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भौमः mNs

Today we will look at the form भौमः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.59.21.

शूलं भौमोऽच्युतं हन्तुमाददे वितथोद्यमः । तद्विसर्गात्पूर्वमेव नरकस्य शिरो हरिः । अपाहरद्गजस्थस्य चक्रेण क्षुरनेमिना ।। १०-५९-२१ ।।
सकुण्डलं चारुकिरीटभूषणं बभौ पृथिव्यां पतितं समुज्ज्वलत् । हाहेति साध्वित्यृषयः सुरेश्वरा माल्यैर्मुकुन्दं विकिरन्त ईडिरे ।। १०-५९-२२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
गरुडे वितथोद्यमः सन् शूलं त्रिशूलमाददे धृतवान् ।। २१ ।। २२ ।।

Gita Press translation – His attempt having proved futile, Naraka (son of Mother Earth) picked up a pike with intent to strike at Śrī Kṛṣṇa. (But) before he could discharge it, Śrī Kṛṣṇa with his discus (Sudarśana), which was keen-edged as a razor, lopped up the head of Naraka, who rode on an elephant (21). Fallen on the ground, Naraka’s head, which was accompanied with a pair of ear-rings and adorned with a lovely diadem, shone most resplendent. “Oh, what a pity!” cried his people and “Bravo!” exclaimed the seers; while the chiefs of gods extolled Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the Bestower of Liberation,) covering Him with (a shower of) flowers (22).

The above verses have previously appeared in the following post – गजस्थस्य-mgs

भूमेरपत्यम् (पुमान्) = भौमः – a (male) descendant of Mother Earth. Here it refers to Naraka (son of Mother Earth).
Note: Depending on the context, भौमः could also refer to मङ्गलः (the planet Mars).
In the verses the विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(1) भूमि ङस् + अण् । By 4-1-112 शिवादिभ्योऽण् – To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant) the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a sixth case affix and has ‘शिव’ etc (listed in the शिवादि-गण:) as its base.
Note: First the सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् prescribes the default affix ‘अण्’ which is over-ruled by the affix ‘ढक्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-120 स्त्रीभ्यो ढक्) and finally the सूत्रम् 4-1-112 शिवादिभ्योऽण् re-prescribes the affix ‘अण्’ because ‘भूमि’ is specifically listed in the शिवादि-गण:।
Note: The अनुवृत्तिः of ‘गोत्रे’ from the सूत्रम् 4-1-98 गोत्रे कुञ्जादिभ्यश्च्फञ् does not come into this सूत्रम् 4-1-112. It stops at the prior सूत्रम् 4-1-111 भर्गात्‌ त्रैगर्ते।
As per the सूत्रम् 4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed and which ends in a sixth case affix the तद्धिता: affixes already prescribed (by the prior rules 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् etc), as well as those that are going to be prescribed (by the following rules 4-1-95 अत इञ् etc), may be optionally applied to denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant.)

(2) भूमि ङस् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘भूमि ङस् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) भूमि + अ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step.

(4) भौमि + अ । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘भौमि’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(5) भौम् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= भौम । The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भौम’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

(6) भौम + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) भौम + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(8) भौमः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

We can similarly derive the following –
१) इलाया अपत्यम् (पुमान्) = ऐलः (पुरूरवाः) – a (male) descendant of Ilā. It refers to Purūravā

पौत्रम् mAs

Today we will look at the form पौत्रम् mAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् verse 1.13.16.

युधिष्ठिरो लब्धराज्यो दृष्ट्वा पौत्रं कुलन्धरम् ।
भ्रातृभिर्लोकपालाभैर्मुमुदे परया श्रिया ∥ १-१३-१६ ∥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
इदानीं राज्यस्यापकर्षं निरूपयितुमुत्कर्षं निगमयति – युधिष्ठिर इति । कुलन्धरं वंशधरम् ∥ १६ ∥

Gita Press translation “Having got back his kingdom and seen the face of a grandson capable of upholding the traditions of the family, Yudhiṣṭhira in his supreme splendor rejoiced with his younger brothers who were as powerful as the guardians of the various worlds (16).”

पुत्रस्यानन्तरापत्यम् (पुमान्) = पौत्रः – an immediate (male) descendant of a son = grandson (son’s son)
In the verses the विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्। Hence the form is पौत्रम्।

(1) पुत्र ङस् + अञ् । By 4-1-104 अनृष्यानन्तर्ये बिदादिभ्योऽञ् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, and which ends in a sixth case affix and which has ‘बिद’ etc (listed in the बिदादि-गण:) as its base, the तद्धित: affix ‘अञ्’ may be applied optionally to denote the sense of
i) गोत्रापत्यम् (ref: 4-1-162 अपत्यं पौत्रप्रभृति गोत्रम्‌) of a sage
ii) अनन्तरापत्यम् (immediate descendant) of one who is not a sage.
As per the सूत्रम् 4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed and which ends in a sixth case affix the तद्धिता: affixes already prescribed (by the prior rules 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् etc), as well as those that are going to be prescribed (by the following rules 4-1-95 अत इञ् etc), may be optionally applied to denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant.)

