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परापवादसस्येभ्यः n-Ab-p

Today we will look at the form परापवादसस्येभ्यः n-Ab-p from शार्ङ्गधरपद्धति: 1423.

परापवादसस्येभ्यो गां चरन्तीं निवारय । १४२३ ।

Translation – Ward off the grazing cow (in the form of speech) from the grains in the form of censure of others.
Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गो’ (used in गाम्) has the meaning of ‘cow’ as well as ‘speech’.

परापवादसस्येभ्यः is पञ्चमी-बहुवचनम् of the नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘परापवादसस्य’।

(1) परापवादसस्य + भ्यस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per the 1-4-27 वारणार्थानामीप्सितः – When a verbal root having the meaning of वारणम् (warding off) is used, the कारकम् (participant in the action) which denotes the thing desired to be reached/affected (by the doer through the action) is designated as अपादानम्। Note: वारणम् (warding off) stands for प्रवृत्तिविघात: (preventing from advancing.)
By 2-3-28 अपादाने पञ्चमी – A fifth case affix (‘ङसिँ’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used to denote the अपादानम् (that from which detachment/ablation takes place) provided it has not been expressed otherwise.

Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘भ्यस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(2) परापवादसस्ये + भ्यस् । By 7-3-103 बहुवचने झल्येत् – the ending letter ‘अ’ of a अङ्गम् changes to ‘ए’ when followed by a plural सुँप् affix beginning with a झल् letter.

(3) परापवादसस्येभ्य: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-4-27 वारणार्थानामीप्सितः (used in step 1) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – ईप्सित: किम्? यवेभ्यो गां वारयति क्षेत्रे। Please explain.

2. Commenting on example ‘यवेभ्यो गां वारयति’ given under the same सूत्रम् the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – यवसंयोगात् प्रागेव गां निवारयतीति ‘ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम्’ इत्यनेनासिद्धावयमारम्भ:। Please explain.

3. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – बुद्धिपरिकल्पितापायमङ्गीकुर्वतो भाष्यकारस्य मते तु वैयर्थ्यमेतस्य स्फुटमेव। Please explain.

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-124 लटः शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे been used in the example?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अपवाद’ (used in the compound परापवादसस्येभ्य: in the example)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Dadhimukha – the guardian of Sugrīva’s honey-grove – warded off the monkeys from the honey.” Use the neuter (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मधुवन’ for ‘honey-grove.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘आ’ in the form गाम्?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-105 अतो हेः been used in the example?

तृणबिन्दोः m-Ab-s

Today we will look at the form तृणबिन्दोः m-Ab-s from रघुवंशम् verse 8-79.

चरतः किल दुश्चरं तपस्तृणबिन्दोः परिशङ्कितः पुरा ।
प्रजिघाय समाधिभेदिनीं हरिरस्मै हरिणीं सुराङ्गनाम् ॥ ८-७९ ॥

टीका – पुरा किल दुश्चरं तीव्रं तपश्चरतस्तृणबिन्दोः तृणबिन्दुनामकात्कस्माच्चिदृषेः परिशङ्कितः भीतः । कर्तरि क्तः । ‘1-4-25 भीत्रार्थानां भयहेतुः’ इत्यपादानात्पञ्चमी । हरिः इन्द्रः समाधिभेदिनीं तपोविघातिनीं हरिणीं नाम सुराङ्गनामस्मै तृणबिन्दवे प्रजिघाय प्रेरितवान् ।।

Translation – It is reported that, in days of yore, Indra, afraid of Tṛṇabindu who was practicing a rigorous penance, sent to him a celestial damsel [called] Hariṇī capable of disturbing [to disturb] his concentration of mind.

तृणबिन्दोः is पञ्चमी-एकवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘तृणबिन्दु’।

(1) तृणबिन्दु + ङसिँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per the 1-4-25 भीत्रार्थानां भयहेतुः – When a verbal root having the meaning of भयम् (fear) or त्राणम् (protection) is used, the कारकम् (participant in the action) which denotes the cause of the fear is designated as अपादानम्। By 2-3-28 अपादाने पञ्चमी – A fifth case affix (‘ङसिँ’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used to denote the अपादानम् (that from which detachment/ablation takes place) provided it has not been expressed otherwise.

