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धर्मार्थौ mNd

Today we will look at the form धर्मार्थौ  mNd from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 6.64.8.

यांस्तु धर्मार्थकामांस्त्वं ब्रवीषि पृथगाश्रयान् । अनुबोद्धुं स्वभावेन न हि लक्षणमस्ति तान् ।। ६-६४-६ ।।
कर्म चैव हि सर्वेषां कारणानां प्रयोजनम् । श्रेयः पापीयसां चात्र फलं भवति कर्मणाम् ।। ६-६४-७ ।।
निःश्रेयसफलावेव धर्मार्थावितरावपि । अधर्मानर्थयोः प्राप्तिः फलं च प्रात्यवायिकम् ।। ६-६४-८ ।।
ऐहलौकिकपारक्यं कर्म पुम्भिर्निषेव्यते । कर्माण्यपि तु कल्प्यानि लभते काममास्थितः ।। ६-६४-९ ।।

Gita Press translation – The capacity to know virtue, worldly gain and sensuous pleasure in their true character does not exist in you in that you speak of them as incompatible (lit., existing in different individuals) (6). “Again, action is the root of all the (three) means to happiness (viz., virtue, worldly gain and sensuous pleasure); moreover the fruit of actions, (both) noble and exceedingly sinful, in this world accrues to the same agent (7). Virtue (in the shape of muttering of prayers, meditation etc., which have no dependence on wealth) and the performance of sacrifices and practice of charity etc. (for the accomplishment of which wealth is indispensable), though conducive to final beatitude alone ( if pursued in a disinterested spirit), also lead (if pursued with some interested motive) to goals other than final beatitude (such as heavenly bliss and worldly prosperity). From the omission of an obligatory virtue follow unrighteousness and evil, and (along with them) the bitter fruit of the offense of omission (8). The fruit of (past) actions (good or bad) is reaped by living beings in this as well as in the other world. He (however) who remains sedulously devoted to actions with a view to attaining sensuous pleasure (perceptibly) enjoys blessings even in this life (and not hereafter as in the case of virtue and material gain) (9).

(1) धर्मश्चार्थश्च = धर्मार्थौ or अर्थधर्मौ – virtue and wealth

(2) धर्म सुँ + अर्थ सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌, ‘अर्थ सुँ’ should necessarily be placed in the prior position in the compound because ‘अर्थ’ begins with a vowel and ends with the letter ‘अ’।

(4) धर्म सुँ + अर्थ सुँ or अर्थ सुँ + धर्म सुँ । By 2-2-31 राजदन्तादिषु परम्‌ – In the list of compounds ‘राजदन्त’ etc the term which ought to be placed in the prior position in the compound is actually placed in the latter position. Since the compound धर्मार्थौ as well as अर्थधर्मौ is listed in the राजदन्तादि-गण: it can be concluded that ‘धर्म सुँ’ may be placed in the final or prior position in the compound. Note: ‘धर्म सुँ + अर्थ सुँ’ as well as ‘अर्थ सुँ + धर्म सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(5) धर्म + अर्थ or अर्थ + धर्म । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(6) धर्मार्थ or अर्थधर्म । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धर्मार्थ or अर्थधर्म’ is masculine since the final member ‘अर्थ’ (of the compound ‘धर्मार्थ’) as well as ‘धर्म’ (of the compound ‘अर्थधर्म’) is masculine. (‘धर्म’ is rarely used in the neuter.) This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members. It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-द्विवचनम् ।

(7) धर्मार्थ + औ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(8) धर्मार्थौ । By 6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि । Note: 6-1-104 नादिचि stops 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः।

Questions:

1. What type of compound is निःश्रेयसफलौ used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. प्रादि-तत्पुरुष:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
vi. कर्मधारय:

2. Can you spot the augment नुँट् in the verses?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रयोजन’ (used in the form प्रयोजनम् (प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-3-94 स्त्रियां क्तिन् been used in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘इ’ in the form आस्थितः?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Between virtue and wealth, virtue is more important.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गरीयस्’ (which ends in the affix ‘इयसुँन्’) for ‘more important.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment ‘ईट्’ in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ए’ in the form लभते?