(2) पुत्र ङस् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘पुत्र ङस् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) पुत्र + अ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘अञ्’ is a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step.

(4) पौत्र + अ । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘पौत्र’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(5) पौत्र् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= पौत्र । The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पौत्र’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

(6) पौत्र + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) पौत्रम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

We can similarly derive the following –
१) दुहितुरनन्तरापत्यम् (पुमान्) = दौहित्रः – an immediate (male) descendant of a daughter = grandson (daughter’s son)

जैगीषव्योपदेशेन mIs

Today we will look at the form जैगीषव्योपदेशेन mIs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.21.26.

स कृत्व्यां शुककन्यायां ब्रह्मदत्तमजीजनत् । स योगी गवि भार्यायां विष्वक्सेनमधात्सुतम् ∥ ९-२१-२५ ∥
जैगीषव्योपदेशेन योगतन्त्रं चकार ह । उदक्स्वनस्ततस्तस्माद्भल्लादो बार्हदीषवाः ∥ ९-२१-२६ ∥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
एव कृत्व्यां कृत्वीसंज्ञायां शुककन्यायां ब्रह्मदत्तं च जनयामास । तदुक्तं हरिवंशादिषु – ‘पराशरकुलोत्पन्नः शुको नाम महायशाः ।। व्यासादरण्यां संभूतो विधूमोऽग्निरिवोज्ज्वलन् ∥ स तस्यां पितृकन्यायां वीरिण्यां जनयिष्यति ∥ कृष्णं गौरप्रभं शंभुं तथा भूरिश्रुतं जयम् ∥ कन्यां कीर्तिमतीं षष्ठीं योगिनीं योगमातरम् ∥ ब्रह्मदत्तस्य जननीं महिषीमणुहस्य च ∥’ इति । यद्यपि शुक उत्पत्त्यैव विमुक्तसङ्गो निर्गतस्तथापि विरहातुरं व्यासमनुयान्तं दृष्ट्वा छायाशुकं निर्माय गतवांस्तदभिप्रायेणैव गार्हस्थ्यादिव्यवहार इत्यविरोधः । ब्रह्मदत्तो योगीगवि वाचि सरस्वत्याम् ∥ २५ ∥ स एव योगतन्त्रं चकारबार्हदीषवा बृहदिषोर्वंश्या इमे, दीर्घत्वमार्षम् ∥ २६ ∥

Gita Press translation – Through Kṛtvī, the daughter of Śuka, Nīpa begot (another son) Brahmadatta. The latter, (who was) a Yogī, begot through his wife Gau (Saraswatī), (a son named) Viṣwaksena (25). Inspired by the teachings of Jaigīṣavya, it is said, he produced a work on Yoga. From (the loins of) Viṣwaksena sprang up Udakswana and from him followed Bhallāda. These are the descendants of Bṛhadiṣu (26).

The above verses have previously appeared in the following post – अजीजनत्-3as-लुँङ्

जिगीषोर्गोत्रापत्यम् (पुमान्) = जैगीषव्यः – a (male) descendant (but not the son) of Jigīṣu

(1) जिगीषु ङस् + यञ् । By 4-1-105 गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, and which ends in a sixth case affix and which has ‘गर्ग’ etc (listed in the गर्गादि-गण:) as its base, the तद्धित: affix ‘यञ्’ may be applied optionally to denote a descendant having the designation ‘गोत्र’ (ref: 4-1-162 अपत्यं पौत्रप्रभृति गोत्रम्‌।)
Note: The अनुवृत्तिः of गोत्रे comes down into the सूत्रम् 4-1-105 from the सूत्रम् 4-1-98 गोत्रे कुञ्जादिभ्यश्च्फञ्।
As per 4-1-162 अपत्यं पौत्रप्रभृति गोत्रम्‌ – The designation ‘गोत्र’ is assigned to a grandson/granddaughter onward when the intention is to express him/her as a descendant (अपत्यम्)।
As per the सूत्रम् 4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed and which ends in a sixth case affix the तद्धिता: affixes already prescribed (by the prior rules 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् etc), as well as those that are going to be prescribed (by the following rules 4-1-95 अत इञ् etc), may be optionally applied to denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant.)

(2) जिगीषु ङस् + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘जिगीषु ङस् + य’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) जिगीषु + य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘यञ्’ is a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step.

(4) जैगीषु + य । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘जैगीषु’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-146 ओर्गुणः to apply in the next step.

(5) जैगीषो + य । By 6-4-146 ओर्गुणः – When followed by a तद्धितः affix, the ending letter ‘उ’/’ऊ’ of a अङ्गम् which has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा (ref. 1-4-18 यचि भम्) takes the गुण: substitution (‘ओ’)।

(6) जैगीषव् + य । By 6-1-79 वान्तो यि प्रत्यये – When followed by an affix which begins with the letter ‘य्’, the letters ‘ओ’ and ‘औ’ are replaced by ‘अव्’ and ‘आव्’ respectively.

