Home » SB

Category Archives: SB

आपगाः fNp

Today we will look at the form आपगाः fNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10.47.33.

एतदन्तः समाम्नायो योगः साङ्ख्यं मनीषिणाम् ।
त्यागस्तपो दमः सत्यं समुद्रान्ता इवापगाः ∥ १०-४७-३३ ∥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तावता च कृतार्थो भवतीत्याह – एतदन्त इति । एष मनोनिरोधः अन्तः समाप्तिः फलं यस्य सः । समाम्नायो वेदः। स तत्र पर्यवस्यतीत्यर्थः । योगोऽष्टाङ्गः । सांख्यमात्मानात्मविवेकः। त्यागः संन्यासः। तपः स्वधर्मः। दम इन्द्रियदमनम्। मार्गभेदेऽप्येकत्र पर्यवसाने दृष्टान्तः – समुद्रान्ता आपगा नद्य इवेति ∥ ३३ ∥

Gita Press translation – “In the eyes of the wise, (the teachings of) the Vedas, the (eightfold) path of Yoga, the Sāṅkhya system of philosophy (which differentiates Matter from the Spirit), renunciation, suffering hardships for the sake of one’s faith, subjugation of one’s senses and truthfulness have their goal in mind-control even as rivers terminate in the ocean (33).

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आप’ used in the compound आपगाः is derived as follows –
अपां समूहः = आपम् – a collection of waters

(1) अप् आम् + अण् । By 4-2-37 तस्य समूहः – To denote a collection, the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्) may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a genitive case affix and has a base denoting that of which the collection is intended.
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 4-2-47 अचित्तहस्तिधेनोष्ठक् – To denote a collection, the तद्धित: affix ‘ठक्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a genitive case affix and has as its base a term denoting an inanimate object, or the term ‘हस्तिन्’ or ‘धेनु’।
Hence if waters were considered inanimate, as per the सूत्रम् 4-2-47, the affix ‘ठक्’ would have applied in the present example. By the fact that the affix ‘अण्’ (and not the affix ‘ठक्’) has been used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आप’, we can infer that waters are not considered inanimate.

(2) अप् आम् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘अप् आम् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) अप् + अ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step.

(4) आप् + अ । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

= आप ।

We can similarly derive the following –
१) काकानां समूहः = काकम् – a flock of crows
२) वकानां समूहः = वाकम् – a fight of cranes
३) वृकाणां समूहः = वार्कम् – a pack of wolves

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आपगा’ is a उपपद-समासः, derived as follows –
आपेन गच्छतीति = आपगा (नदी) – (a river) which goes (flows) with a collection of waters

(5) आप + टा + गम् + ड । By the वार्तिकम् (under 3-2-48 अन्तात्यन्ताध्वदूरपारसर्वानन्तेषु डः) अन्यत्रापि दृश्यत इति वक्तव्यम् – The affix ‘ड’ may be used after the verbal root √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७) when in composition with a उपपदम् which could be other than those specifically listed in 3-2-48 अन्तात्यन्ताध्वदूरपारसर्वानन्तेषु डः।
Note: In the above वार्तिकम्, the term अन्यत्र is in the seventh (locative) case. Hence ‘आप + टा’ gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌।

(6) आप + टा + गम् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) आप + टा + ग् + अ । By 6-4-143 टेः – When the अङ्गम् has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा, then its टि portion takes लोप: when followed by an affix that has the letter ‘ड्’ as an indicatory letter. Note: The अङ्गम् does not have the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here. But still टि-लोप: is done because otherwise no purpose would be served by having the letter ‘ड्’ as a इत् in the affix ‘ड’। डित्वसामर्थ्यादभस्यापि टेर्लोपः।

= आप + टा + ग ।

We form a compound between ‘आप + टा’ (which is the उपपदम्) and ‘ग’ by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् – A सुबन्तम् (term ending in a सुँप् affix) having the designation ‘उपपद’ (in this case ‘आप टा’) invariably compounds with a syntactically related term (in this case ‘ग’) as long as the compound does not end in a तिङ् affix.