राजगुह्यम् nNs

Today we will look at the form राजगुह्यम्  nNs from श्रीमद्भागवद्गीता 9.2

राजविद्या राजगुह्यं पवित्रमिदमुत्तमम्‌ । प्रत्यक्षावगमं धर्म्यं सुसुखं कर्तुमव्ययम्‌ ।। ९-२ ।।
अश्रद्दधानाः पुरुषा धर्मस्यास्य परन्तप । अप्राप्य मां निवर्तन्ते मृत्युसंसारवर्त्मनि ।। ९-३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
किंच राजविद्येति । इदं ज्ञानं राजविद्या विद्यानां राजेति राजविद्या च । गुह्यानां राजेति राजगुह्यं विद्यासु गोप्येषु च रहस्यम् । अतिश्रेष्ठमित्यर्थः । राजदन्तादित्वादुपसर्जनस्य परत्वम् । राज्ञां विद्या राज्ञां गुह्यमिति वा उत्तमं पवित्रमत्यन्तपावनमिदं ज्ञानिनां प्रत्यक्षावगमं च प्रत्यक्षः स्पष्टोऽवगमोऽवबोधो यस्य तत्प्रत्यक्षावगमम् । दृष्टफलमित्यर्थः । धर्म्यं च धर्मादनपेतं, सर्वधर्मफलत्वात् । कर्तुं सुसुखं च । सुखेन कर्तुं शक्यमित्यर्थः । अव्ययमक्षयफलत्वात् ।। २ ।। नन्वेवमस्यातिसुकरत्वे के नाम संसारिणः स्युस्तत्राह – अश्रद्दधाना इति । अस्य भक्तिलक्षणज्ञानसहितस्य धर्मस्येति कर्मणि षष्ठ्यौ । इमं धर्ममश्रद्दधाना आस्तिक्येनास्वीकुर्वन्तः, उपायान्तरेण मत्प्राप्तये कृतप्रयत्ना अपि मामप्राप्य मृत्युयुक्ते संसारवर्त्मनि निवर्तन्ते । मृत्युव्याप्ते संसारमार्गे परिभ्रमन्तीत्यर्थः ।। ३ ।।

Gita Press translation – This knowledge (of both the Nirguṇa and Saguṇa aspects of Divinity) is a sovereign science, a sovereign secret, supremely holy, most excellent, directly enjoyable, attended with virtue, very easy to practice and imperishable (2). Arjuna, people having no faith in this Dharma, failing to reach Me, continue to revolve in the path of the world of birth and death (3).

(1) गुह्यानां राजा = राजगुह्यम् – the king of secrets. The word राजा has been used here in the sense of अतिश्रेष्ठम् (absolute best.)

See question 1.

(2) गुह्य आम् + राजन् सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By the सूत्रम् 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – ‘गुह्य आम्’ (which ends in a sixth case affix) gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 षष्ठी (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case.
And hence as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ the term ‘गुह्य आम्’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound.

(4) राजन् सुँ + गुह्य आम् । By 2-2-31 राजदन्तादिषु परम्‌ – In the list of compounds ‘राजदन्त’ etc the term which ought to be placed in the prior position in the compound is actually placed in the latter position. Note: आकृतिगणोऽयम्‌ – the राजदन्तादि-गण: is a आकृतिगण: – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence even though राजगुह्यम् is not specifically listed in the राजदन्तादि-गण: it is considered to be included there. This is confirmed by the commentator.

Note: ‘राजन् सुँ + गुह्य आम्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(5) राजन् + गुह्य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।
Note: Here ‘राजन्’ has the designation पदम् as per 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य to apply in the next step.

(6) राजगुह्य । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘राजगुह्य’ is neuter since the final member ‘गुह्य’ of the compound is used here in the neuter. It declines like वन-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(7) राजगुह्य + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(8) राजगुह्य + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(9) राजगुह्यम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. What is an alternate way of analyzing the compound राजगुह्यम्? (Hint: See commentary.)

2. In which word in the verses has the affix ‘खच्’ been used?

3. Why does the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ apply in the form अप्राप्य in spite of the exclusion अनञ्पूर्वे?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the formation of the compound उपायान्तरेण (तृतीया-एकवचनम्) used in the commentary?

5. Which type of compound is मृत्युयुक्ते (सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) used in the commentary?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. बहुव्रीहि:
iii. कर्मधारय:
iv. तृतीया-तत्पुरुष:

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“My two front middle teeth (on the top row ) are broken.” Use the verbal root √भन्ज् (भन्जोँ आमर्दने ७. १६) for ‘to break.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-113 हलि लोपः been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the letter ‘अ’ in the form स्यु: (used in the commentary)?