= जैगीषव्य ।

Now we form the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जैगीषव्योपदेश’।
The लौकिक-विग्रह: is –
(7) जैगीषव्यस्योपदेशः = जैगीषव्योपदेशः – the teachings of Jaigīṣavya.
Note: The sixth case affix in जैगीषव्यस्य is as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-50 षष्ठी शेषे।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(8) जैगीषव्य ङस् + उपदेश सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(9) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘जैगीषव्य ङस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘जैगीषव्य ङस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘जैगीषव्य ङस् + उपदेश सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(10) जैगीषव्य + उपदेश । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(11) जैगीषव्योपदेश । By 6-1-87 आद्‍गुणः

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जैगीषव्योपदेश’ is masculine since the latter member ‘उपदेश’ of the compound is masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:। The विवक्षा is तृतीया-एकवचनम्।

(12) जैगीषव्योपदेश + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(13) जैगीषव्योपदेश + इन । By 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः – Following a अङ्गम् ending in the letter ‘अ’, the affixes ‘टा’, ‘ङसिँ’ and ‘ङस्’ are replaced respectively by ‘इन’, ‘आत्’ and ‘स्य’। As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire affix ‘टा’ is replaced.

(14) जैगीषव्योपदेशेन । By 6-1-87 आद्‍गुणः

Similarly, we can derive the following –
१) मण्डोर्गोत्रापत्यम् (पुमान्) = माण्डव्यः – a (male) descendant (but not the son) of the sage Manḍu

भारत mVs

Today we will look at the form भारत mVs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 6.17.16

अतः पापीयसीं योनिमासुरीं याहि दुर्मते । यथेह भूयो महतां न कर्ता पुत्र किल्बिषम् ॥ ६-१७-१५ ॥
श्रीशुक उवाच
एवं शप्तश्चित्रकेतुर्विमानादवरुह्य सः । प्रसादयामास सतीं मूर्ध्ना नम्रेण भारत ॥ ६-१७-१६ ॥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तदेवं स्वयं दण्ड्यत्वं निश्चित्य तं प्राह – अत इति । हे पुत्र, यथा भूयो महतां किल्बिषमपराधं न कर्ता न करिष्यसि तथा याहीत्यर्थः ।। १५ ।। १६ ।।

Gita Press translation “Hence be reborn in the demoniac species – a most wicked species – O evil-minded one, so that you may not perpetrate again in this world, such offense against the exalted souls my son.” Śrī Śuka resumed : “Thus subjected to an execration, the said Citraketu alighted from his aerial car and propitiated the noble lady (Goddess Pārvatī) with his head bent low (in the following words), O Parīkṣit (a scion of Bharata).”

The above verses have previously appeared in the following post – कर्ता 3As-लुँट्

भरतस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्) = भारतः – a (male) descendant of Bharata – here it refers to Parīkṣit
In the verses the विवक्षा is सम्बुद्धिः, hence the form used is भारत।

(1) भरत ङस् + अञ् । By 4-1-86 उत्सादिभ्योऽञ् – The तद्धित: affix ‘अञ्’ is authorized for all rules down prior to the सूत्रम् 4-4-2 तेन दीव्यति खनति जयति जितम्, provided it is applied to a पदम् which has ‘उत्स’ etc (listed in the उत्सादि-गण:) as its base.
Note: The affix ‘अञ्’ prescribed by 4-1-86 is a अपवादः to the default affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्) as well as the affixes (‘इञ्’ etc.) which are अपवादाः to the affix ‘अण्’।
Note: The final form is the same regardless of whether the affix ‘अञ्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-86) or the default affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्) is used. The only difference is in the स्वरः (intonation) in the Vedas.
As per the सूत्रम् 4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed and which ends in a sixth case affix the तद्धिता: affixes already prescribed (by the prior rules 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् etc), as well as those that are going to be prescribed (by the following rules 4-1-95 अत इञ् etc), may be optionally applied to denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant.)

Note: In the present example, first the सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् prescribes the default affix ‘अण्’ which is over-ruled by the affix ‘इञ्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-95 अत इञ्)। This in turn is over-ruled by the affix ‘अञ्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-86 उत्सादिभ्योऽञ्) since ‘भरत’ is listed in the उत्सादि-गण:।

(2) भरत ङस् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘भरत ङस् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) भरत + अ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘अञ्’ is a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step.

(4) भारत + अ । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘भारत’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(5) भारत् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= भारत । The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भारत’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

The विवक्षा is सम्बुद्धिः। By 2-3-49 एकवचनं सम्बुद्धि: – The nominative singular affix (‘सुँ’) when used in a vocative form gets the designation सम्बुद्धि:।

(6) (हे) भारत + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। By 2-3-47 सम्बोधने च – A first case affix (‘सुँ’, ‘औ’, ‘जस्’) is used to denote ‘address’ (in addition to the meaning of the nominal stem) also. Note: सम् (सम्मुखीकृत्य) बोधनम् (ज्ञापनम्) = सम्बोधनम्। सम्बोधनम् means drawing someone’s attention (to inform him/her of something.)