In the compound, ‘आप + टा’ is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position. Note: Here ‘आप + टा’ is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case ‘उपपदम्’) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation ‘उपसर्जन’।

‘आप + टा + ग’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(8) आप + ग । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= आपग ।

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आपग’ is an adjective. In the present example, it refers to the feminine noun ‘नदी’। Hence we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आपगा’ by adding the feminine affix टाप् as follows –

(9) आपग + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌ – The प्रातिपदिकानि ‘अज’ etc. and प्रातिपदिकानि ending in the letter ‘अ’ get the टाप् affix in the feminine gender.

(10) आपग + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(11) आपगा । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्। Hence the form is आपगाः।

पितामही fNs

Today we will look at the form पितामही fNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb9.24.55.

अष्टमस्तु तयोरासीत्स्वयमेव हरिः किल ।
सुभद्रा च महाभागा तव राजन्पितामही ∥ ९-२४-५५ ∥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अष्टमस्तु स्वयमेवासीन्नतु कर्मादिना हेतुना ताभ्यां जनितो वा, यतोऽसौ हरिः ∥ ५५ ∥

Gita Press translation- While the eighth son of (the blessed) Vasudeva and Devakī indeed was Lord Śrī Hari Himself. And the highly blessed Subhadrā, your grandmother was their daughter, O king! (55)”

पितुर्माता = पितामही – grandmother (father’s mother)

First, we derive the masculine form ‘पितामह’ as follows –

(1) पितृ ङस् + डामहच् । By 4-2-36 पितृव्यमातुलमातामहपितामहाः – The forms ‘पितृव्य’, ‘मातुल’, ‘मातामह’ and ‘पितामह’ are given as ready-made forms. They are used in the meaning of ‘father’s brother’, ‘mother’s brother’, ‘mother’s father’ and ‘father’s father’ respectively.
Note: As per the वार्तिकम् ‘मातृपितृभ्यां पितरि डामहच्’ – The affix ‘डामहच्’ is to be applied to get the final forms ‘पितामह’ and ‘मातामह’ (listed in the सूत्रम् 4-2-36) – which denote father’s father and mother’s father respectively.

(2) पितृ ङस् + आमह । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘पितृ ङस् + आमह’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) पितृ + आमह । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘डामहच्’ is a डित् (has the letter ‘ड्’ as a इत्) and the अङ्गम् ‘पितृ’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows 6-4-143 टेः to apply in the next step.

(4) पित् + आमह । By 6-4-143 टेः – When the अङ्गम् has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा, then its टि-portion (ref: 1-1-64 अचोऽन्त्यादि टि) takes लोप: when followed by an affix that has the letter ‘ड्’ as an indicatory letter.

= पितामह ।

Now we apply the appropriate feminine affix.

(5) पितामह + ङीष् । By 4-1-41 षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च – In the feminine gender the affix ‘ङीष्’ is prescribed following a प्रातिपदिकम् which either (i) contains the letter ‘ष्’ as a ‘इत्’ or (ii) belongs to the class of words beginning with ‘गौर’।
Note: The affix ‘डामहच्’ is considered to be a षित् (having the letter ‘ष्’ as a इत्) as per the वार्तिकम् (under 4-2-36 पितृव्यमातुलमातामहपितामहाः) ‘मातरि षिच्च’ – When used in the sense of a mother, the affix ‘डामहच्’ (implied by the ready-made forms ‘मातामह’ and ‘पितामह’ listed in the सूत्रम् 4-2-36) is considered to be a षित् (having the letter ‘ष्’ as a इत्)। This enables 4-1-41 षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च to apply.
Note: Some grammarians consider the forms ‘मातामह’ and ‘पितामह’ as belonging to the गौरादि-गणः, which enables the application of the सूत्रम् 4-1-41 षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च। Hence according to them the वार्तिकम् ‘मातरि षिच्च’ is not necessary.