शङ्खतूर्यमृदङ्गानाम् mGp

Today we will look at the form शङ्खतूर्यमृदङ्गानाम् mGp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् verse 8.8.26

शङ्खतूर्यमृदङ्गानां वादित्राणां पृथुः स्वनः । देवानुगानां सस्त्रीणां नृत्यतां गायतामभूत् ।। ८-८-२६ ।।
ब्रह्मरुद्राङ्गिरोमुख्याः सर्वे विश्वसृजो विभुम् । ईडिरेऽवितथैर्मन्त्रैस्तल्लिङ्गैः पुष्पवर्षिणः ।। ८-८-२७ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तल्लिङ्गैर्विष्णुप्रतिपादकैः । अवितथैर्यथार्थैः ।। २७ ।।

Translation – A great noise issued forth from conchs, clarinets and clay tom-toms and other musical instruments, as well as from Gandharvas (attendants of the gods) and their wives dancing and singing (on that occasion) (26). All the creators of the world, headed by Brahmā, Rudra (the god of destruction) and the sage Añgirā, celebrated the Lord by means of sacred texts purporting to describe Him and representing the bare truth, and showered flowers on Him (27).

(1) शङ्खाश्च तूर्याश्च मृदङ्गाश्च = शङ्खतूर्यमृदङ्गाः – conchs, clarinets and clay tom-toms

(2) शङ्ख जस् + तूर्य जस् + मृदङ्ग जस् । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) शङ्ख जस् + तूर्य जस् + मृदङ्ग जस् । As per 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position. Here ‘शङ्ख’ and ‘तूर्य’ have two syllables while ‘मृदङ्ग’ has three. Note: बहुष्वनियम: – when more than one member of the compound has the least number of syllables (vowels), any of these members may be placed in the prior position and the remaining members of the compound may be placed in any order. Therefore we can either place ‘शङ्ख जस्’ or ‘तूर्य जस्’ in the prior position followed by the remaining two in any order.

See question 1.

Note: ‘शङ्ख जस् + तूर्य जस् + मृदङ्ग जस् ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) शङ्ख + तूर्य + मृदङ्ग । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= शङ्खतूर्यमृदङ्ग ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शङ्खतूर्यमृदङ्ग’ is masculine since the final member ‘मृदङ्ग’ of the compound is masculine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is plural in number because it has three members. It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्।

(5) शङ्खतूर्यमृदङ्ग + आम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘आम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(6) शङ्खतूर्यमृदङ्ग + नुँट् आम् । By 7-1-54 ह्रस्वनद्यापो नुट् – The affix ‘आम्’ takes the augment ‘नुँट्’ when it follows a प्रातिपदिकम् which either ends in a short vowel or has the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा or ends in the feminine affix ‘आप्’।
As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ the augment ‘नुँट्’ joins at the beginning of the affix ‘आम्’।

(7) शङ्खतूर्यमृदङ्ग + नाम् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) शङ्खतूर्यमृदङ्गानाम् । By 6-4-3 नामि – The ending vowel of an अङ्गम् gets elongated if followed by the term ‘नाम्’।

Questions:

1. What are the three alternate forms for the compound ‘शङ्खतूर्यमृदङ्ग’?

2. Which compound used in the verses is a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound?

3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘स’ in the compound सस्त्रीणाम्?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-78 सुप्यजातौ णिनिस्ताच्छील्ये been used in the verses?

5. In which word in the verses has the affix ‘क्विँप्’ been used?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The demons struck the monkeys with swords, spears and javelins.” Construct a द्वन्द्व: compound for ‘swords, spears and javelins’ = ‘खड्गाश्च शूलाश्च तोमराश्च’। Use the verbal root √तड् (तडँ आघाते १०.६४) for ‘to strike.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-4-77 गातिस्थाघुपाभूभ्यः सिचः परस्मैपदेषु been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘इरे’ in the form ईडिरे?