(7) (हे) भारत + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) (हे) भारत । By 6-1-69 एङ्ह्रस्वात्‌ सम्बुद्धेः – Following a अङ्गम् ending in ‘एङ्’ (letter ‘ए’ or ‘ओ’) or a short vowel, a consonant is dropped if it belongs to a सम्बुद्धि: affix.

बार्हस्पत्यस्य mGs

Today we will look at the form बार्हस्पत्यस्य mGs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.18.22.

न ब्राह्मणो मे भविता हस्तग्राहो महाभुज । कचस्य बार्हस्पत्यस्य शापाद्यमशपं पुरा ॥ ९-१८-२२ ॥
ययातिरनभिप्रेतं दैवोपहृतमात्मनः । मनस्तु तद्गतं बुद्ध्वा प्रतिजग्राह तद्वचः ॥ ९-१८-२३ ॥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
ब्राह्मणमेव त्वं वृणीहि किमनेनाग्रहेणेति चेत्तत्राह – न ब्राह्मण इति । बृहस्पतेः सुतः कचः शुक्रान्मृतसंजीवनीं विद्यामध्यगात्, तदा च देवयानी तं पतिं चकमे, स च गुरुपुत्री मम पूज्येति न तामुदवहत्, ततश्च कुपिता सती तवेयं विद्या निष्फला भवत्विति तं शशाप, स च तव ब्राह्मणः पतिर्न भवेदिति तां शशाप । तदेतदाह – यममशपं तस्य शापात् ॥ २२ ॥ अशास्त्रीयत्वादनभिप्रेतमपि दैवेनोपहृतं प्रापितं बुद्ध्वा तद्गतं तस्यां सकामं स्वं मनश्च बुद्ध्वा नह्यधर्मे मदीयं मनः प्रविशेदिति तस्या वचः प्रतिजग्राहाङ्गीकृतवान् ॥ २३ ॥

Gita Press translation “A Brāhmaṇa is not destined to be my husband, thanks to the imprecation of Kaca (the son of sage Bṛhaspati) – Kaca, whom I had cursed on a former occasion, O long-armed one!”(22) Recognizing the connection as having been pre-ordained by fate, even though it was not (at all) acceptable to him (inasmuch as it was against the recognized code of ethics), and perceiving his mind too (which could not lean towards unrighteousness) drawn towards her, Yayāti agreed to her proposal (23).”

The above verses have previously appeared in the following post – भविता-3as-लुँट्

बृहस्पतेरपत्यम् (पुमान्) = बार्हस्पत्यः – a (male) descendant of Bṛhaspati
In the verses the विवक्षा is षष्ठी-एकवचनम्, hence the form used is बार्हस्पत्यस्य।

(1) बृहस्पति ङस् + ण्य । By 4-1-85 दित्यदित्यादित्यपत्युत्तरपदाण्ण्यः – The affix ‘ण्य’ is authorized for all rules down prior to the सूत्रम् 4-4-2 तेन दीव्यति खनति जयति जितम्, provided it is applied to a पदम् derived from a प्रातिपदिकम् which is either ‘दिति’, ’अदिति’, ’आदित्य’ or a compound which has ‘पति’ as its latter member.
Note: The affix ‘ण्य’ prescribed by this सूत्रम् is a अपवादः to the affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्।
As per the सूत्रम् 4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed and which ends in a sixth case affix the तद्धिता: affixes already prescribed (by the prior rules 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् etc), as well as those that are going to be prescribed (by the following rules 4-1-95 अत इञ् etc), may be optionally applied to denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant.)

(2) बृहस्पति ङस् + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘बृहस्पति ङस् + य’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) बृहस्पति + य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘ण्य’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step.

(4) बार् हस्पति + य । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute. By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (‘अ’, ‘इ’, ‘उ’) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a ‘रँ’ (‘र्’, ‘ल्’) letter.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘बार्हस्पति’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(5) बार्हस्पत् + य । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= बार्हस्पत्य । The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘बार्हस्पत्य’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

(6) बार्हस्पत्य + ङस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(7) बार्हस्पत्यस्य । By 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः – Following a अङ्गम् ending in the letter ‘अ’, the affixes ‘टा’, ‘ङसिँ’ and ‘ङस्’ are replaced respectively by ‘इन’, ‘आत्’ and ‘स्य’। As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire affix ‘ङस्’ is replaced.

We can similarly derive the following –
१) प्रजापतेरपत्यम् (पुमान्) = प्राजापत्यः – a (male) descendant of a Prajāpati
२) सेनापतेरपत्यम् (पुमान्) = सैनापत्यः – a (male) descendant of an army-general

हंसः mNs

Today we will look at the form हंसः  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.28.64.