‘तृणबिन्दु’ gets the घि-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि – When a short ‘इ’ ending or short ‘उ’ ending term – except for ‘सखि’ – does not have the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा then it gets the घि-सञ्ज्ञा।

(2) तृणबिन्दु + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) तृणबिन्दो + अस् । By 7-3-111 घेर्ङिति – When a ङित् सुँप् affix follows, then an अङ्गम् having the घि-सञ्ज्ञा takes the गुण: substitution. Note: As per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य the गुण: substitution takes the place of only the ending letter (in this case ‘उ’) of the अङ्गम् ‘तृणबिन्दु’।

(4) तृणबिन्दोस् । By 6-1-110 ङसिँङसोश्च – In place of a preceding एङ् (‘ए’, ‘ओ’) letter and the following short ‘अ’ of the affix ‘ङसिँ’ or ‘ङस्’, there is a single substitute of the former (एङ् letter.)

(5) तृणबिन्दोः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a fourth case affix in the from अस्मै used in the verse?

2. Can you spot the affix खल् in the verse?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-78 सुप्यजातौ णिनिस्ताच्छील्ये been used in the verse? Where has it been used in the commentary?

4. Which कृत् affix is used to construct the form प्रेरितवान् used in the commentary?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Everyone is afraid of death.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In (my) childhood I was afraid of snakes.” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘बाल्य’ for ‘childhood.’

Advanced question:

1. Derive the form प्रजिघाय। Note: You will need to use the following सूत्रम् (which we have not studied yet) – 7-3-56 हेरचङि। वृत्ति: – अभ्यासात्परस्य हिनोतेर्हस्य कुत्वं स्यान्न तु चङि – The letter ‘ह्’ of the verbal root √हि (हि गतौ वृद्धौ च ५.१२) takes a letter of the कवर्ग: when it follows a अभ्यास: (ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः)। Note: As per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः, the closest substitute from the कवर्ग: for the letter ‘ह्’ is the letter ‘घ्’।

Easy question:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-113 हलि लोपः been used in the verse?

शब्दात् m-Ab-s

Today we will look at the form शब्दात् m-Ab-s from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 7.9.49.

नैते गुणा न गुणिनो महदादयो ये सर्वे मनःप्रभृतयः सहदेवमर्त्याः । आद्यन्तवन्त उरुगाय विदन्ति हि त्वामेवं विमृश्य सुधियो विरमन्ति शब्दात् ।। ७-९-४९ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अभक्तास्तु स्वस्मिन्ननुगतमपि त्वां न जानन्तीत्याह – नैत इति । एते गुणाद्यभिमानिनो देवा आद्यन्तवन्तो जडोपाधित्वादनाद्यन्तं निरुपाधिं त्वां न विदन्तिहि यस्मात्सुधियो विद्वांस एवं विचार्य शब्दादध्ययनादिव्यापारादुपरमन्ति । त्वामेव समाधिनोपासत इत्यर्थः । तथाच श्रुतिः – ‘किमर्था वयमध्येष्यामहे किमर्था वयं यक्ष्यामहे’ इति। ‘नानुध्यायेद्बहून् शब्दान्वाचो विग्लापनं हि तत्’ इति । स्मृतिश्च – ‘यदा ते मोहकलिलं बुद्धिर्व्यतितरिष्यति ।। तदा गन्तासि निर्वेदं श्रोतव्यस्य श्रुतस्य च ।।’ इत्यादिः ।। ४९ ।।

Gita Press translation – Neither these Guṇas (modes of Prakṛti, Sattva, Rajas and Tamas) nor the deities who preside over the (three) Guṇas (viz., Viṣṇu, Brahmā and Śiva) nor the categories commencing from Mahat-tattva (and ending with the Indriyas, that is to say, Mahat-tattva or the principle of cosmic intelligence, Ahaṅkāra or the ego, the five subtle and the five gross elements and the ten Indriyas,) nor the mind etc. (viz., the mind, intellect and reason,) nor (the various) living beings including the gods and human beings, all of whom have a beginning and an end (too), are able to know You in truth, O much-praised One! Thinking thus, men of good sense desist from the study of the Vedas and other scriptures (and devote themselves exclusively to meditation) (49).

