

Note: वार्तिकम् – भयभीतभीतिभीभिरिति वाच्यम्‌ – In the सूत्रम् 2-1-37 पञ्चमी भयेन, the word भयेन should be extended to भयभीतभीतिभीभि:।
Hence we can also construct compounds like –
वृकेभ्यो भीत: = वृकभीत: (someone) afraid of the wolves
वृकेभ्यो भीति: = वृकभीति: fear from the wolves
वृकेभ्यो भी: = वृकभी: fear from the wolves

Note: कथं तर्हि ‘भोगोपरतो ग्रामनिर्गतः’ इत्यादिप्रयोगा:? How do we justify compound formations such as भोगेभ्य उपरत: = भोगोपरत: and ग्रामान्निर्गत: = ग्रामनिर्गतः etc? The answer is – बहुलग्रहणात्क्वचिद्विभक्त्यन्तरमपि कृता समस्यते – The mention of ‘बहुलम्‌’ in the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ gives us the clue that a पदम् ending in a case affix – even if it is not a third case affix – may occasionally compound with (a syntactically related पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) a term ending in a कृत् affix (ref. 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

2-2-8 षष्ठी । Video

वृत्तिः षष्ठ्यन्तं सुबन्‍तेन सह वा समस्यते स तत्पुरुष:। A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

उदाहरणम् –

राज्ञ: पुरुष: = राजपुरुष: – a king’s man.
Note: The sixth case affix in राज्ञ: is as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-50 षष्ठी शेषे।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
राजन् ङस् + पुरुष सुँ 2-2-8. As per 1-2-43 the term ‘राजन् ङस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term ‘राजन् ङस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘राजन् ङस् + पुरुष सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= राजन् + पुरुष 2-4-71. Note: Here ‘राजन्’ has the designation पदम् as per 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य to apply in the next step.
= राजपुरुष 8-2-7

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘राजपुरुष’ is masculine since the latter member ‘पुरुष’ of the compound is masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

2-2-10 न निर्धारणे । Video

वृत्तिः निर्धारणे या षष्ठी सा न समस्यते । A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-3-41 यतश्च निर्धारणम्‌ cannot be compounded.

उदाहरणम् –

नृणां क्षत्रिय: शूरतम: – Among men, the Kṣatriya is the bravest. Since the sixth case affix (आम्) in नृणाम् is prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-3-41 यतश्च निर्धारणम्‌, we cannot form a compound between नृणाम् and क्षत्रिय:।

Note: अथ कथं पुरुषोत्तम इति? Now how do we explain a compound like पुरुषाणामुत्तम: = पुरुषोत्तम:? The answer is – यस्मान्निर्धार्यते, यश्चैकदेशो निर्धार्यते, यश्च निर्धारणहेतुः – एतत्त्रितयसंनिधाने सत्येवायं निषेध इति ‘५-३-५७ द्विवचनविभज्योप-‘ इति सूत्रे कैयटः। Commenting on the सूत्रम् 5-3-57 द्विवचनविभज्योपपदे तरबीयसुनौ, the grammarian कैयटः (who has written a well-acclaimed commentary on the महाभाष्यम्) says that the prohibition ordained by the सूत्रम् 2-2-10 न निर्धारणे applies only when all the following three are present – i) the group/whole from which an element/part is singled out ii) the item that is singled out and iii) the cause or basis for singling out. In the example पुरुषाणामुत्तम: = पुरुषोत्तम: compounding is not prohibited because ii) is not present. If the example were to be पुरुषाणां राम उत्तम: then the सूत्रम् 2-2-10 न निर्धारणे would prohibit पुरुषाणाम् (‘पुरुष आम्’) from compounding with राम: (‘राम सुँ’)।

5-4-91 राजाह:सखिभ्यष्टच्‌ । Video

वृत्तिः एतदन्‍तात्तत्‍पुरुषाट्टच् स्‍यात् । Following a तत्पुरुष: compound ending in either ‘राजन्’ or ‘अहन्’ or ‘सखि’ the तद्धित: affix टच् is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.