यथा पुरुष आत्मानमेकमादर्शचक्षुषोः । द्विधाभूतमवेक्षेत तथैवान्तरमावयोः ।। ४-२८-६३ ।।
एवं स मानसो हंसो हंसेन प्रतिबोधितः । स्वस्थस्तद्व्यभिचारेण नष्टामाप पुनः स्मृतिम् ।। ४-२८-६४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तर्हि कथमावयोरज्ञत्वसर्वज्ञत्वादिधर्मभेदस्तत्राह – यथेति । आत्मानं देहमादर्शे निर्मलं महान्तं स्थिरं चावेक्षेत । परस्य चक्षुषि च तद्विपरीतम् । विद्याविद्योपाधिकृतो धर्मभेद इत्यर्थः ।। ६३ ।। एवममुना प्रकारेण मानसो हंसः क्षेत्रज्ञो हंसेन परमात्मना बोधितः सन्स्वस्थ आत्मनि स्थितः संश्चिरं ध्यात्वा तद्व्यभिचारेणेश्वरवियोगेन विषयाभिलाषबुद्ध्या नष्टां स्मृतिमहं ब्रह्मास्मीति ज्ञानं पुनः प्राप्तवान् ।। ६४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Just as a man sees himself (his image) differently in a mirror and in the pupil of another’s eye, the difference between us two is of the same type (63). Admonished thus by the fellow-swan, the swan of the Mānasa lake was (once more) established in his own self and regained his self-consciousness, which had been lost due to his having parted company with his friend (64).

हंस: (a swan) may be derived as हन्ति (गच्छति – one who goes/moves) – from the verbal root √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः २. २) as follows –

(1) हन् + अच् । By 3-1-134 नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यचः – The affix ‘ल्यु’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘नन्दि’; the affix ‘णिनिँ’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘ग्रहि’; and the affix ‘अच्’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘पच्’।
Note: The पचादि-गणः is a आकृतिगणः – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence even though हंस: may not be specifically listed in the पचादि-गणः we may consider it to be a part of the पचादि-गणः based on the usage seen in the language.

(2) हन् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) हन् सँक् + अ । As per 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् – The forms such as ‘पृषोदर’ etc (which contain irregular operations – like an elision or an augment or a transformation of a letter – not prescribed by any rule) are to be taken as valid forms as they are used by the scholars.
Note: The पृषोदरादि-गणः is a आकृतिगणः – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence even though हंस: may not be specifically listed in the पृषोदरादि-गणः we may consider it to be a part of the पृषोदरादि-गणः based on the usage seen in the language.
6-3-109 is used to justify the ad hoc addition of the augment ‘सँक्’ at the end (ref. 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ) of the base ‘हन्’ in order to arrive at the final form ‘हंस’ which is accepted by the scholars.

(4) हन्स । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) हंस । By 8-3-24 नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि – The letter ‘न्’ and the letter ‘म्’ which do not occur at the end of a पदम् get अनुस्वारः as replacement when a झल् letter follows.

Note: ‘हंस’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(6) हंस + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) हंस + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(8) हंस: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Can you spot a द्वन्द्व: compound in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-15 यस्य विभाषा been used in the verses?

3. In which word in the verses has the affix णिच् been elided?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘क’ in the form स्वस्थ: used in the verses? Which one prescribes it in the form क्षेत्रज्ञ: used in the commentary?

5. From which verbal root is the form ध्यात्वा (used in the commentary) derived?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Look at this beautiful swan, white as snow.” Construct a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘white as snow’ = ‘तुषार इव गौर:’।

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment सीयुट् in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः been used in the verses?

सिंहः mNs

Today we will look at the form सिंहः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.50.31.

जग्राह विरथं रामो जरासन्धं महाबलम् । हतानीकावशिष्टासुं सिंहः सिंहमिवौजसा ।। १०-५०-३१ ।।
बध्यमानं हतारातिं पाशैर्वारुणमानुषैः । वारयामास गोविन्दस्तेन कार्यचिकीर्षया ।। १०-५०-३२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
किंच जग्राहेति । हतान्यनीकानि यस्य, अवशिष्टा असव एव यस्य तं च तं च ।। ३१ ।। हता बहुशोऽरातयो येन तथाभूतमपि जरासन्धं बध्यमानं वारयामासेति ।। ३२ ।।

Gita Press translation – (Even) as a lion would seize another with force, Balarāma caught hold of Jarāsandha, who though very powerful, had lost his chariot and was left (alone) with his life, his (entire) force having been wiped out (31). With intent to accomplish His (own) work (of concentrating all undesirable elements) through him Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the Protector of cows) prevented his being bound (by Balarāma) with the cords of Varuṇa as well as with human ropes, although he had (himself) killed (numberless redoubtable) foes (in the past) (32).