(6) पितामह + ई । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘पितामह’ has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(7) पितामह् + ई । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= पितामही । The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पितामही’ declines like नदी-शब्द:।

Similarly, we can derive the form –
१) मातुर्माता = मातामही – grandmother (mother’s mother)

पितृव्यः mNs

Today we will look at the form पितृव्यः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10.48.29.

श्रीभगवानुवाच
त्वं नो गुरुः पितृव्यश्च श्लाघ्यो बन्धुश्च नित्यदा ।
वयं तु रक्ष्याः पोष्याश्च अनुकम्प्याः प्रजा हि वः ∥ १०-४८-२९ ∥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
वो युष्माकं प्रजाः पुत्रा हि वयमिति ∥ २९ ∥

Gita Press translation – The glorious Lord said: “You are our preceptor (counsellor) and uncle, nay, our praiseworthy friend. We ever deserve to be protected, nourished and treated with compassion by you, as a matter of fact, since we are your children (29).”

पितुर्भ्राता = पितृव्यः – uncle (father’s brother)

(1) पितृ ङस् + व्यत् । By 4-2-36 पितृव्यमातुलमातामहपितामहाः – The forms ‘पितृव्य’, ‘मातुल’, ‘मातामह’ and ‘पितामह’ are given as ready-made forms. They are used in the meaning of father’s brother, mother’s brother, mother’s father and father’s father respectively.

Note: As per the वार्तिकम् ‘पितुर्भ्रातरि व्यत्’ – The affix ‘व्यत्’ is to be applied to get the final form ‘पितृव्य’ (listed in the सूत्रम् 4-2-36) – which denotes father’s brother.

(2) पितृ ङस् + व्य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘पितृ ङस् + व्य’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) पितृ + व्य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= पितृव्य । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पितृव्य’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

आग्नेयस्य nGs

Today we will look at the form आग्नेयस्य nGs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10.63.13.

ब्रह्मास्त्रस्य च ब्रह्मास्त्रं वायव्यस्य च पार्वतम् ।
आग्नेयस्य च पार्जन्यं नैजं पाशुपतस्य च ∥ १०-६३-१३ ∥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
प्रत्यस्त्राण्येवाह – ब्रह्मास्त्रस्येति । नैजं नारायणास्त्रम् ∥ १३ ∥

Gita Press translation “Against Brahmāstra He employed Brahmāstra; against Vāyavyāstra He employed the Pārvatāstra; against the fiery missile He employed the Pārjanyāstra and against the Pāśupatāstra He employed His own Nārāyaṇāstra (13).

The above verse has previously appeared in the following posts – पाशुपतस्य nGs and वायव्यस्य nGs

अग्निर्देवतास्‍येति = आग्नेयम् (अस्त्रम्) – (a missile) of which Agni is the presiding deity.
In the verses the विवक्षा is षष्ठी-एकवचनम्। Hence the form is आग्नेयस्य।

(1) अग्नि सुँ + ढक् । By 4-2-33 अग्नेर्ढक् – To denote something of the deity ‘अग्नि’, the तद्धित: affix ‘ढक्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a nominative case affix and has a base denoting the name of the presiding deity ‘अग्नि’।
Note: The affix ‘ढक्’ prescribed by 4-2-33 अग्नेर्ढक् is अपवादः to the affix ‘अण्’ which would have applied (as per the सूत्रम् 4-2-24 सास्य देवता)।

(2) अग्नि सुँ + ढ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: The fact that the सूत्रम् 7-1-2 आयनेयीनीयियः फढखछघां प्रत्ययादीनाम्‌ (used in step 4) specifically prescribes the substitution ‘एय्’ in place of the letter ‘ढ्’ occurring in the beginning of an affix, obviously implies that the letter ‘ढ्’ in the beginning of an affix (such as ढक्) does not get the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-7 चुटू‌। Because, otherwise the letter ‘ढ्’ would be elided by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