उदाहरणम् –

काशे राजा = काशिराज: (ref. गीता 1-5) – King of Kāśi.
Note: The sixth case affix in काशे: is as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-50 षष्ठी शेषे।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
काशि ङस् + राजन् सुँ 2-2-8. As per 1-2-43 the term ‘काशि ङस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term ‘काशि ङस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘काशि ङस् + राजन् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= काशिराजन् 2-4-71
= काशिराजन् + टच् 5-4-91
= काशिराजन् + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-7, 1-3-9. Note: The अङ्गम् ‘काशिराजन्’ has the designation ‘भ’ here by 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows 6-4-144 to apply in the next step.
= काशिराज् + अ 6-4-144
= काशिराज

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘काशिराज’ is masculine since the latter member ‘राजन्’ of the compound is masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The derivation of the compound कृष्णस्य सखा = कृष्णसख: is similar to that of काशिराज: shown above except that 6-4-144 is not applicable. We have to instead apply 6-4-148 यस्येति च to elide the ending letter ‘इ’ of ‘कृष्णसखि’।

For ‘अहन्’ please see the example मध्याह्न: (mid-day) under the सूत्रम् 5-4-88.

2-2-1 पूर्वापराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनैकाधिकरणे । Video

वृत्तिः अवयविना सह पूर्वादय: समस्यन्ते, एकत्वसंख्याविशिष्टश्चेदवयवी । (A पदम् formed by adding a सुँप् affix to) either ‘पूर्व’ (front/prior part) or ‘अपर’ (back/latter part) or ‘अधर’ (lower part) or ‘उत्तर’ (upper part) optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting a single substance/thing consisting of parts and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: षष्ठीसमासापवाद: – The compounding prescribed by this सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to the षष्ठी-समास: prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 षष्ठी।

उदाहरणम् –

पूर्वं कायस्य = पूर्वकाय: – the front/prior part of the body.
Note: The sixth case affix in कायस्य is as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-50 षष्ठी शेषे।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
पूर्व सुँ + काय ङस् 2-2-1. As per 1-2-43 the term ‘पूर्व सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-1 (which prescribes the compounding) the term पूर्वापराधरोत्तरम् ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term ‘पूर्व सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: If a षष्ठी-समास: were to be formed, ‘काय ङस्’ would become the prior member of the compound, giving an undesirable form. That is why the सूत्रम् 2-2-1 पूर्वापराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनैकाधिकरणे is necessary to get the correct form. Note: ‘पूर्व सुँ + काय ङस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= पूर्वकाय 2-4-71

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पूर्वकाय’ is masculine since the latter member ‘काय’ of the compound is masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

We can similarly form the following compounds –
अपरं कायस्य = अपरकाय: – the back/latter part of the body.
अधरं कायस्य = अधरकाय: – the lower part part of the body.
उत्तरं कायस्य = उत्तरकाय: – the upper part part of the body.

एकदेशिना किम्‌। पूर्वं नाभे: कायस्य – The part of the body which is prior to the navel. We cannot us this सूत्रम् 2-2-1 पूर्वापराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनैकाधिकरणे to form a compound between पूर्वम् and नाभे: because नाभि: (navel) is not the one which has parts.

एकाधिकरणे किम्‌। पूर्वश्छात्राणाम्‌ – Front of the students. छात्रा: (students) is not singular and hence there is no compounding possible between पूर्व: and छात्राणाम्‌ using this सूत्रम् 2-2-1 पूर्वापराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनैकाधिकरणे।

पूर्वापराधरोत्तरमिति किम्? दक्षिणं कायस्य। Since ‘दक्षिण’ is not one of the four words ‘पूर्व’/’अपर’/’अधर’/’उत्तर’ mentioned in the सूत्रम् 2-2-1 पूर्वापराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनैकाधिकरणे we cannot us this सूत्रम् to form a compound between दक्षिणम् and कायस्य।

सर्वोऽप्येकदेशोऽह्ना समस्यते – Any word – and not only ‘पूर्व’/’अपर’/’अधर’/’उत्तर’ – which denotes a part may compound with ‘अहन्’ to yield a एकदेशि-समास:। ‘६-३-११० संख्याविसाय-‘ इति ज्ञापकात्‌ – We know this from the fact that the सूत्रम् 6-3-110 – which prescribes the optional substitution of ‘अहन्’ in place of ‘अह्न’ when followed by the affix ‘ङि’ and preceded by a numeral or ‘वि’ or ‘साय’ – presupposes the formation of the compound सायोऽह्न: = सायाह्न: – evening (the ending part of the day.) Similarly मध्यमह्न: = मध्याह्न:। Please see detailed derivation under the सूत्रम् 5-4-88.