ज्ञानविज्ञानात् n-Ab-s

Today we will look at the form ज्ञानविज्ञानात् n-Ab-s from श्रीमद्भागवतम् verse 4.22.33

अर्थेन्द्रियार्थाभिध्यानं सर्वार्थापह्नवो नृणाम् । भ्रंशितो ज्ञानविज्ञानाद्येनाविशति मुख्यताम् ।। ४-२२-३३ ।।
न कुर्यात्कर्हिचित्सङ्गं तमस्तीव्रं तितीरिषुः । धर्मार्थकाममोक्षाणां यदत्यन्तविघातकम् ।। ४-२२-३४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
कुत इत्यत आह । अर्थस्याभिध्यानमिन्द्रियस्यार्थः कामस्तस्याभिध्यानं सर्वार्थनाशः । ज्ञानं विज्ञानं च परोक्षापरोक्षम् । येन ध्यानेन मुख्यतां स्थावरताम् ।। ३३ ।। अनात्मरतेरनर्थहेतुत्वमुक्तं सङ्गस्याप्याह – नेति । यद्वस्तु धर्मादीनां विघातकं तस्मिन्सङ्गम्तमः संसारम् ।। ३४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Constant preoccupation with wealth and the objects of sense means the ruination of all the interests of men. Deprived of his knowledge and wisdom through such preoccupation, man is reborn in the immobile creation (the vegetable and mineral kingdom) (33). Whoever is keen to cross and reach the other end of the impenetrable gloom in the form of ignorance (the root of transmigration) should never conceive an attachment to that which is most detrimental to (the attainment of) religious merit, worldly possessions, gratification of the senses and liberation (34).

(1) ज्ञानं विज्ञानं च तयो: समाहार: = ज्ञानविज्ञानम् – knowledge and wisdom.
Note: समाहारः denotes a collection of two or more terms (having the designation पदम्) wherein the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group.

(2) ज्ञान सुँ + विज्ञान सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) ज्ञान सुँ + विज्ञान सुँ । As per 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position. Since ‘ज्ञान’ has two syllables while ‘विज्ञान’ has three, ‘ज्ञान सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound.
Note: ‘ज्ञान सुँ + विज्ञान सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) ज्ञान + विज्ञान । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= ज्ञानविज्ञान ।

Since there is only a single group in a द्वन्द्वः compound which expresses a समाहारः it is always singular in number and as per 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌ it is always neuter in gender.

The विवक्षा is पञ्चमी-एकवचनम्।

(5) ज्ञानविज्ञान + ङसिँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) ज्ञानविज्ञान + आत् । By 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः – Following a अङ्गम् ending in a the letter ‘अ’, the affixes ‘टा’, ‘ङसिँ’ and ‘ङस्’ are replaced respectively by ‘इन’, ‘आत्’ and ‘स्य’। Note: Since the substitute ‘आत्’ has more than one letter, as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य, the entire affix (and not just its last letter) is replaced by ‘आत्’।
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘त्’ of ‘आत्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) ज्ञानविज्ञानात् । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

Questions:

1. Can you spot a समाहार-द्वन्द्व: compound in verses 41-45 of Chapter Eighteen of the गीता?

2. What would be final form in this example if the द्वन्द्व: compound were to be formed इतरेतरयोगे (instead of समाहारे)?

3. What type of compound is ‘अत्यन्त’ (used as part of the larger compound अत्यन्तविघातकम् in the verses)?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. बहुव्रीहि:
iii. प्रादि-तत्पुरुष:
iv. अव्ययीभाव:

4. The form तितीरिषुः is आर्ष: (grammatically irregular.) What is the grammatically correct form?

5. Which compound used in the commentary is a समाहार-द्वन्द्व:?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Knowledge and wisdom is obtained through (by) devotion.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix ‘श’ in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-109 ये च been used in the verses?

रामलक्ष्मणौ mNd

Today we will look at the form रामलक्ष्मणौ  mNd from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 1.31.1.

अथ तां रजनीं तत्र कृतार्थौ रामलक्ष्मणौ । ऊषतुर्मुदितौ वीरौ प्रहृष्टेनान्तरात्मना ।। १-३१-१ ।।
प्रभातायां तु शर्वर्यां कृतपौर्वाह्णिकक्रियौ । विश्वामित्रमृषींश्चान्यान्सहितावभिजग्मतुः ।। १-३१-२ ।।
अभिवाद्य मुनिश्रेष्ठं ज्वलन्तमिव पावकम् । ऊचतुः परमोदारं वाक्यं मधुरभाषिणौ ।। १-३१-३ ।।
इमौ स्म मुनिशार्दूल किङ्करौ समुपागतौ । आज्ञापय मुनिश्रेष्ठ शासनं करवाव किम् ।। १-३१-४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Delighted on having accomplished their purpose (in the shape of protecting the sacrifice of Viśwāmitra), the two heroes Śrī Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa, then spent that night with a most cheerful mind in the sacrificial hall (of Viśwāmitra at Siddhāśrama itself) (1). Having finished their morning duties at the close of night, the two brothers for their part sought together Viśwāmitra and the other Ṛṣis (2). Greeting Viśwāmitra (the foremost of the sages), who shone as a blazing fire, the two sweet-tongued brothers made the following highly noble submission :- (3) “Here are we, your servants, present before you, O tiger among hermits! Tell us, O jewel among sages, what injunction of yours should we carry out.” (4)