Note: ‘अग्नि सुँ + ढ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) अग्नि + ढ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) अग्नि + एय् अ । By 7-1-2 आयनेयीनीयियः फढखछघां प्रत्ययादीनाम्‌ – The letters ‘फ्’, ‘ढ्’, ‘ख्’, ‘छ्’ and ‘घ्’ – when they occur at the beginning of a प्रत्यय: (affix) – are replaced respectively by ‘आयन्’, ‘एय्’, ‘ईन्’, ‘ईय्’ and ‘इय्’।
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 1-3-10 यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम्, the substitutions take place respectively.

Note: The affix ढक् is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) and this allows 7-2-118 to apply in the next step.

(5) आग्नि + एय । By 7-2-118 किति च – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘आग्नि’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(6) आग्न् + एय । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= आग्नेय । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आग्नेय’ is an adjective. In the present example, it is qualifying the neuter noun अस्त्रम्। Hence, it declines like वन-शब्दः।

वायव्यस्य nGs

Today we will look at the form वायव्यस्य nGs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10.63.13.

ब्रह्मास्त्रस्य च ब्रह्मास्त्रं वायव्यस्य च पार्वतम् ।
आग्नेयस्य च पार्जन्यं नैजं पाशुपतस्य च ∥१०-६३-१३∥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
प्रत्यस्त्राण्येवाह – ब्रह्मास्त्रस्येति । नैजं नारायणास्त्रम् ∥१३∥

Gita Press translation – “Against Brahmāstra He employed Brahmāstra; against Vāyavyāstra He employed the Pārvatāstra; against the fiery missile He employed the Pārjanyāstra and against the Pāśupatāstra He employed His own Nārāyaṇāstra (13).

The above verse has previously appeared in the following post – पाशुपतस्य nGs

वायुर्देवतास्‍येति = वायव्यम् (अस्त्रम्) – (a missile) of which Vāyu is the presiding deity.
In the verses the विवक्षा is षष्ठी-एकवचनम्। Hence the form is वायव्यस्य।

(1) वायु सुँ + यत् । By 4-2-31 वाय्वृतुपित्रुषसो यत्‌ – To denote something of the deity ‘वायु’ or ‘ऋतु’ or ‘पितृ’ or ‘उषस्’, the तद्धित: affix ‘यत्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a nominative case affix and has a base denoting the name of that presiding deity.

Note: The affix ‘यत्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-31 वाय्वृतुपित्रुषसो यत्‌ is अपवादः to the affix ‘अण्’ which would have applied (as per the सूत्रम् 4-2-24 सास्य देवता)।

(2) वायु सुँ + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘वायु सुँ + य’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) वायु + य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘वायु’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-146 ओर्गुणः to apply in the next step.

(4) वायो + य । By 6-4-146 ओर्गुणः – When followed by a तद्धितः affix, the ending letter ‘उ’/’ऊ’ of a अङ्गम् which has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा (ref. 1-4-18 यचि भम्) takes the गुण: substitution (‘ओ’)।

(5) वायव् + य । By 6-1-79 वान्तो यि प्रत्यये – When followed by an affix which begins with the letter ‘य्’, the letters ‘ओ’ and ‘औ’ are replaced by ‘अव्’ and ‘आव्’ respectively.

= वायव्य । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वायव्य’ is an adjective. In the present example, it is qualifying the neuter noun अस्त्रम्। Hence, it declines like वन-शब्दः।

Similarly, we can derive the following –
१) ऋतुर्देवतास्‍येति = ऋतव्यम् (हविः) – (an oblation) of which Ṛtu is the presiding deity.

पाशुपतस्य nGs

Today we will look at the form पाशुपतस्य nGs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10.63.13.

