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जीमूतम् mAs

Today we will look at the form जीमूतम्  mAs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 5.4.108.

जातरूपमयैः शृङ्गैर्भ्राजमानैर्महाप्रभैः । आदित्यशतसंकाशः सोऽभवद्गिरिसत्तमः ।। ५-४-१०६ ।।
समुत्थितमसङ्गेन हनूमानग्रतः स्थितम् । मध्ये लवणतोयस्य विघ्नोऽयमिति निश्चितः ।। ५-४-१०७ ।।
स तमुच्छ्रितमत्यर्थं महावेगो महाकपिः । उरसा पातयामास जीमूतमिव मारुतः ।। ५-४-१०८ ।।
स तदाऽऽसादितस्तेन कपिना पर्वतोत्तमः । बुद्ध्वा तस्य हरेर्वेगं जहर्ष च ननाद च ।। ५-४-१०९ ।।

Gita Press translation – With its shining peaks of gold, emitting a dazzling splendor, that jewel among mountains shone brightly like a hundred suns (106). Hanumān positively considered the mountain, which instantly stood very high before him in the midst of the salty sea, to be a stumbling block (in his journey) (107). Hanumān, the mighty monkey who was possessed of great impetuosity, felled with his breast the exceedingly lofty mountain (even) as the wind would strike down a cloud (108). Worsted on that occasion by the aforesaid monkey (Hanumān) and recognizing his impetuosity, Maināka (the foremost of mountains) felt rejoiced and roared too (109).

There are a few different ways of deriving the compound जीमूत:। One of them is as follows –

(1) जीवनस्य (जलस्य) मूत: = जीमूत: – a cloud (a collection of water.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) जीवन ङस् + मूत सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘जीवन ङस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘जीवन ङस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘जीवन ङस् + मूत सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) जीवन + मूत । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) जीमूत । As per 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् – The forms such as ‘पृषोदर’ etc (which contain irregular operations – like an elision or an augment or a transformation of a letter – not prescribed by any rule) are to be taken as valid forms as they are used by the scholars.
The पृषोदरादि-गण: is listed in the गण-पाठ: as follows – ‘पृषोदर’, ‘पृषोत्थान’, ‘बलाहक’, ‘जीमूत‘, ‘श्मशान’, ‘उलूखल’, ‘पिशाच’, ‘बृसी’, ‘मयूर’।
6-3-109 is used to justify the ad hoc elision of the letters ‘वन’ of ‘जीवन’ in order to arrive at the final compound form ‘जीमूत’ listed in the पृषोदरादि-गण:।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the तत्पुरुष: compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जीमूत’ is masculine since the final member ‘मूत’ of the compound is used here in the masculine. It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(6) जीमूत + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) जीमूतम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.


1. What type of compound is यथोपदिष्टम् which occurs in the सूत्रम् 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् (used in step 5)?
i. अव्ययीभाव:
ii. तत्पुरुष:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. द्वन्द्व:

2. Among the two compounds महावेग: and महाकपिः used in the verses which one is a कर्मधारय: compound and which one is a बहुव्रीहि: compound?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the word विघ्न:?

4. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 2-2-10 न निर्धारणे prevent the formation of the compound पर्वतोत्तमः?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form उरसा used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Yesterday there were many clouds in the sky. Today there is not even one.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the वार्त्तिकम् (under 3-1-35 कास्प्रत्ययादाममन्त्रे लिटि) कास्यनेकाच आम् वक्तव्यो लिटि been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the वृद्धि: substitution in the form ननाद?

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