(1) रामश्च लक्ष्मणश्च = रामलक्ष्मणौ – Śrī Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa

(2) राम सुँ + लक्ष्मण सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) राम सुँ + लक्ष्मण सुँ । As per 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position. Since ‘राम’ has two syllables while ‘लक्ष्मण’ has three, ‘राम सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound.
Note: ‘राम सुँ + लक्ष्मण सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) राम + लक्ष्मण । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= रामलक्ष्मण ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘रामलक्ष्मण’ is masculine since the final member ‘लक्ष्मण’ of the compound is masculine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members. It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-द्विवचनम् ।

(5) रामलक्ष्मण + औ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) रामलक्ष्मणौ । By 6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि । Note: 6-1-104 नादिचि stops 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः।

Questions:

1. Can you spot a द्वन्द्व: compound in verses 24-28 of Chapter Five of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः (used in step 2) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – समुच्चयान्वाचयेतरेतरयोगसमाहाराश्चार्थाः । तत्र ‘ईश्वरं गुरुं च भजस्व’ इति परस्परनिरपेक्षस्यानेकस्यैकस्मिन्नन्वयः समुच्चयः । ‘भिक्षामट गां चानय’ इत्यन्यतरस्यानुषङ्गिकत्वेनान्वयोऽन्वाचयः । अनयोरसामर्थ्यात्समासो न । Please explain.

3. Which सूत्रम् justifies the formation of the compound ‘मुनिशार्दूल’ used in the verses?

4. What type of compound is कृतार्थौ (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कृतार्थ’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-द्विवचनम्) as used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:

5. In which word in the verses has the affix ‘णिनिँ’ been used?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“(Śrī) Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa protected the sacrificial rite of the sage Viśwāmitra.” Use the masculine noun ‘यज्ञ’ for ‘sacrificial rite.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ष्’ in the form ऊषतु:?

2. Can you spot the augment ‘आट्’ in the verses?

विगतस्पृहः mNs

Today we will look at the form विगतस्पृहः  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.19.21.

इत्युक्त्वा नाहुषो जायां तदीयं पूरवे वयः । दत्त्वा स्वां जरसं तस्मादाददे विगतस्पृहः ।। ९-१९-२१ ।।
दिशि दक्षिणपूर्वस्यां द्रुह्युं दक्षिणतो यदुम् । प्रतीच्यां तुर्वसुं चक्र उदीच्यामनुमीश्वरम् ।। ९-१९-२२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
No commentary on these verses.

Gita Press translation – Having spoken thus to his wife (Devayānī) and returned Pūru’s youth to him, Yayāti received (back) his own old age (from him), all craving for enjoyment having left him for good (21). He appointed Druhyu as the ruler in the south-eastern quarter, Yadu in the south, Turvasu in the west and Anu in the north (22).

(1) विगता स्पृहा यस्य स: = विगतस्पृहः – He (Yayāti) whose craving for enjoyment had completely gone.

(2) विगता सुँ + स्पृहा सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) By सूत्रम् 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘विगता सुँ’ as well as ‘स्पृहा सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.

The adjective ‘विगता सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘विगता सुँ + स्पृहा सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) विगता + स्पृहा । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) विगत + स्पृहा । By 6-3-34 स्त्रियाः पुंवद्भाषितपुंस्कादनूङ् समानाधिकरणे स्त्रियामपूरणीप्रियादिषु – A feminine adjective which does not end in the feminine affix ‘ऊङ्’ (ref. 4-1-66 ऊङुतः etc) and is formed from a masculine base denoting the same meaning becomes masculine-like when it is followed by a feminine final member (of a compound) which has समानाधिकरणम् (same locus/reference) but not if the final member denotes an ordinal number or belongs to the class of words ‘प्रिया’ etc.
In the present example the feminine adjective ‘विगता’ which does not end in the feminine affix ‘ऊङ्’ and is formed from the masculine base ‘विगत’ denoting the same meaning becomes masculine-like (‘विगत’) because it is followed by the feminine final member ‘स्पृहा’ which has समानाधिकरणम् (same locus/reference).