केचित्तु सर्वोऽप्येकदेश: कालेन समस्यते न त्वह्नैव, ज्ञापकस्य सामान्यापेक्षत्वात्‌ – According to some grammarians, any word – and not only ‘पूर्व’/’अपर’/’अधर’/’उत्तर’ – which denotes a part may compound with any word – not only ‘अहन्’ – which denotes a period of time to yield a एकदेशि-समास:। This is inferred by generalizing the indication given by the सूत्रम् 6-3-110. Hence we may form compounds like मध्यं रात्रे: = मध्यरात्र: – mid-night.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
मध्य सुँ + रात्रि ङस् 2-2-1 (extended based on the ज्ञापकम् from 6-3-110). As per 1-2-43 the term ‘मध्य सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-1 (which prescribes the compounding) the term पूर्वापराधरोत्तरम् (extended to include ‘मध्य’) ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term ‘मध्य सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘मध्य सुँ + रात्रि ङस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= मध्यरात्रि 2-4-71

Example continued under 5-4-87

5-4-87 अह:सर्वैकदेशसंख्यातपुण्याच्च रात्रेः । Video

वृत्तिः एभ्यो रात्रेरच्‌स्यात्‌, चात्संख्याव्ययादे: । The तद्धित: affix अच् is prescribed following a तत्पुरुष: compound ending in the word ‘रात्रि’ – provided ‘रात्रि’ is preceded by one of the following – and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound –
i) ‘अहन्’
ii) ‘सर्व’
iii) a word denoting a part (of the night)
iv) ‘संख्यात’
v) ‘पुण्य’
vi) a संख्या (numeral)
vii) a अव्ययम् (indeclinable)
Note: अहर्ग्रहणं द्वन्द्वार्थम् – The mention of ‘अहन्’ in this सूत्रम् is for the purpose of a द्वन्द्व: (and not a तत्पुरुष:) compound.

Example continued from 2-2-1

मध्यरात्रि
= मध्यरात्रि + अच् 5-4-87
= मध्यरात्रि + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
= मध्यरात्र् + अ 1-4-18, 6-4-148
= मध्यरात्र

Since ‘रात्रि’ is feminine in gender, as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मध्यरात्र’ would also be feminine in gender, but the सूत्रम् 2-4-29 रात्राह्नाहाः पुंसि intervenes.

Example continued under 2-4-29

2-4-29 रात्राह्नाहाः पुंसि । Video

वृत्तिः एतदन्तौ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषौ पुंस्येव । The gender of a द्वन्द्व:/तत्पुरुष: compound ending in either ‘रात्र’ or ‘अह्न’ or ‘अह’ is always masculine.
Note: The सिद्धान्तकौमुदी makes the point that this सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to not only the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः but also to the सूत्रम् 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌।

Example continued from 5-4-87

As per this सूत्रम् 2-4-29 रात्राह्नाहाः पुंसि, the compound ‘मध्यरात्र’ is masculine in gender. It declines like राम-शब्द:।

Note: (from सिद्धान्तकौमुदी) संख्यापूर्वं रात्रं क्लीबम् – A तत्पुरुष: compound in which the prior member denotes a numeral (or has the technical designation संख्या – ref. 1-1-23 बहुगणवतुडति संख्या) and the final member is ‘रात्र’ is neuter (and not masculine) in gender. For example – नवानां रात्रीणां समाहार: = नवरात्रम्।