ब्रह्मास्त्रस्य च ब्रह्मास्त्रं वायव्यस्य च पार्वतम् ।
आग्नेयस्य च पार्जन्यं नैजं पाशुपतस्य च ∥ १०-६३-१३ ∥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
प्रत्यस्त्राण्येवाह – ब्रह्मास्त्रस्येति । नैजं नारायणास्त्रम् ∥ १३ ∥

Gita Press translation “Against Brahmāstra He employed Brahmāstra; against Vāyavyāstra He employed the Pārvatāstra; against the fiery missile He employed the Pārjanyāstra and against the Pāśupatāstra He employed His own Nārāyaṇāstra (13).

पशुपतिर्देवतास्‍येति = पाशुपतम् (अस्त्रम्) – (a missile) of which Lord Śiva is the presiding deity.
In the verses the विवक्षा is षष्ठी-एकवचनम्। Hence the form is पाशुपतस्य।

(1) पशुपति सुँ + अण् । By 4-2-24 सास्य देवता – To denote something of a particular deity, the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्) may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a nominative case affix and has a base denoting the name of that presiding deity.
Note: Since the base ‘पशुपति’ is a compound with ‘पति’ as its final member, the affix ‘ण्य’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-85 दित्यदित्यादित्यपत्युत्तरपदाण्ण्यः) overrules the default affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्)। But since ‘पशुपति’ is specifically listed in the अश्वपत्यादि-गण:, the affix ‘ण्य’ is in turn overruled by the affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-84 अश्वपत्यादिभ्यश्च – The तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ is authorized for all rules from here (4-1-84) down prior to the सूत्रम् 4-4-2 तेन दीव्यति खनति जयति जितम्, provided it is applied to a पदम् which has ‘अश्वपति’ etc (listed in the अश्वपत्यादि-गण:) as its base.

(2) पशुपति सुँ + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘पशुपति सुँ + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) पशुपति + अ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step.

(4) पाशुपति + अ । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘पाशुपति’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(5) पाशुपत् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= पाशुपत । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पाशुपत’ is an adjective. In the present example, it is qualifying the neuter noun अस्त्रम्। Hence, it declines like वन-शब्दः।

Similarly, we can derive the following –
१) गणपतिर्देवतास्‍येति = गाणपतः (मन्त्रः) – (a mantra) of which Lord Gaṇeśa is the presiding deity.

कौरव्य mVs

Today we will look at the form कौरव्य mVs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10.42.32.

व्युष्टायां निशि कौरव्य सूर्ये चाद्भ्यः समुत्थिते ।
कारयामास वै कंसो मल्लक्रीडामहोत्सवम् ∥ १०-४२-३२ ∥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
कष्टेन कथंचित्प्रभातायां पुनः सूर्ये चाद्भ्यः समुत्थित इति । तथा च श्रुतिः – ‘अद्भ्यो वा’ इति – ‘य उदगान्महतोऽर्णवात्, विभ्राजमानः सलिलस्य मध्यात् ∥ स मा वृषभो लोहिताक्षः सूर्यो विपश्चिन्मनसा पुनातु’ इति च ∥ ३२ ∥

Gita Press translation “When the night passed and the sun rose from the (eastern) waters, O scion of Kuru, Kaṁsa actually had a grand festival of wrestling bouts to be celebrated.”

The above verses have previously appeared in the following post – अद्भ्यः-f-ab-s

कुरवो जनपदः, कुरुर्नाम क्षत्रियः। कुरोरपत्यम् (पुमान्) = कौरव्यः – a (male) descendant of a kṣatriya king named Kuru, which is also the name of his territory. Here it refers to king Parīkṣit.
Note: As a convention in the language, words (such as ‘कुरु’) while denoting a territory are always used in the plural.