सिंह: (a lion) may be derived as हिनस्ति (one who hurts/injures) from the verbal root √हिन्स् (हिसिँ हिंसायाम् ७. १९) as follows –

(1) हिन्स् + अच् । By 3-1-134 नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यचः – The affix ‘ल्यु’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘नन्दि’; the affix ‘णिनिँ’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘ग्रहि’; and the affix ‘अच्’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘पच्’।
Note: The पचादि-गणः is a आकृतिगणः – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and there is room left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence even though सिंह: may not be specifically listed in the पचादि-गणः we may consider it to be a part of the पचादि-गणः based on the usage seen in the language.

(2) हिन्स् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) सिन्ह । As per 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् – The forms such as ‘पृषोदर’ etc (which contain irregular operations – like an elision or an augment or a transformation of a letter – not prescribed by any rule) are to be taken as valid forms as they are used by the scholars.
Note: The पृषोदरादि-गणः is a आकृतिगणः – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and there is room left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence even though सिंह: may not be specifically listed in the पृषोदरादि-गणः we may consider it to be a part of the पृषोदरादि-गणः based on the usage seen in the language.
6-3-109 is used to justify the ad hoc interchange of the letters ‘ह्’ and ‘स्’ in order to arrive at the final form ‘सिंह’ which is accepted by the scholars.

(4) सिंह । By 8-3-24 नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि – The letter ‘न्’ and the letter ‘म्’ which do not occur at the end of a पदम् get अनुस्वारः as the replacement when a झल् letter follows.

Note: ‘सिंह’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(5) सिंह + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) सिंह + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) सिंह: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सिंह’ been used in the गीता (Chapter One)?

2. What is the विग्रह: of the compound हतानीकावशिष्टासुम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हतानीकावशिष्टासु’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

3. In which compound in the verses does the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) प्रादिभ्यो धातुजस्य वाच्यो वा चोत्तरपदलोपः find application?

4. Can you spot the कृत् affix ‘अ’ in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘आ’ in the compound महाबलम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महाबल’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“All the animals in the forest are afraid of (from) the lion.” Use the masculine noun ‘मृग’ for ‘animal.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ज्’ in the form जग्राह?

2. In which word(s) in the commentary has the सूत्रम् 7-3-109 जसि च been used?

बलाहकः mNs

Today we will look at the form बलाहकः  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.55.26.

अन्तःपुरवरं राजन्ललनाशतसङ्‌कुलम् । विवेश पत्न्या गगनाद्विद्‌युतेव बलाहकः ।। १०-५५-२६ ।।
तं दृष्ट्वा जलदश्यामं पीतकौशेयवाससम् । प्रलम्बबाहुं ताम्राक्षं सुस्मितं रुचिराननम् ।। १०-५५-२७ ।।
स्वलङ्‌कृतमुखाम्भोजं नीलवक्रालकालिभिः । कृष्णं मत्वा स्त्रियो ह्रीता निलिल्युस्तत्र तत्र ह ।। १०-५५-२८ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
विद्‌युता सह बलाहको मेघ इव ।। २६ ।। २७ ।। नीलाश्च वक्राश्च येऽलकास्त एवालयस्तैः । ह्रीता लज्जिताः ।। २८ ।।

Gita Press translation – Like a cloud attended with lightning, Pradyumna descended with his spouse from the sky into the magnificent gynaeceum crowded with hundred of ladies (26). Seeing him, sombre as a cloud and clad in yellow silk, with exceptionally long arms and reddish eyes, wearing a winsome smile and a charming countenance, his lotus-like face graced with locks of dark-blue curly hair, and thinking him to be Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the ladies, so the story goes, hid themselves wherever they could out of bashfulness (27-28).

(1) वारिणो वाहक: = बलाहक: – a cloud (carrier of water.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) वारि ङस् + वाहक सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
By the सूत्रम् 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – ‘वारि ङस्’ (which ends in a sixth case affix) gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 षष्ठी (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case.
And hence as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ the term ‘वारि ङस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘वारि ङस् + वाहक सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च । This allows the सूत्रम् 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(3) वारि + वाहक । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) बलाहक । As per 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् – The forms such as ‘पृषोदर’ etc (which contain irregular operations – like an elision or an augment or a transformation of a letter – not prescribed by any rule) are to be taken as valid forms as they are used by the scholars.
The पृषोदरादि-गण: is listed in the गण-पाठ: as follows – ‘पृषोदर’, ‘पृषोत्थान’, ‘बलाहक‘, ‘जीमूत’, ‘श्मशान’, ‘उलूखल’, ‘पिशाच’, ‘बृसी’, ‘मयूर’।
6-3-109 is used to justify the ad hoc substitution of ‘ब’ in place of the entire पूर्वपदम् ‘वारि’ and of the letter ‘ल्’ in place of the initial letter ‘व्’ of the उत्तरपदम् ‘वाहक’ in order to arrive at the final compound form ‘बलाहक’ listed in the पृषोदरादि-गण:।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘बलाहक’ is masculine since the latter member ‘वाहक’ (which after the application of 6-3-109 becomes ‘लाहक’) of the compound is used here in the masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(5) बलाहक + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) बलाहक + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) बलाहक: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Which compound in the verses has been composed using the सूत्रम् 2-1-55 उपमानानि सामान्यवचनैः?