5-4-88 अह्नोऽह्न एतेभ्यः । Video

वृत्तिः सर्वादिभ्य: परस्याहन्शब्दस्याह्नादेश: स्यात्‌ समासान्ते परे । When followed by the affix ‘टच्’ (prescribed by 5-4-91 राजाह:सखिभ्यष्टच्‌), the word ‘अहन्’ is replaced by ‘अह्न’ provided ‘अहन्’ is preceded by any one of the following –
i) ‘सर्व’
ii) a word denoting a part (of the day)
iii) ‘संख्यात’
iv) a संख्या (numeral)
v) a अव्ययम् (indeclinable)
Note: एतच्छब्देन ‘अहःसर्वैकदेश-‘ इति सूत्रस्थाः परामृश्यन्ते – The pronoun ‘एतद्’ (used in the सूत्रम् 5-4-88 अह्नोऽह्न एतेभ्यः) refers to the terms listed in the सूत्रम् 5-4-87 अह:सर्वैकदेशसंख्यातपुण्याच्च रात्रेः। But अहःशब्द इह न गृह्यते, असंभवात् – the word ‘अहन्’ is not included because it is not possible to compound ‘अहन्’ with ‘अहन्’ itself. ‘पुण्य’ is also not included because of the prohibition contained in the सूत्रम् 5-4-90 उत्तमैकाभ्यां च।

उदाहरणम् –

मध्यमह्न: = मध्याह्न: – mid-day.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
मध्य सुँ + अहन् ङस् 2-2-1 (extended based on the ज्ञापकम् from 6-3-110). As per 1-2-43 the term ‘मध्य सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-1 (which prescribes the compounding) the term पूर्वापराधरोत्तरम् (extended to include ‘मध्य’) ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term ‘मध्य सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘मध्य सुँ + अहन् ङस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= मध्य + अहन् 2-4-71
= मध्य + अहन् + टच् 5-4-91
= मध्य + अहन् + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-7, 1-3-9
= मध्य + अह्न + अ 5-4-88, 1-1-55
= मध्याह्न + अ 6-1-101
= मध्याह्न् + अ 1-4-18, 6-4-148
= मध्याह्न

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-29 रात्राह्नाहाः पुंसि, the compound ‘मध्याह्न’ is masculine (and not neuter) in gender. It declines like राम-शब्द:।

8-4-7 अह्नोऽदन्तात्‌ । Video

वृत्तिः अदन्तपूर्वपदस्थाद्रेफात्परस्यऽह्नादेशस्य नस्य ण: स्यात्‌ । The letter ‘न्’ of the term ‘अह्न’ (ref. 5-4-88 अह्नोऽह्न एतेभ्यः) is substituted by the letter ‘ण्’ when preceded by a पूर्वपदम् (prior member of a compound) which ends in the letter ‘अ’ and contains the cause – the letter ‘र्’ – for the substitution.
Note: The प्रथमा विभक्ति: (nominative case ending) used in the word अह्न: (in this सूत्रम् 8-4-7) actually stands for the षष्ठी विभक्ति: (genitive case ending.)

उदाहरणम् –

पूर्वमह्न: = पूर्वाह्ण: – AM (early part of the day.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
पूर्व सुँ + अहन् ङस् 2-2-1. As per 1-2-43 the term ‘पूर्व सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-1 (which prescribes the compounding) the term पूर्वापराधरोत्तरम् ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term ‘पूर्व सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘पूर्व सुँ + अहन् ङस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= पूर्व + अहन् 2-4-71
= पूर्व + अहन् + टच् 5-4-91
= पूर्व + अहन् + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-7, 1-3-9
= पूर्व + अह्न + अ 5-4-88, 1-1-55
= पूर्वाह्न + अ 6-1-101
= पूर्वाह्न् + अ 1-4-18, 6-4-148
= पूर्वाह्ण 8-4-7

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-29 रात्राह्नाहाः पुंसि, the compound ‘पूर्वाह्ण’ is masculine (and not neuter) in gender. It declines like राम-शब्द:।