See questions 2 and 3.

(6) विगतस्पृह । By 1-2-48 गोस्त्रियोरुपसर्जनस्य – The ending vowel (ref. 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य) of a प्रातिपदिकम् is shortened if the प्रातिपदिकम् ends in either –
i) the term ‘गो’ that has the designation उपसर्जनम् or
ii) a term which ends in a feminine affix and has the designation उपसर्जनम्।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example विगतस्पृहः is qualifying नाहुष: (ययातिः) । Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विगतस्पृह’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(7) विगतस्पृह + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(8) विगतस्पृह + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(9) विगतस्पृह: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. In which chapter(s) of the गीता has the compound ‘विगतस्पृह’ been used?

2. What is the optional second form for the above compound in the case where the affix ‘कप्’ is applied using the सूत्रम् 5-4-154 शेषाद्विभाषा?

3. What is the optional third form for the above compound in the case where the affix ‘कप्’ is applied using the सूत्रम् 5-4-154 शेषाद्विभाषा and the ending long vowel ‘आ’ of the अङ्गम् (base) is shortened using the सूत्रम् 7-4-15 आपोऽन्यतरस्याम्?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a fourth case affix in the form पूरवे?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-46 दो दद् घोः been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Because king Daśaratha was true to his promise he exiled his own beloved son Śrī Rāma.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘one who is true to his promise’ = ‘one whose promise it true’ = ‘सत्या प्रतिज्ञा यस्य स:’। Use a causative form of the verbal root √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘वि’ for ‘to exile.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् mandates the use of a आत्मनेपदम् affix in the form आददे?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः been used in the verses?

महायशाः mNs

Today we will look at the form महायशाः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.1.21.

एतत्सङ्कल्पवैषम्यं होतुस्ते व्यभिचारतः । तथापि साधयिष्ये ते सुप्रजास्त्वं स्वतेजसा ।। ९-१-२० ।।
एवं व्यवसितो राजन्भगवान्स महायशाः । अस्तौषीदादिपुरुषमिलायाः पुंस्त्वकाम्यया ।। ९-१-२१ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
No commentary on these verses.

Gita Press translation – “This frustration of your purpose has been brought about by the contrary intention of the Hotā. Yet by virtue of my own spiritual glory I shall confer on you the privilege of having a good (male) progeny.” (20) Thus resolved, O king, the glorious sage (Vasiṣṭha) of extraordinary fame, extolled Lord Viṣṇu (the most ancient Person) with the desire of transforming Ilā into a male child (21).

(1) महद्यशो यस्य स: = महायशा: – He who has great renown.

(2) महत् सुँ + यशस् सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) By सूत्रम् 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘महत् सुँ’ as well as ‘यशस् सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.

The adjective ‘महत् सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘महत् सुँ + यशस् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) महत् + यशस् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) मह आ + यशस् । By 6-3-46 आन्महतः समानाधिकरणजातीययोः – The ending letter (‘त्’) of ‘महत्’ is substituted by ‘आ’ when ‘महत्’ is followed by either –
i) a latter member (of a compound) which has समानाधिकरणम् (refers to the same item as does ‘महत्’) or
ii) affix ‘जातीय’ (ref. 5-3-69 प्रकारवचने जातीयर्)।
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य only the ending letter ‘त्’ of ‘महत्’ is substituted by ‘आ’।

(6) महायशस् । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

See question 1.

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example महायशाः is qualifying सः (He – Vasiṣṭha) । Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महायशस्’। It declines like वेधस्-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(7) महायशस् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(8) महायशस् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(9) महायशास् + स् । By 6-4-14 अत्वसन्तस्य चाधातोः – When the ‘सुँ’ affix which is not सम्बुद्धिः follows, a base that ends in ‘अतुँ’ or a base that ends in ‘अस्’ which is not of a verbal root, has its penultimate letter elongated.

(10) महायशास् । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् – A single letter affix ‘सुँ’, ‘ति’ or ‘सि’ is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix ‘ङी’ or ‘आप्’।
Note: Now ‘महायशास्’ gets पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम् । This allows 8-2-66 to apply in the next step.

(11) महायशाः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. What is the optional form for महायशाः (in the case where the समासान्त: affix ‘कप्’ is added by 5-4-154 शेषाद्विभाषा)?

