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सीताम् fAs

Today we will look at the form सीताम् fAs from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 6.4.4.

सीतां हृत्वा तु तद् यातु क्वासौ यास्यति जीवितः । सीता श्रुत्वाभियानं मे आशामेष्यति जीविते । जीवितान्तेऽमृतं स्पृष्ट्वा पीत्वामृतमिवातुरः ।। ६-४-४ ।।
उत्तराफल्गुनी ह्यद्य श्वस्तु हस्तेन योक्ष्यते । अभिप्रयाम सुग्रीव सर्वानीकसमावृताः ।। ६-४-५ ।।
निमित्तानि च पश्यामि यानि प्रादुर्भवन्ति वै । निहत्य रावणं सीतामानयिष्यामि जानकीम् ।। ६-४-६ ।।

Gita Press translation “Let that ogre for his part return (to his abode) after abducting Sītā; but he cannot escape alive. Hearing (from the mouth of Siddhas and others) of my march (to Laṅkā), Sītā (too) will regain her (lost) hope of survival, even as an ailing man would on touching an immortalizing herb or quaffing the drink of immortality at the close of his life.(4) The constellation of Uttarāphālgunī is actually in the ascendant today, while tomorrow the moon will be in conjunction with the constellation Hasta. Let us (therefore) march (this very day), accompanied by all the troops, O Sugrīva!(5) From the omens which actually appear on my person and which I behold I conclude that, killing Rāvaṇa, I shall bring back Sītā, Janaka’s daughter.(6)”

The above verses have been published previously in the following post – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/03/20/योक्ष्यते-3ps-लृँट्/

सीताम् is द्वितीया-एकवचनम् of the स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सीता’।

(1) सीता + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। As per 2-3-69 न लोकाव्ययनिष्ठाखलर्थतृनाम्‌ – A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) is not used (to denote कर्ता (the doer) or कर्म (the object)) of an action denoted by any one of the following –
(i) (a word ending in a substitute in place of) the affix ‘ल्’ (लँट्, लिँट् etc.)
(ii) (a word ending in) the affix ‘उ’ or an affix ending in ‘उ’
(iii) (a word ending in) the affix ‘उक’
(iv) an indeclinable
(v) (a word ending in) a निष्ठा affix (ref. 1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा।)
(vi) (a word ending in) the affix ‘खल्’ or any affix having the same meaning as that of ‘खल्’
(vii) (a word ending in) an affix from the प्रत्याहार: ‘तृन्’ which is formed starting from ‘तृ’ in 3-2-124 लटः शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे down to 3-2-135 तृन्
In the present example the object ‘सीता’ is associated with the indeclinable हृत्वा (‘after abducting’), which ends in the affix ‘क्त्वा’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले। ‘हृत्वा’ gets the designation अव्ययम् by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः। Therefore ‘सीता’ takes the second case affix ‘अम्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया) and not the sixth case affix ‘ङस्’ (which would have been prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति)।

(2) सीताम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.


1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-69 न लोकाव्ययनिष्ठाखलर्थतृनाम्‌ been used for the first time in the गीता?

2. In how many other places (besides in सीताम्) has the सूत्रम् 2-3-69 न लोकाव्ययनिष्ठाखलर्थतृनाम्‌ been used in the verses?

3. Can you spot the affix ल्युट् in the verses?

4. Is there an alternate form for निहत्य?

5. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 6-1-58 सृजिदृशोर्झल्यमकिति apply in the form स्पृष्ट्वा? (Which condition is not satisfied?)

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Seeing (having seen) Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s gentle form Arjuna was at ease again.” Paraphrase to “Seeing (having seen) Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s gentle form Arjuna obtained ease again.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सौम्य’ for ‘gentle’ and the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्वास्थ्य’ for ‘ease.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-86 एरुः been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘स्य’ in the form यास्यति?

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