2-2-2 अर्धं नपुंसकम्‌ । Video

वृत्तिः समांशवाच्यर्धशब्दो नित्यं क्लीबे सोऽवयविना सह समस्यते, एकत्वसंख्याविशिष्टश्चेदवयवी । (A पदम् formed by adding a सुँप् affix to) ‘अर्ध’ when used (exclusively) in the neuter – and hence having the meaning ‘(exactly) half’ – optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting a single substance/thing consisting of parts and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: षष्ठीसमासापवाद: – The compounding prescribed by this सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to the षष्ठी-समास: prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 षष्ठी।

क्लीबे किम्‌? (ग्रामस्यार्ध: =) ग्रामार्ध: – a part of the village. Here ‘अर्ध’ is used in the masculine (not neuter) – and hence does not mean ‘(exactly) half.’ Therefore the सूत्रम् 2-2-2 अर्धं नपुंसकम्‌ does not apply.

द्रव्यैक्य एव। अर्धं पिप्पलीनाम्‌। The सूत्रम् 2-2-2 अर्धं नपुंसकम्‌ applies only when the substance/thing consisting of parts is singular. Consider the example अर्धं पिप्पलीनाम्‌ – half of the (many) peppers. Since पिप्पलीनाम्‌ is not singular, the सूत्रम् 2-2-2 does not apply.

उदाहरणम् –

अर्धं पिप्पल्या: = अर्धपिप्पली = (Exactly) half of a pepper.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
अर्ध सुँ + पिप्पली ङस् 2-2-2. As per 1-2-43 the term ‘अर्ध सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-2 (which prescribes the compounding) the term अर्धम् ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term ‘अर्ध सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘अर्ध सुँ + पिप्पली ङस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= अर्धपिप्पली 2-4-71

Now the सूत्रम् 1-2-44 एकविभक्ति चापूर्वनिपाते would like to assign the designation उपसर्जनम् to ‘पिप्पली’।

Example continued under 1-2-44

1-2-44 एकविभक्ति चापूर्वनिपाते । Video

वृत्तिः विग्रहे यन्नियतविभक्तिकं तदुपसर्जनसंज्ञं स्यात्‌, न तु तस्य पूर्वनिपात: । In the विग्रह: (explanatory sentence) of a compound, a पदम् which takes a fixed case affix – even if the case affix of the other पदम् in the compound varies – gets the designation उपसर्जनम्, but this designation (prescribed by this सूत्रम्) cannot be used for the purpose of placing the पदम् in the prior position in the compound.

Example continued from 2-2-2

Let us see what happens when we add different case-endings to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अर्धपिप्पली’ –

अर्धं (प्रथमा) पिप्पल्या: = अर्धपिप्पली।
अर्धं (द्वितीया) पिप्पल्या: = अर्धपिप्पलीम्।
अर्धेन (तृतीया) पिप्पल्या: = अर्धपिप्पल्या।
अर्धाय (चतुर्थी) पिप्पल्या: = अर्धपिप्पल्यै।
अर्धात् (पञ्चमी) पिप्पल्या: = अर्धपिप्पल्या:।
अर्धस्य (षष्ठी) पिप्पल्या: = अर्धपिप्पल्या:।
अर्धे (सप्तमी) पिप्पल्या: = अर्धपिप्पल्याम्।

In the विग्रह: of the compound ‘अर्धपिप्पली’, ‘पिप्पली’ always takes the sixth case affix, while the case affix attached to ‘अर्ध’ varies. Hence as per this सूत्रम् 1-2-44 एकविभक्ति चापूर्वनिपाते we would have to assign the designation उपसर्जनम् to ‘पिप्पली’। This would in turn trigger the (undesired) application of the सूत्रम् 1-2-48 गोस्त्रियोरुपसर्जनस्य।

Example continued under 1-2-48

1-2-48 गोस्त्रियोरुपसर्जनस्य । Video

वृत्तिः उपसर्जनं यो गोशब्द: स्त्रीप्रत्ययान्तं च तदन्तस्य प्रातिपदिकस्य ह्रस्व: स्यात्‌ । (The ending vowel of) a प्रातिपदिकम् is shortened if the प्रातिपदिकम् ends in either –
i) the term ‘गो’ that has the designation उपसर्जनम् or
ii) a term which ends in a feminine affix and has the designation उपसर्जनम्।