In the verses the विवक्षा is सम्बुद्धिः। Hence the form is कौरव्य।

(1) कुरु ङस् + ण्य । By 4-1-172 कुरुनादिभ्यो ण्यः – To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant) the तद्धित: affix ‘ण्य’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् which ends in a sixth case affix and has as its base ‘कुरु’ or a word beginning with the letter ‘न्’ provided the base denotes the name of a kṣatriya king, as well as the name of his country/territory.
Note: Here, the affix ‘ण्य’ over-rules the affix ‘अण्’ that would have been prescribed by 4-1-170 द्व्यञ्मगधकलिङ्गसूरमसादण्।
As per the सूत्रम् 4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed and which ends in a sixth case affix the तद्धिता: affixes already prescribed (by the prior rules 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् etc), as well as those that are going to be prescribed (by the following rules 4-1-95 अत इञ् etc), may be optionally applied to denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant.)

(2) कुरु ङस् + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: ‘कुरु ङस् + य’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) कुरु + य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।
Note: The affix ‘ण्य’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step.

(4) कौरु + य । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘कौरु’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-146 ओर्गुणः to apply in the next step.

(5) कौरो + य । By 6-4-146 ओर्गुणः – When followed by a तद्धितः affix, the ending letter ‘उ’/’ऊ’ of a अङ्गम् which has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा (ref. 1-4-18 यचि भम्) takes the गुण: substitution (‘ओ’)।

(6) कौरव् + य । By 6-1-79 वान्तो यि प्रत्यये – When followed by an affix which begins with the letter ‘य्’, the letters ‘ओ’ and ‘औ’ are replaced by ‘अव्’ and ‘आव्’ respectively.

= कौरव्य । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कौरव्य’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

मागधम् mAs

Today we will look at the form मागधम् mAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.73.33.

गत्वा ते खाण्डवप्रस्थं शङ्खान्दध्मुर्जितारयः । हर्षयन्तः स्वसुहृदो दुर्हृदां चासुखावहाः ∥ १०-७३-३२ ∥
तच्छ्रुत्वा प्रीतमनस इन्द्रप्रस्थनिवासिनः । मेनिरे मागधं शान्तं राजा चाप्तमनोरथः ∥ १०-७३-३३ ∥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
खाण्डवप्रस्थमिन्द्रप्रस्थम् ∥ ३२ ∥ शान्तं मृतम् । आप्तमनोरथो बभूव ∥ ३३ ∥

Gita Press translation – On reaching the outskirts of the city, the three victorious heroes blew their respective conchs, bringing joy to their friends and sorrow to their enemies (32). The people of Indraprastha were extremely delighted at heart to hear the sound and concluded at once that Jarāsandha had been killed and that King Yudhiṣṭhira had well-nigh achieved his object (33).

The above verses have previously appeared in the following post – दुर्हृदाम्-mgp

मगधा जनपदः, मगधो नाम क्षत्रियः। मगधानां जनपदानां राजा = मागधः – a king of the territory Magadha, which is also the name of a kṣatriya. In the verses it refers to Jarāsandha.
Note: As a convention in the language, words (such as ‘मगध’) while denoting a territory are always used in the plural.

In the verses the विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्। Hence the form is मागधम्।

(1) मगध आम् + अण् । By 4-1-170 द्व्यञ्मगधकलिङ्गसूरमसादण् – To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant) the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् which ends in a sixth case affix and has as its base either ‘मगध’ or ‘कलिङ्ग’ or ‘सूरमस’ or a word that has two vowels (अच् letters), provided the base denotes the name of a kṣatriya king, as well as the name of his country/territory.
Note: The affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by this सूत्रम् is अपवादः to the affix ‘अञ्’ prescribed by 4-1-168 जनपदशब्दात्‌ क्षत्रियादञ्।
As per the वार्तिकम् (under the सूत्रम् 4-1-168 जनपदशब्दात्‌ क्षत्रियादञ्) ’क्षत्रियसमानशब्दाज्जनपदात् तस्य राजन्यपत्यवत्’ – The same तद्धित: affix as is used to denote a descendant, may also be used to denote a king, when applied following a syntactically related पदम् which ends in a sixth case affix and has as its base a word that denotes the name of a country/territory, as well as the name of a kṣatriya.