शब्दात् is पञ्चमी-एकवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शब्द’।

(1) शब्द + ङसिँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per the वार्तिकम् (under 1-4-24 ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम्) जुगुप्साविरामप्रमादार्थानामुपसङ्ख्यानम् – When a verbal root having the meaning of जुगुप्सा (censure/dislike/disgust) or विराम: (cessation/turning away) or प्रमाद: (negligence/inattentiveness) is used, the कारकम् (participant in the action) – that is the विषय: (topic) of the जुगुप्सा/विराम:/प्रमाद: – is designated as अपादानम्। Note: In the above verse ‘शब्द’ (‘the study of the Vedas and other scriptures’) is designated as अपादानम् because it is the विषय: (topic) of विरमन्ति। By 2-3-28 अपादाने पञ्चमी – A fifth case affix (‘ङसिँ’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used to denote the अपादानम् (that from which detachment/ablation takes place) provided it has not been expressed otherwise.

(2) शब्द + आत् । By 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः – Following a अङ्गम् ending in the letter ‘अ’, the affixes ‘टा’, ‘ङसिँ’ and ‘ङस्’ are replaced respectively by ‘इन’, ‘आत्’ and ‘स्य’। Note: Since the substitute ‘आत्’ has more than one letter, as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य, the entire affix (and not just its last letter) is replaced by ‘आत्’।
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘त्’ of ‘आत्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(3) शब्दात् । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

Questions:

1. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 1-4-24 ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम्) जुगुप्साविरामप्रमादार्थानामुपसङ्ख्यानम् been used in the last ten verses of Chapter One of the गीता?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ been used in the verse?

3. Can you spot the augment पुक् in the commentary?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form समाधिना used in the commentary?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
Arjuna said to Śrī Kṛṣṇa – “I want to abstain from this battle.” Use the verbal root √रम् (रमुँ क्रीडायाम् | रमँ इति माधवः १. ९८९) preceded by उपसर्ग: ‘उप’ for ‘to abstain.’

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Don’t be negligent towards (your) duty.” Use the verbal root √मद् (मदीँ हर्षे ४. १०५) preceded by उपसर्ग: ‘प्र’ for ‘to be negligent.’ Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धर्म’ for ‘duty.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a परस्मैपदम् affix in the form विरमन्ति used in the verse?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-5 आत्मनेपदेष्वनतः been used in the commentary?

गृहात् n-Ab-s

Today we will look at the form गृहात् n-Ab-s from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.31.1.

मैत्रेय उवाच
तत उत्पन्नविज्ञाना आश्वधोक्षजभाषितम् । स्मरन्त आत्मजे भार्यां विसृज्य प्राव्रजन्गृहात् ।। ४-३१-१ ।।
दीक्षिता ब्रह्मसत्रेण सर्वभूतात्ममेधसा । प्रतीच्यां दिशि वेलायां सिद्धोऽभूद्यत्र जाजलिः ।। ४-३१-२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
ततो दिव्यवर्षसहस्राणां सहस्रस्यान्ते उत्पन्नविवेकज्ञानास्ते ‘उपयास्यथ मद्धाम निर्विद्य निरयादतः’ इत्यधोक्षजभाषितं स्मरन्त आशु प्राव्रजन् ।। १ ।। ब्रह्मसत्रेणात्मविमर्शेन दीक्षिताः कृतसंकल्पा बभूवुः । सर्वेषु भूतेष्वात्मेति मेधा ज्ञानं यस्मिंस्तेन । क्व । वेलायां समुद्रतटे । जाजलिर्नाम ऋषिः ।। २ ।।

Translation – Maitreya continued: After that (i.e., after enjoying earthly and celestial pleasures for a million years – vide verse 17 of the last discourse) when wisdom dawned on the Pracetās, they remembered the words of Lord Viṣṇu (vide verse 18 of the same discourse) and, leaving their wife (Māriṣā) to the care of their son (Dakṣa,) immediately quit from home (by way of renunciation) (1). On the seashore in the west, where (the celebrated sage) Jājali had attained perfection (in the form of God-Realization) they took a vow of enquiry into the Supreme Spirit, which culminates in the realization of the same as the one animating principle permeating all life (2).