Example continued from 1-2-44

If ‘पिप्पली’ (which ends in the affix ‘ङीष्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-41 षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च) were to get the designation उपसर्जनम् (by the सूत्रम् 1-2-44 एकविभक्ति चापूर्वनिपाते), the ending vowel ‘ई’ of ‘अर्धपिप्पली’ would be shortened by this सूत्रम् 1-2-48 गोस्त्रियोरुपसर्जनस्य resulting in the undesired form ‘अर्धपिप्पलि ‘। But 1-2-44 is prevented from applying in this situation by the following वार्तिकम् – एकविभक्तावषष्ठ्यन्तवचनम्‌।

Example continued under the वार्तिकम् – एकविभक्तावषष्ठ्यन्तवचनम्‌।

वार्तिकम् (under 1-2-44 एकविभक्ति चापूर्वनिपाते) एकविभक्तावषष्ठ्यन्तवचनम्‌। Video
In the सूत्रम् 1-2-44 एकविभक्ति चापूर्वनिपाते, the term एकविभक्ति (a पदम् which takes a fixed case affix) should be qualified by the condition अषष्ठ्यन्तम्‌ (provided the पदम् does not end in a sixth case affix.) Hence the modified meaning of the सूत्रम् 1-2-44 एकविभक्ति चापूर्वनिपाते becomes – In the विग्रह: (explanatory sentence) of a compound, a पदम् which takes a fixed case affix (other than a sixth case affix) – while the case affix of the other पदम् in the compound varies – gets the designation उपसर्जनम्, but this designation (prescribed by this सूत्रम्) cannot be used for the purpose of placing the पदम् in the prior position in the compound.

Note: एकदेशिसमासविषयकोऽयमुपसर्जनसंज्ञानिषेध: – This prohibition of the designation उपसर्जनम् is only valid for a एकदेशिसमास: (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-1, 2-2-2 or 2-2-3.)

Example continued from 1-2-48

This वार्तिकम् prevents the सूत्रम् 1-2-44 from assigning the designation उपसर्जनम् to ‘पिप्पली’ because in the विग्रह: of the compound अर्धपिप्पली, ‘पिप्पली’ always takes the sixth case affix.
Now that ‘पिप्पली’ does not have the designation उपसर्जनम्, 1-2-48 गोस्त्रियोरुपसर्जनस्य cannot shorten the ending vowel ‘ई’ of ‘अर्धपिप्पली’।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अर्धपिप्पली’ is feminine since the latter member ‘पिप्पली’ of the compound is feminine. The compound declines like नदी-शब्द:।

2-4-31 अर्धर्चाः पुंसि च । Video

वृत्तिः अर्धर्चादयः शब्‍दाः पुंसि क्‍लीबे च स्‍युः । The words ‘अर्धर्च’ etc are masculine as well as neuter in gender.

उदाहरणम् –

अर्धमृच: = अर्धर्च:/अर्धर्चम् = (Exactly) half of a hymn.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
अर्ध सुँ + ऋच् ङस् 2-2-2. As per 1-2-43 the term ‘अर्ध सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-2 (which prescribes the compounding) the term अर्धम् ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term ‘अर्ध सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘अर्ध सुँ + ऋच् ङस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= अर्ध + ऋच् 2-4-71
= अर्धर्च् 6-1-87, 1-1-51

Example continued under 5-4-74

Note: एवं ध्‍वजतीर्थशरीरमण्‍डपयूपदेहाङ्कुशपात्रसूत्रादयः । Similarly, the words ‘ध्‍वज’, ‘तीर्थ’, ‘शरीर’, ‘मण्‍डप’, ‘यूप’, ‘देह’, ‘अङ्कुश’, ‘पात्र’, ‘सूत्र’ etc are masculine as well as neuter in gender.