2. What type of compound is रुचिराननम् as used in the verses?
i. कर्मधारय:
ii. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. द्वन्द्व:

3. What is the विग्रह: of the compound सुस्मितम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सुस्मित’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the words पत्न्या and विद्‌युता used in the verses?

5. Can you spot the समासान्त: affix षच् in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Without clouds lightning cannot occur.” Use the verbal root √भू (भू सत्तायाम् १. १) with the उपसर्ग: ‘सम्’ for ‘to occur.’

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the substitution णल् (in place of the affix तिप्) been used?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-82 एरनेकाचोऽसंयोगपूर्वस्य been used in the verses?

पितरौ mNd

Today we will look at the form पितरौ  mNd from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 6.4.12.

तोकानां पितरौ बन्धू दृश: पक्ष्म स्त्रियाः पतिः । पतिः प्रजानां भिक्षूणां गृह्यज्ञानां बुधः सुहृत् ।। ६-४-१२ ।।
अन्तर्देहेषु भूतानामात्माऽऽस्ते हरिरीश्वरः । सर्वं तद्धिष्ण्यमीक्षध्वमेवं वस्तोषितो ह्यसौ ।। ६-४-१३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
प्रजानां प्रजापतिरेव बन्धुरतस्तज्जीविकानाशो न कर्तव्य इति दृष्टान्तपञ्चकेनाह । तोकानां बालानां मातापितरौ । अज्ञानां ज्ञानदो बुध एव सुहृत् ।। १२ ।। ईश्वराधिष्ठानत्वाच्च भूतद्रोहो न युक्त इत्याह – अन्तर्देहेष्विति । वो युष्माभिः ।। १३ ।।

Gita Press translation – The parents are the (true) friends of children; the eye-lashes, of an eye; the husband, of a (married) woman; the sovereign, of a people (and through them of all living beings including trees); the householder, of mendicants; and a wise man is the friend of the ignorant (12). The almighty Śrī Hari indwells the hearts of (all) living beings as their Inner Controller. (Therefore,) regard the entire creation (both animate and inanimate) as His abode; in this way He will be really propitiated by you (13).

(1) माता च पिता च = मातापितरौ or पितरौ – parents (mother and father).
Please refer to the following post for the derivation of the द्वन्द्व: compound ‘मातापितृ’ – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2016/04/21/मातापितरौ-mad/

(2) पितृ । By 1-2-70 पिता मात्रा – When the word पिता (father) is used with the word माता (mother) then (either both the words remain to form a द्वन्द्व: compound or) optionally only the word पिता remains.

Note: य: शिष्यते स लुप्यमानार्थाभिधायी – the one (‘पितृ’) that remains also denotes the meaning of the one (‘मातृ’) that gets elided. Hence a dual case ending is now used following ‘पितृ’।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा।

(3) पितृ + औ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। Note: The affix ‘औ’ has the सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा here as per 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य। This allows 7-3-110 to apply in the next step.

(4) पितर् + औ । By 7-3-110 ऋतो ङिसर्वनामस्थानयोः – The ending letter ‘ऋ’ of a अङ्गम् gets a गुणः replacement, when followed by the affix ‘ङि’ (सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) or an affix with the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्। By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (‘अ’, ‘इ’, ‘उ’) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a ‘रँ’ (‘र्’, ‘ल्’) letter.

= पितरौ ।

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-2-70 पिता मात्रा (used in step 2) the काशिका says – अन्यतरस्यामिति वर्तते नैकवदिति। Please explain.

2. Which compound used in the verses is a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound?

3. Which सूत्रम् gives the ready-made compound form ‘सुहृद्’?

4. Where has the affix ‘क’ been used in the verses? Where has it been used in the commentary?

5. In which word in the commentary has the सूत्रम् 2-3-25 विभाषा गुणेऽस्त्रियाम्‌ been used?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I salute the Supreme Lord and (Goddess) Pārvatī – the parents of the world.” Form a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘Supreme Lord’ = परमश्चासावीश्वर:। Use this compound to form a द्वन्द्व: compound with ‘पार्वती’।

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the affix शप् taken the लुक् elision?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-91 सवाभ्यां वामौ been used in the verses?

योगवैराग्ययुक्तया fIs

Today we will look at the form योगवैराग्ययुक्तया fIs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.31.48.