गृहात् is पञ्चमी-एकवचनम् of the नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गृह’।

(1) गृह + ङसिँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per the 1-4-24 ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् – When detachment (moving away) is to be denoted, that कारकम् (participant in the action) which serves as a limiting (starting) point (uninfluenced by the detachment) gets the designation अपादानम् (that from which detachment takes place.) In the present example ‘गृह’ (home) gets the designation अपादानम्। By 2-3-28 अपादाने पञ्चमी – A fifth case affix (‘ङसिँ’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used to denote the अपादानम् (that from which detachment/ablation takes place) provided it has not been expressed otherwise.

(2) गृह + आत् । By 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः – Following a अङ्गम् ending in the letter ‘अ’, the affixes ‘टा’, ‘ङसिँ’ and ‘ङस्’ are replaced respectively by ‘इन’, ‘आत्’ and ‘स्य’। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘त्’ of ‘आत्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(3) गृहात् । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 1-4-24 ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् been used between verses 25-35 of Chapter One of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-4-24 ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् and the सूत्रम् 2-3-28 अपादाने पञ्चमी (both used in step 1) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – कारकं किम्? वृक्षस्य पर्णं पतति। Please explain.

3. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गृह’?

4. Can you spot the affix ‘ड’ in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Just now I have come from India.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Only when a fruit is ripe it falls from the tree.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment ‘अट्’ in the form प्राव्रजन्?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-4-77 गातिस्थाघुपाभूभ्यः सिचः परस्मैपदेषु been used in the verses?

विवादाय mDs

Today we will look at the form विवादाय mDs from the following सुभाषितम्।

विद्या विवादाय धनं मदाय शक्तिः परेषां परिपीडनाय ।
खलस्य साधोर्विपरीतमेतज्ज्ञानाय दानाय च रक्षणाय ॥

Translation – A wicked person’s learning is (used only) for quarrelling, wealth for conceit, and strength for hurting others; on the contrary a noble person’s learning is for knowledge, wealth for charity, and strength for protecting (others).

विवादाय is चतुर्थी-एकवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विवाद’।

(1) विवाद + ङे । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-13 चतुर्थी सम्प्रदाने in the महाभाष्यम्) तादर्थ्ये चतुर्थी वाच्या – A fourth case affix (‘ङे’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes the purpose for which something exists or is used.
Note: The existence of this वार्तिकम् is inferred from the सूत्रम् 2-1-36 चतुर्थी तदर्थार्थबलिहितसुखरक्षितैः which allows compounding between a पदम् which ends in a fourth case affix and another पदम् which ends in a सुँप् affix and denotes a thing whose purpose is denoted by the पदम् ending in the fourth case affix.

(2) विवाद + य । By 7-1-13 ङेर्यः – Following a प्रातिपदिकम् ending in the letter ‘अ’, the affix ‘ङे’ (चतुर्थी-एकवचनम्) is replaced by ‘य’।

(3) विवादाय । By 7-3-102 सुपि च – The ending letter ‘अ’ of a प्रातिपदिकम् is elongated if it is followed by a सुँप् affix beginning with a letter of the यञ्-प्रत्याहार:।

Questions:

1. Where else (besides in विवादाय) has the वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-13 चतुर्थी सम्प्रदाने in the महाभाष्यम्) तादर्थ्ये चतुर्थी वाच्या been used in the verse?

2. Where has the above वार्तिकम् been used in the first five verses of Chapter Sixteen of the गीता?

3. Which कृत् affix is used for the derivation of the स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विद्या’?

4. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Night is for sleep.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्वप्न’ for ‘sleep.’

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Life is for serving others.” Paraphrase to “Life is for service of others.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उपकार’ for ‘service.’

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“This gold is for (making) an earring.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment ‘सुँट्’ in the form परेषाम्?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-12 टाङसिँङसामिनात्स्या: been used in the verse?

ते mDs

Today we will look at the form ते mDs from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 1-44-15.