5-4-74 ऋक्पूरब्धू:पथामानक्षे । Video

वृत्तिः ऋगाद्यन्‍तस्‍य समासस्‍य अप्रत्‍ययोऽन्‍तावयवोऽक्षे या धूस्‍तदन्‍तस्‍य तु न । Following a compound ending in either ‘ऋच्’ or ‘पुर्’ or ‘अप्’ or ‘धुर्’ (when it is not related to अक्ष: ‘axle’) or ‘पथिन्’ the तद्धित: affix ‘अ’ is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.
Note: ‘अ अनक्षे’ इतिच्‍छेदः – The term आनक्षे contained in the सूत्रम् 5-4-74 ऋक्पूरब्धू:पथामानक्षे should be split as अ + अनक्षे। The first case affix at the end of ‘अ’ has been irregularly elided.

Example continued from 2-4-31

अर्धर्च्
= अर्धर्च् + अ 5-4-74
= अर्धर्च

Since the final member of the compound ‘अर्धर्च’ is feminine in gender, as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः the entire compound would have been feminine in gender. But as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-31 अर्धर्चाः पुंसि च the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अर्धर्च’ is masculine as well as neuter in gender. In the masculine gender it declines like राम-शब्द: and in the neuter gender it declines like वन-शब्द:।

2-1-40 सप्तमी शौण्डैः । Video

वृत्तिः सप्तम्यन्तं शौण्डादिभि: सुबन्तै: सह वा समस्यते स तत्पुरुष: । A पदम् ending in a seventh case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to ‘शौण्ड’ etc and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: बहुवचननिर्देशाद्गणपाठसामर्थ्याच्च आद्यर्थावगति: – The word शौण्डैः (used in this सूत्रम् 2-1-40) stands for शौण्डादिभि:। We know this from the fact that शौण्डैः is a plural form and also from the fact that the शौण्डादि-गण: is listed in the गणपाठ:।
Note: The शौण्डादि-गण: is listed in the गणपाठ: as follows – शौण्ड। धूर्त। कितव। व्याड। प्रवीण। संवीत। अन्तर्। अधि। पटु। पण्डित। कुशल। चपल। निपुण।

उदाहरणानि –

अक्षेषु शौण्ड: = अक्षशौण्ड: – Skilled at playing dice.
Note: The seventh case affix in अक्षेषु is as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-36 सप्तम्यधिकरणे च। वृत्तौ प्रसक्तिक्रियाया अन्तर्भावादधिकरणे सप्तमी – the implied action of प्रसक्ति: (attachment/addiction) makes it possible to use the seventh case affix here in the sense of अधिकरणे।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
अक्ष सुप् + शौण्ड सुँ 2-1-40. As per 1-2-43 the term ‘अक्ष सुप्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-40 (which prescribes the compounding) the term सप्तमी ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term ‘अक्ष सुप्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘अक्ष सुप् + शौण्ड सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= अक्षशौण्ड 2-4-71

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अक्षशौण्ड’ is masculine since the latter member ‘शौण्ड’ of the compound is used in the masculine here. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

Similarly –

वनेऽन्त: = वनान्त: (= वनमध्ये) – In the forest in the middle. For example – वनान्तर्वसति – (Someone) dwells in the forest in the middle.
Note: The seventh case affix in वने is as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-36 सप्तम्यधिकरणे च।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
वन ङि + अन्तर् 2-1-40, 2-4-82. As per 1-2-43 the term ‘वन ङि’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-40 (which prescribes the compounding) the term सप्तमी ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term ‘वन ङि’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘वन ङि + अन्तर्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= वन अन्तर् 2-4-71
= वनान्तर् 6-1-101

वनान्तर् + सुँ (default) 4-1-2
= वनान्तर् 2-4-82
= वनान्त: 8-2-66, 8-3-15

Another example –

ईश्वरेऽधि = ईश्वराधीन: – reliant on God.
Note: The सूत्रम् 1-4-97 अधिरीश्वरे assigns the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: to ‘अधि’ here. In connection with ‘अधि’ (which has the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-97 अधिरीश्वरे), ‘ईश्वर’ takes a seventh case affix as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-9 यस्मादधिकं यस्य चेश्वरवचनं तत्र सप्तमी।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
ईश्वर ङि + अधि 2-1-40, 2-4-82. As per 1-2-43 the term ‘ईश्वर ङि’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-40 (which prescribes the compounding) the term सप्तमी ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term ‘ईश्वर ङि’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘ईश्वर ङि + अधि’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= ईश्वर अधि 2-4-71
= ईश्वराधि 6-1-101