तस्मान्न कार्यः सन्त्रासो न कार्पण्यं न सम्भ्रमः । बुद्ध्वा जीवगतिं धीरो मुक्तसङ्गश्चरेदिह ।। ३-३१-४७ ।।
सम्यग्दर्शनया बुद्ध्या योगवैराग्ययुक्तया । मायाविरचिते लोके चरेन्न्यस्य कलेवरम् ।। ३-३१-४८ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
यस्मान्न वस्तुतो जीवस्य जन्ममरणादि तस्मान्मरणात्संत्रासो न कार्यो जीवने च कार्पण्यं दैन्यं कार्यम् । संभ्रमश्च जीवनप्रयत्ने ।। ४७ ।। ननु सर्वथा मुक्तसङ्गत्वे कथं जीवितमत आह । सम्यक् पश्यति विचारयतीति सम्यग्दर्शना तया बुद्ध्या मायाविरचिते लोके कलेवरं न्यस्य निक्षिप्य । तस्मिन्नासक्तिं त्यक्त्वा विचरेदित्यर्थः ।। ४८ ।।

Gita Press translation – Therefore, a man should neither view death with horror nor have recourse to stinginess in life nor give way to infatuation. Realizing the true nature of the Jīva, he should move about in this world free from attachment and steadfast of purpose (47). Nay, he should relegate his body to this illusory world through his reason endowed with right vision and strengthened by Yoga (concentration of mind) and dispassion, and move about (unconcerned) (48).

(1) योगवैराग्ययुक्तया is a द्वन्द्व-गर्भ-तत्पुरुष: compound, which is a तत्पुरुष: compound that has a द्वन्द्व: compound as its prior member.

First we form the द्वन्द्व: compound ‘योगवैराग्य’ as follows –
योगश्च वैराग्यं च = योगवैराग्ये – Yoga (concentration of mind) and dispassion.

(2) योग सुँ + वैराग्य सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) योग सुँ + वैराग्य सुँ । ‘योग’ has two syllables while ‘वैराग्य’ has three syllables. Therefore ‘योग’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound as per 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘योग सुँ + वैराग्य सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) योग + वैराग्य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= योगवैराग्य ।

Now we form the द्वन्द्व-गर्भ-तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्ता’ as follows –
(5) योगवैराग्याभ्यां युक्ता = योगवैराग्ययुक्ता (बुद्धि:) – (intellect/reason) – endowed with Yoga (concentration of mind) and dispassion.

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया a third case affix is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘योगवैराग्य’ which denotes the agent of the action.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(6) योगवैराग्य भ्याम् + युक्त सुँ । By 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ – A पदम् ending in a third case affix – denoting either the agent or the instrument of the action – variously compounds with (a syntactically related पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) a term ending in a कृत् affix (ref. 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(7) योगवैराग्य भ्याम् + युक्त सुँ । By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘योगवैराग्य भ्याम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 (which prescribes the compounding) the term तृतीया (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from 2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन) ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘योगवैराग्य भ्याम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘योगवैराग्य भ्याम् + युक्त सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(8) योगवैराग्य + युक्त । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= योगवैराग्ययुक्त ।

As per the न्याय: – द्वन्द्वान्ते श्रूयमाणं पदं प्रत्येकमभिसम्बध्यते, in the final compound ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्त’ the पदम् ‘युक्त’ which (immediately) follows the द्वन्द्व: compound ‘योगवैराग्य’ connects individually with the members (‘योग’ and ‘वैराग्य’) of the द्वन्द्व: compound. Hence we get the meaning ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्त’ = ‘योगयुक्त’ + ‘वैराग्ययुक्त’ = ‘endowed with Yoga’ and ‘endowed with dispassion.’

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्त’ is an adjective since the latter member ‘युक्त’ of the compound is an adjective. It is used here in the feminine since it is qualifying the feminine noun ‘बुद्धि’। Now we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्ता’ by adding the feminine affix टाप्।

(9) योगवैराग्ययुक्त + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌ – The प्रातिपदिकानि ‘अज’ etc. and प्रातिपदिकानि ending in the letter ‘अ’ get the टाप् affix in the feminine gender.

(10) योगवैराग्ययुक्त + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(11) योगवैराग्ययुक्ता । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

The विवक्षा is तृतीया-एकवचनम् ।

(12) योगवैराग्ययुक्ता + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप् 

(13) योगवैराग्ययुक्ता + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(14) योगवैराग्ययुक्ते + आ । By 7-3-105 आङि चापः – ‘आप्’ ending bases get the letter ‘ए’ as the substitute when followed by the affix ‘आङ्’ (‘टा’) or ‘ओस्’। Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य only the ending letter ‘आ’ of the base ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्ता’ is replaced by ‘ए’।

(15) योगवैराग्ययुक्तया । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

Questions:

1. Which compound used in the last five verses of Chapter Three of the गीता is a द्वन्द्व-गर्भ-तत्पुरुष: compound?

2. Can you spot another (besides योगवैराग्ययुक्तया) तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?

3. What type of compound is मुक्तसङ्ग: as used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:

4. In which word in the verses has the कृत् affix ण्यत् been used?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌ been used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should be free of attachment and aversion.” Form a द्वन्द्व-गर्भ-तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound for ‘free of attachment and aversion’ = रागद्वेषाभ्यां वियुक्त:।

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the augment यासुट् been used?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-78 पाघ्राध्मास्थाम्नादाण्दृश्यर्तिसर्तिशदसदां पिबजिघ्रधमतिष्ठमनयच्छपश्यर्च्छधौशीयसीदाः been used in the commentary?

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