तच्च गङ्गावतरणं त्वया कृतमरिन्दम । अनेन च भवान्प्राप्तो धर्मस्यायतनं महत् ।। १-४४-१३ ।।
प्लावयस्व त्वमात्मानं नरोत्तम सदोचिते । सलिले पुरुषव्याघ्र शुचिः पुण्यफलो भव ।। १-४४-१४ ।।
पितामहानां सर्वेषां कुरुष्व सलिलक्रियाम् । स्वस्ति तेऽस्तु गमिष्यामि स्वं लोकं गम्यतां नृप ।। १-४४-१५ ।।
इत्येवमुक्त्वा देवेशः सर्वलोकपितामहः । यथागतं तथागच्छद्देवलोकं महायशाः ।। १-४४-१६ ।।

Gita Press translation – “The celebrated achievement in the shape of bringing down the Gaṅgā (to the terrestrial plane) has been accomplished by you, O subduer of foes! and by this you have attained the great reward of virtue (in the shape of the realm of Brahmā) (13). Even though pure, bathe yourself, O jewel among men, in the water (of the holy Gaṅgā) which is fit for bath all the year round (unlike other rivers which are rendered unfit for bath during the monsoons) and attain the reward of your merit, O superman! (14) Offer water to all your great grand-uncles, may all be well with you. I shall (now) go back to my realm, you may (also) return (to your own capital), O protector of men!” (15) Saying so, the highly glorious Brahmā (the progenitor of all the worlds), the overlord of gods, ascended to the realm of gods even as he had come (16).

ते is चतुर्थी-एकवचनम् of the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘युष्मद्’।

(1) युष्मद् + ङे । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per 2-3-16 नमःस्वस्तिस्वाहास्वधालंवषड्योगाच्च – A fourth case affix (‘ङे’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with ‘नमः’ or ‘स्वस्ति’ or ‘स्वाहा’ or ‘स्वधा’ or ‘अलम्’ or ‘वषट्’।

(2) ते । By 8-1-22 तेमयावेकवचनस्य – The प्रातिपदिके ‘युष्मद्’ and ‘अस्मद्’ along with a singular affix of the fourth or sixth case, get ‘ते’ and ‘मे’ as replacements respectively when the following conditions are satisfied:
1. There is a पदम् (which in the present example is स्वस्ति) in the same sentence preceding ‘युष्मद्’/’अस्मद्’।
2. ‘युष्मद्’/’अस्मद्’ is not at the beginning of a metrical पाद:।

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-16 नमःस्वस्तिस्वाहास्वधालंवषड्योगाच्च been used for the last time in Chapter Eleven of the गीता?

2. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form त्वया used in the verses?

3. Can you spot the augment मुँम् in the verses?

4. Which कृत् affix is used to form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘क्रिया’ (used in the compound सलिलक्रियाम् in the verses?)

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“May all be well with everyone.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix यक् in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘व’ in the form कुरुष्व?

कृष्णाय mDs

Today we will look at the form कृष्णाय mDs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.87.46.

श्रीनारद उवाच
नमस्तस्मै भगवते कृष्णायामलकीर्त्तये । यो धत्ते सर्वभूतानामभवायोशतीः कलाः ।। १०-८७-४६ ।।
इत्याद्यमृषिमानम्य तच्छिष्यांश्च महात्मनः । ततोऽगादाश्रमं साक्षात्पितुर्द्वैपायनस्य मे ।। १०-८७-४७ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
नम इति श्रीकृष्णावतारतया नारायणं नमस्यति । उक्तं हि – ‘एते चांशकलाः पुंसः कृष्णस्तु भगवान्स्वयम्’ इति ।। ४६ ।। साक्षात्पितुरिति । योनिव्यवधानं विना जनकस्य अग्निमन्थनावसरे कथंचिदरणौ रेतः पतितं ममन्थ व्यासस्तदैव तत उत्पन्नः शुक इति हि वदन्ति ।। ४६ ।।

Gita Press translation – Nārada prayed: Hail to the celebrated Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa of stainless glory (in You,) who assumes charming forms for putting an end to the (repeated) birth of all created beings (48). Bowing low in this way to the Sage Nārāyaṇa (the most ancient seer) as well as to His high-souled disciples, Nārada proceeded from that place to the hermitage of my father, the sage Dwaipāyana, (who was) directly present there (at that time) (47).