Note: The सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says, तद्राजमाचक्षाणस्तद्राज इत्यन्वर्थसंज्ञासामर्थ्यात् – The above वार्तिकम् is inferred from the fact that the affixes ‘अञ्’ etc (prescribed by 4-1-168 etc) get the designation तद्राजाः (explained as तेषां राजानस्तद्राजाः) by the सूत्रम् 4-1-174 ते तद्राजाः, which implies that these affixes are also used to denote kings (of those countries/territories).
Note: The तत्वबोधिनी says, इह ‘4-2-125 अवृद्धादपि बहुवचनविषयात्’ इति प्राप्तो वुञ् बाध्यते – Here, the affix ‘अण्’ stops the affix ‘वुञ्’ which would have been prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-125 अवृद्धादपि बहुवचनविषयात्।

(2) मगध आम् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: ‘मगध आम् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) मगध + अ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step.

(4) मागध + अ । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘मागध’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(5) मागध् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= मागध । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मागध’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

Similarly we can derive the following –
१) अङ्गानां जनपदानां राजा = आङ्गः।
२) कलिङ्गानां जनपदानां राजा = कालिङ्गः।
३) सूरमसानां जनपदानां राजा = सौरमसः।

क्षत्रियाणाम् mGp

Today we will look at the form क्षत्रियाणाम् mGp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् verse 9.15.16.

श्रीराजोवाच
किं तदंहो भगवतो राजन्यैरजितात्मभिः
कृतं येन कुलं नष्टं क्षत्रियाणामभीक्ष्णशः ॥ ९-१५-१६ ॥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
No commentary on this verse.

Gita Press Translation – The king (Parīkṣit) submitted: What was the offense which was committed against the glorious sage (Paraśurāma) by Kṣatriyas of uncontrolled mind, for which the (entire) race of the Kṣatriyas was wiped out (by him) time and again? (16)

क्षत्त्रस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्) जातिः = क्षत्त्रियः – the son of one belonging to kṣatriya class (from his kṣatriya wife)
In the verses the विवक्षा is षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्। Hence the form is क्षत्रियाणाम्।

(1) क्षत्त्र ङस् + घ । By 4-1-138 क्षत्त्राद् घः – To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendent) the तद्धित: affix ‘घ’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् which ends in a sixth case affix and has ‘क्षत्त्र’ as its base.
Note: The affix ‘घ’ applies only if the derived form conveys the sense of kṣatriya class.
As per the सूत्रम् 4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed and which ends in a sixth case affix the तद्धिता: affixes already prescribed (by the prior rules 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् etc), as well as those that are going to be prescribed (by the following rules 4-1-95 अत इञ् etc), may be optionally applied to denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant.)

Note: ‘क्षत्त्र ङस् + घ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(2) क्षत्त्र + घ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(3) क्षत्त्र + इय् अ । By 7-1-2 आयनेयीनीयियः फढखछघां प्रत्ययादीनाम्‌ – The letters ‘फ्’, ‘ढ्’, ‘ख्’, ‘छ्’ and ‘घ्’ – when they occur at the beginning of a प्रत्यय: (affix) – are replaced respectively by ‘आयन्’, ‘एय्’, ‘ईन्’, ‘ईय्’ and ‘इय्’।
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 1-3-10 यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम्, the substitutions take place respectively.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘क्षत्त्र’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(4) क्षत्त्र् + इय । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= क्षत्त्रिय । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘क्षत्त्रिय’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

Note: As per the महाभाष्यम् (under the सूत्रम् 7-1-72) – न व्यञ्जनपरस्यैकस्य वानेकस्य वा श्रवणं प्रति विशेषोऽस्ति – In the pronunciation of a conjunct consonant whether the prior member is single or repeated is indistinguishable to the ear. Hence we often see the form ‘क्षत्रिय’ instead of ‘क्षत्त्रिय’।