2. In which compound in the verses has the समासान्त: affix ‘असिँच्’ been used?

3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘काम्यच्’ in the form पुंस्त्वकाम्यया (स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पुंस्त्वकाम्या’, तृतीया-एकवचनम्)?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-40 द्यतिस्यतिमास्थामित्ति किति been used in the verses?

5. Why is the form अस्तौषीत् a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (irregular grammatical usage)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Among all the texts on the subject of grammar, the best is the Aṣṭādhyāyī composed by the sage Pāṇini of great renown.” Paraphrase to – “Among all the texts which have grammar as their subject, the best is the Aṣṭādhyāyī composed by the sage Pāṇini of great renown.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘that (text) which has grammar as its subject’ = ‘व्याकरणं विषय: यस्य स: (ग्रन्थ:)’।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-111 ऋत उत्‌ been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘णिच्’ in the verses?

अग्निसाक्षिकः mNs

Today we will look at the form अग्निसाक्षिकः  mNs from रघुवंशम् verse 11-48.

मैथिलः सपदि सत्यसंगरो राघवाय तनयामयोनिजाम् ।
संनिधौ द्युतिमतस्तपोनिधेरग्निसाक्षिक इवातिसृष्टवान् ॥ 11-48॥

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
सत्यसङ्गरः सत्यप्रतिज्ञ: । ‘अथ प्रतिज्ञाजिसंविदापत्सु सङ्गरः’ इत्यमरः । मैथिलो राघवायायोनिजां तनयां द्युतिमतस्तेजस्विनस्तपोनिधेः कौशिकस्य संनिधौ । अग्निः साक्षी यस्य सोऽग्निसाक्षिकः । ‘शेषाद्विभाषा’ इति कप्प्रत्ययः । स इवसपद्यतिसृष्टवान्दत्तवान् ।। ४८ ।।

Translation – The king of Mithilā, true to [his] promise, instantly gave away to Rāma [his] daughter – not born from the womb – in the presence of the lustrous ascetic, as though he had fire as the witness [for the offering].

(1) अग्निः साक्षी यस्य सः = अग्निशाक्षिकः (मैथिलः) – one (King Janaka) who had fire as the witness.

(2) अग्नि सुँ + साक्षिन् सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) By सूत्रम् 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘अग्नि सुँ’ as well as ‘साक्षिन् सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.

The adjective ‘अग्नि सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘अग्नि सुँ + साक्षिन् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) अग्नि + साक्षिन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= अग्निसाक्षिन् ।

(5) अग्निसाक्षिन् कप् । By 5-4-154 शेषाद्विभाषा – Following a बहुव्रीहि: compound for which no other समासान्त: operation has been prescribed and which is composed using a rule in the अधिकार: of शेष: (which runs from 2-2-23 शेषो बहुव्रीहिः to 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) the तद्धित: affix कप्‌ is optionally prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.

See question 3.

(6) अग्निसाक्षिन् क । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
Note: ‘अग्निसाक्षिन्’ gets the designation पदम् here as per 1-4-17 स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(7) अग्निसाक्षिक । By 8-2-7 नलोप: प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example अग्निसाक्षिकः is qualifying मैथिलः (the king of Mithilā.) Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अग्निसाक्षिक’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(8) अग्निसाक्षिक + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(9) अग्निसाक्षिक + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(10) अग्निसाक्षिक: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 5-4-154 शेषाद्विभाषा (used in step 5) been used in verses 25-30 of Chapter Eighteen of the गीता?

2. Which other (besides अग्निसाक्षिक:) compound used in the verses is a बहुव्रीहि: compound?

3. Commenting on the word शेष: used in the सूत्रम् 5-4-154 शेषाद्विभाषा the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – शेषशब्दोऽर्थद्वयपर:। Please explain.

4. Can you spot the negation particle नञ् in the verses?

5. In which word in the commentary has the सूत्रम् 7-4-46 दो दद् घोः been used?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“This entire universe has the Self as its witness.” Paraphrase to – “This entire universe is that which has the Self as its witness.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘that which has the Self as its witness’ = ‘आत्मा साक्षी यस्य तत्’।

Easy Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-101 अतो दीर्घो यञि been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘औ’ in the form संनिधौ (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘संनिधि’, सप्तमी-एकवचनम्)?

सहभर्तृकाः fNp

Today we will look at the form सहभर्तृकाः  fNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.84.46.