कृष्णाय is पुंलिङ्गे चतुर्थी-एकवचनम् of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कृष्ण’।

(1) कृष्ण + ङे । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per 2-3-16 नमःस्वस्तिस्वाहास्वधालंवषड्योगाच्च – A fourth case affix (‘ङे’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with ‘नमः’ or ‘स्वस्ति’ or ‘स्वाहा’ or ‘स्वधा’ or ‘अलम्’ or ‘वषट्’।

(2) कृष्ण + य । By 7-1-13 ङेर्यः – Following a प्रातिपदिकम् ending in the letter ‘अ’, the affix ‘ङे’ (चतुर्थी-एकवचनम्) is replaced by ‘य’।

(3) कृष्णाय । By 7-3-102 सुपि च – The ending letter ‘अ’ of a प्रातिपदिकम् is elongated if it is followed by a सुँप् affix beginning with a letter of the यञ्-प्रत्याहार:।

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-16 नमःस्वस्तिस्वाहास्वधालंवषड्योगाच्च been used for the first time in Chapter Eleven of the गीता?

2. What is the alternate form for आनम्य?

3. Can you spot the affix क्यच् in the commentary?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a second case affix in the form योनिव्यवधानम् used in the commentary?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘व्यवधान’?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Salutations to the Lord by whom this entire universe is pervaded.” Use the verbal root √तन् (तनुँ विस्तारे ८. १) for ‘to pervade.’

Easy questions:

1. From which verbal root is अगात् derived?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ध्’ in धत्ते?

महेशाय mDs

Today we will look at the form महेशाय mDs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 6.4.24.

न यस्य सख्यं पुरुषोऽवैति सख्युः सखा वसन्संवसतः पुरेऽस्मिन् । गुणो यथा गुणिनो व्यक्तदृष्टेस्तस्मै महेशाय नमस्करोमि ।। ६-४-२४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका

अदृष्टधामत्वं दर्शयन्नाह – नेति । पुरुषः सखा जीवोऽस्मिन्पुरे देहे वसन्नप्यत्रैव संवसतः सख्युर्यस्य सख्यं करणप्रवर्तकत्वादिकं नावैति न जानाति तस्मै । कुतः । व्यक्तदृष्टेः प्रपञ्चद्रष्टुः । नहि द्रष्टा दृश्यो भवतीति । प्रथमान्तपाठे व्यक्ते प्रपञ्च एव दृष्टिर्यस्य स गुणो विषयो गुणिनो विषयिण इन्द्रियादेः सख्यं प्रकाशकत्वं यथा न वेत्ति तद्वत् ।। २४ ।।

Gita Press translation – I make obeisance to that Supreme Lord whose beneficent nature and friendly (helpful) attitude (as the Prompter of the senses and the mind) the Jīva dwelling in this body, His constant companion, does not know – even though the Lord lives with the Jīva as the latter’s Friend (in the same body), He being the seer of this visible universe (and therefore not open to perception) – just as an object of perception cannot perceive the illuminating quality of the sense that perceives it (24).

महेशाय is पुंलिङ्गे चतुर्थी-एकवचनम् of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महेश’।

(1) महेश + ङे । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per 2-3-14 क्रियार्थोपपदस्य च कर्मणि स्थानिनः – A fourth case affix (‘ङे’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used to denote the कर्म (object) of an implied (but not actually expressed) verbal participle ending in the affix ‘तुमुँन्’/’ण्वुल्’ (prescribed by 3-3-10 तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम्‌) which is in conjunction with another action done for the sake of the implied (future) action.
In the present example the implied verbal participle is अनुकूलयितुम्। Hence महेशाय stands for महेशमनुकूलयितुम् – in order to propitiate the Supreme Lord.
Note: द्वितीयापवादोऽयम् – The fourth case affix prescribed by this सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to the second case affix which would have been prescribed by 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया

(2) महेश + य । By 7-1-13 ङेर्यः – Following a प्रातिपदिकम् ending in the letter ‘अ’, the affix ‘ङे’ (चतुर्थी-एकवचनम्) is replaced by ‘य’।

(3) महेशाय । By 7-3-102 सुपि च – The ending letter ‘अ’ of a प्रातिपदिकम् is elongated if it is followed by a सुँप् affix beginning with a letter of the यञ्-प्रत्याहार:।

Questions:

1. In the above example could we use the सूत्रम् 2-3-16 नमःस्वस्तिस्वाहास्वधालंवषड्योगाच्च to justify the fourth case affix in महेशाय?