Example continued under 5-4-7

5-4-7 अषडक्षाशितंग्वलंकर्मालंपुरुषाध्युत्तरपदात्ख: । Video

वृत्तिः स्वार्थे । The following प्रातिपदिकानि invariably take the तद्धित: affix ‘ख’ with no change in meaning – i) ‘अषडक्ष’ ii) ‘आशितङ्गु’ iii) ‘अलंकर्मन्’ vi) ‘अलंपुरुष’ and v) a compound having ‘अधि’ as its latter member.

Example continued from 2-1-40

ईश्वराधि + ख 5-4-7

Example continued under 7-1-2

7-1-2 आयनेयीनीयियः फढखछघां प्रत्ययादीनाम्‌ Video

वृत्तिः प्रत्‍ययादेः फस्‍य आयन्, ढस्‍य एय्, खस्‍य ईन्, छस्‍य ईय्, घस्‍य इय् एते स्‍युः । The letters ‘फ्’, ‘ढ्’, ‘ख्’, ‘छ्’ and ‘घ्’ – when they occur at the beginning of a प्रत्यय: (affix) – are replaced respectively by ‘आयन्’, ‘एय्’, ‘ईन्’, ‘ईय्’ and ‘इय्’।
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 1-3-10 यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम्, the substitutions take place respectively.

Example continued from 5-4-7

ईश्वराधि + ख
= ईश्वराधि + ईन 7-1-2
= ईश्वराध् + ईन 1-4-18, 6-4-148
= ईश्वराधीन

This compound is an adjective which is declined in the masculine like राम-शब्द:, in the neuter like वन-शब्द: and in the feminine (as ‘ईश्वराधीना’) like रमा-शब्द:।

(लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी under 2-1-40) द्वितीयातृतीयेत्‍यादियोगविभागादन्‍यत्रापि द्वितीयादिविभक्तीनां प्रयोगवशात्‍समासो ज्ञेयः । Video

In order to justify the formation of some द्वितीया/तृतीया/चतुर्थी/पञ्चमी/सप्तमी-तत्पुरुष: compounds which are used by the scholars but which cannot be constructed using the अष्टाध्यायी rules as they are, we have to sometimes split the rule (2-1-24 द्वितीया श्रितातीतपतितगतात्यस्तप्राप्तापन्नैः or 2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन or 2-1-36 चतुर्थी तदर्थार्थबलिहितसुखरक्षितैः or 2-1-37 पञ्चमी भयेन or 2-1-40 सप्तमी शौण्डैः) in to two parts.

For example, consider the following compound –

आपाते रमणीयम् = आपातरमणीयम् – delightful at first glance. Since ‘रमणीय’ is not listed in the शौण्डादि-गण: we cannot use 2-1-40 सप्तमी शौण्डैः to form this compound. (The rules from 2-1-41 to 2-1-48 do not apply either.) So we split the rule 2-1-40 सप्तमी शौण्डैः in to two parts – 2-1-40 (a) सप्तमी and 2-1-40 (b) शौण्डैः। The meaning of part (a) becomes – A पदम् ending in a seventh case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:। We can use this part (a) to justify the formation of the compound आपातरमणीयम्।
The अनुवृत्ति: of ‘सप्तमी’ is taken in to part (b). Hence the meaning of part (b) is the same as the meaning of the entire सूत्रम् 2-1-40 सप्तमी शौण्डैः।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
आपात ङि + रमणीय सुँ 2-1-40 (a). As per 1-2-43 the term ‘आपात ङि’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-40 (a) (which prescribes the compounding) the term सप्तमी ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term ‘आपात ङि’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘आपात ङि + रमणीय सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= आपातरमणीय 2-4-71

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आपातरमणीय’ is neuter since the latter member ‘रमणीय’ of the compound is used in the neuter here. The compound declines like वन-शब्द:।


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