तन्महिष्यश्च मुदिता निष्ककण्ठ्यः सुवाससः । दीक्षाशालामुपाजग्मुरालिप्ता वस्तुपाणयः ।। १०-८४-४५ ।।
नेदुर्मृदङ्गपटहशङ्खभेर्यानकादयः । ननृतुर्नटनर्तक्यस्तुष्टुवुः सूतमागधाः । जगुः सुकण्ठ्यो गन्धर्व्यः सङ्गीतं सहभर्तृकाः ।। १०-८४-४६ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
आलिप्ताः कुङ्कुमादिभिः । वस्तुपाणयो गृहीतार्हणहस्ताः ।। ४५ ।।

Gita Press translation – The consorts of Vasudeva too adorned themselves with gold necklaces and besmeared their bodies with sandal-paste and, clad in their best attire, joyously entered the sacrificial hall with offerings in their hands (45). Clay tom-toms, tabors, conchs, drums, kettledrums and other musical instruments were sounded (at the time); dancers, both male and female danced; bards and panegyrists uttered praises; Gandharva women with their husbands sang beautiful songs (46).

(1) भर्तृभि: सह (जगुर्गन्धर्व्यः) = सहभर्तृकाः (जगुर्गन्धर्व्यः) – With their spouses (the Gandharva women sang).
Note: The third case affix used in भर्तृभि: is as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने।

(2) सह + भर्तृ भिस् । As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-28 तेन सहेति तुल्ययोगे – The indeclinable सह when it denotes ‘equal connection (with an action)’ optionally compounds with a पदम् ending in a third case affix to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound.

As per 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् the term सह gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-28 (which prescribes the compounding) the term सह ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term सह is placed in the prior position in the compound.

Note: ‘सह + भर्तृ भिस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) सह + भर्तृ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) सह + भर्तृ / स + भर्तृ । By 6-3-82 वोपसर्जनस्य – When it is a part of a बहुव्रीहि: compound the indeclinable सह is optionally replaced by ‘स’।

= सहभर्तृ / सभर्तृ ।

(5) सहभर्तृ कप् । By 5-4-153 नद्यृतश्च – Following a बहुव्रीहि: compound whose final member either has the designation नदी or ends in the letter ‘ऋ’ the तद्धित: affix कप्‌ is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.

(6) सहभर्तृक । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example गन्धर्व्यः is being qualified. Hence we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सहभर्तृका’ by adding the feminine affix टाप्।

(7) सहभर्तृक + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌ – The प्रातिपदिकानि ‘अज’ etc. and प्रातिपदिकानि ending in the letter ‘अ’ get the टाप् affix in the feminine gender.

(8) सहभर्तृक + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(9) सहभर्तृका । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्।

(10) सहभर्तृका + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(11) सहभर्तृका + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘जस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(12) सहभर्तृकास् । 6-1-102 प्रथमयो: पूर्वसवर्ण: – When a अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(13) सहभर्तृकाः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. What is the विग्रह: of the compound वस्तुपाणयः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वस्तुपाणि’, स्त्रीलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses?

2. In which word in the verses does the सूत्रम् 3-4-72 गत्यर्थाकर्मकश्लिषशीङ्स्थासवसजनरुहजीर्यतिभ्यश्च find application?

3. What type of compound is सुवाससः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सुवासस्’, स्त्रीलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) as used in the verses?
i. प्रादि-तत्पुरुष:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. गति-तत्पुरुष:
iv. बहुव्रीहि:

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ई’ in the form सङ्गीतम् (नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सङ्गीत’, द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The gods rejoiced seeing (having seen) Rāvaṇa executed by Śrī Rāma.” Paraphrase to “The gods rejoiced seeing (having seen) Rāvaṇa’s execution – whose doer was Śrī Rāma.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘that (execution) which has Śrī Rāma as the doer’ = ‘श्रीराम: कर्ता यस्य स: (वध:)’। Use the verbal root √हृष् (हृषँ तुष्टौ ४.१४२) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘प्र’ for ‘to rejoice.’

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Along with his mothers, Bharata went to Citrakūṭa to meet (see) Śrī Rāma.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘along with his mothers (Bharata went)’ = ‘मातृभि: सह (जगाम भरत:)’।

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the सूत्रम् 6-4-98 गमहनजनखनघसां लोपः क्ङित्यनङि been used?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ए’ in the form नेदु:?

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