(5) क्षत्रिय + आम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of ‘आम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(6) क्षत्रिय + नुँट् आम् । By 7-1-54 ह्रस्वनद्यापो नुट्, the affix ‘आम्’ takes the augment नुँट् when it follows a प्रातिपदिकम् which either ends in a short vowel or has the नदी-संज्ञा or ends in the feminine affix ‘आप्’। As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the augment नुँट् joins at the beginning of ‘आम्’।

(7) क्षत्रिय + नाम् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) क्षत्रियानाम् । By 6-4-3 नामि – The ending vowel of an अङ्गम् gets elongated if followed by the term ‘नाम्’।

(9) क्षत्रियाणाम् । By 8-4-2 अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेऽपि, the letter ‘न्’ is replaced by the letter ‘ण्’ when either the letter ‘र्’ or ‘ष्’ precedes, even if intervened by a letter of the अट्-प्रत्याहार: or by a letter of the क-वर्ग: or प-वर्गः or the term ‘आङ्’ or ‘नुँम्’ (अनुस्वारः) either singly or in any combination.

राजन्याः mNp

Today we will look at the form राजन्याः mNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् verse 10.83.34.

तेऽन्वसज्जन्त राजन्या निषेद्धुं पथि केचन ।
संयत्ता उद्धृतेष्वासा ग्रामसिंहा यथा हरिम् ॥ १०-८३-३४ ॥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अन्वसज्जन्त पृष्ठतः सक्ता बभूवुः । निषेद्धुं प्रतिबन्धं कर्तुं केचन पुरतो गत्वा पथि संयत्ता बभूवुरित्यर्थः । उद्धृतेष्वासा ऊर्ध्वकृतचापाः । ग्रामसिंहाः श्वानो हरिं सिंहं यथेति ॥ ३४ ॥

Gita Press Translation – Lifting up their bows and prepared for a battle, some of those kings pursued my Lord with a view to obstructing Him on the way; but their attempt was no more successful than that of dogs to check the lion (34).

राज्ञोऽपत्यम् (पुमान्) जातिः = राजन्यः – the son of a kṣatriya king (from his kṣatriya wife)
In the verses the विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्। Hence the form is राजन्याः।

(1) राजन् ङस् + यत् । By 4-1-137 राजश्वशुराद्यत्‌ – To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendent), the तद्धित: affix ‘यत्’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् which ends in a sixth case affix and has either ‘राजन्’ or ‘श्वशुर’ as its base.
Note: The affix ‘यत्’ prescribed by this सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to the default affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्) in the case of ‘राजन्’ as well as the affix ‘इञ्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-95 अत इञ्) in the case of ‘श्वशुर’।
As per the सूत्रम् 4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed and which ends in a sixth case affix the तद्धिता: affixes already prescribed (by the prior rules 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् etc), as well as those that are going to be prescribed (by the following rules 4-1-95 अत इञ् etc), may be optionally applied to denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant.)

(2) राजन् ङस् + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: The letter ‘त्’ in the affix ’यत्’ is for the purpose of indicating the intonation (ref: 6-1-185 तित्स्वरितम्)।

Note: ‘राजन् ङस् + य’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) राजन् + य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्। Note: The अङ्गम् ‘राजन्’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम्।

(4) राजन्य । By 6-4-168 ये चाभावकर्मणोः – When followed by a तद्धितः affix beginning with the letter ‘य्’, the term ‘अन्’ remains unchanged, provided the affix denotes neither the action (भावः) nor the object (कर्म)।
Note: In the absence of 6-4-168 the सूत्रम् 6-4-144 नस्तद्धिते would have applied to elide the ‘टि’-portion ‘अन्’ of the अङ्गम् ‘राजन्’।

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘राजन्य’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

(5) राजन्य + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(6) राजन्य + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘जस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(7) राजन्यास् । By 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः – When a अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(8) राजन्याः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

July 2019
M T W T F S S
« May    
1234567
891011121314
15161718192021
22232425262728
293031  

Topics