2. From which verbal root is the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘व्यक्त’ (used as part of the compound व्यक्तदृष्टे: in the verses) formed?

3. Can you spot the affix णिच् in the commentary?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment अम् in the form द्रष्टा (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘द्रष्टृ’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) used in the commentary?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I offer salutations to propitiate all the deities.” Use the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘देवता’ for ‘deity.’

6. Translate the same sentence (given in question 5 above) but this time paraphrase it suppressing the infinitive ‘to propitiate’ –
“I offer salutations to all the deities.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘उ’ in the form सख्युः?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-93 अनङ् सौ been used in the verses?

राज्याय nDs

Today we will look at the form राज्याय nDs from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 1-1-34.

चित्रकूटं गते रामे पुत्रशोकातुरस्तदा ।। १-१-३२ ।।
राजा दशरथः स्वर्गं जगाम विलपन् सुतम् । गते तु तस्मिन् भरतो वसिष्ठप्रमुखैर्द्विजैः ।। १-१-३३ ।।
नियुज्यमानो राज्याय नैच्छद्राज्यं महाबलः । स जगाम वनं वीरो रामपादप्रसादकः ।। १-१-३४ ।।

Translation – Śrī Rāma having proceeded to Citrakūta (on foot as reported by the charioteer, who had since returned to Ayodhyā,) Emperor Daśaratha forthwith (gave up the ghost and) ascended to heaven bewailing his son, stricken as he was with grief at his separation from the latter. Though being urged to accept the throne by the Brāhmaṇas headed by the sage Vasiṣṭha (the family priest and preceptor of the kings of Ayodhyā,) on the king having departed (to the other world,) Bharata, who was very powerful, did not covet the throne. He proceeded to the forest in order to please the venerable Rāma (and persuade him to return to Ayodhyā and accept his father’s throne) (second half of 32 – 34).

राज्याय is चतुर्थी-एकवचनम् of the नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘राज्य’।

(1) राज्य + ङे । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per 2-3-14 क्रियार्थोपपदस्य च कर्मणि स्थानिनः – A fourth case affix (‘ङे’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used to denote the कर्म (object) of an implied (but not actually expressed) verbal participle ending in the affix ‘तुमुँन्’/’ण्वुल्’ (prescribed by 3-3-10 तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम्‌) which is in conjunction with another action done for the sake of the implied (future) action.
In the present example the implied verbal participle is कर्तुम्। Hence राज्याय stands for राज्यं कर्तुम्।

(2) राज्य + य । By 7-1-13 ङेर्यः – Following a प्रातिपदिकम् ending in the letter ‘अ’, the affix ‘ङे’ (चतुर्थी-एकवचनम्) is replaced by ‘य’।

(3) राज्याय । By 7-3-102 सुपि च – The ending letter ‘अ’ of a प्रातिपदिकम् is elongated if it is followed by a सुँप् affix beginning with a letter of the यञ्-प्रत्याहार:।

Questions:

1. The वृत्ति: of the सूत्रम् 2-3-14 क्रियार्थोपपदस्य च कर्मणि स्थानिनः in the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी reads – क्रियार्था क्रिया उपपदं यस्य तस्य स्थानिनोऽप्रयुज्यमानस्य तुमुन: कर्मणि चतुर्थी स्यात्। Commenting on this वृत्ति: the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – तुमुन इति। ण्वुलोऽप्युपलक्षणम्। फलेभ्यो यातीत्यस्य फलान्याहारक इति विवरणे बाधकाभावात्। Please explain.

2. The fourth case affix prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-3-14 क्रियार्थोपपदस्य च कर्मणि स्थानिनः is a अपवाद: (exception) to which case affix?

3. In the verses can you spot two words in which the सूत्रम् 3-2-126 लक्षणहेत्वोः क्रियायाः has been used?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the letter ‘म्’ to arrive at the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गत’ (used in the form गते in the verses)?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I went to India to see the inauguration of a new temple in the village where I was born.” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उद्घाटन’ for ‘inauguration.’

6. Translate the same sentence (given in question 5 above) but this time paraphrase it suppressing the infinitive ‘to see’ –
“I went to India for the inauguration of a new temple in the village where I was born.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the वृद्धि: substitution in the form जगाम?

2. Can you spot the augment आट् in the verses?

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