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अष्टचत्वारिंशत् fNs

Today we will look at the form अष्टचत्वारिंशत्  fNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.21.4.

वियद्वित्तस्य ददतो लब्धं लब्धं बुभुक्षतः । निष्किञ्चनस्य धीरस्य सकुटुम्बस्य सीदतः ।। ९-२१-३ ।।
व्यतीयुरष्टचत्वारिंशदहान्यपिबतः किल । घृतपायससंयावं तोयं प्रातरुपस्थितम् ।। ९-२१-४ ।।
कृच्छ्रप्राप्तकुटुम्बस्य क्षुत्तृड्भ्यां जातवेपथोः । अतिथिर्ब्राह्मणः काले भोक्तुकामस्य चागमत् ।। ९-२१-५ ।।

वियद्वित्तस्य वियतो गगनादिवोद्यमं विना दैवादुपस्थितमेव वित्तं भोग्यं यस्य । यद्वा वियद्व्ययं प्राप्नुवद्वित्तं भोग्यं यस्य । तदेवाह – बुभुक्षतोऽपि सतो लब्धं लब्धं ददतः । तत्प्रपञ्चयति – निष्किंचनस्येत्यादिसार्धैः पञ्चदशभिः ।। ३ ।। अपिबतो जलपानमप्यकुर्वतः । घृतादित्रयाणां द्वन्द्वैक्यम् । तोयं च ।। ४ ।। ५ ।।

The above verses have previously appeared in the following post – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2016/04/11/घृतपायससंयावम्-nns/

Gita Press translation – In the case of Rantideva, who subsisted on whatever was obtained without any effort and who, though feeling hungry (himself), gave away all that was got, and was thus rendered (utterly) destitute (having no provision even for the evening much less for the next day), and therefore suffering terrible hardship, along with his family – who were reduced to (great) straits – (nay), trembling due to (excessive) hunger and thirst, yet calm, passed (not less than) forty-eight days – so the tradition goes – without his taking (even) water. In the morning (of the forty-ninth day) there came to him (by chance) ghee, rice cooked in milk with sugar, Saṁyāva (a kind of porridge made of wheat flour with ghee and milk), as well as water. And when he was intending to partake of it, there arrived, at that (very) time, a newcomer in the person of a Brāhmaṇa (3-5).

(1) अष्टौ/अष्ट च चत्वारिंशच्च = अष्टचत्वारिंशत्/अष्टाचत्वारिंशत् – (Eight + forty =) forty-eight.

(2) अष्टन् जस् + चत्वारिंशत् सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) अष्टन् जस् + चत्वारिंशत् सुँ । Note: Since ‘अष्टन् जस्’ denotes a smaller number (compared to ‘चत्वारिंशत् सुँ’) it is placed in the prior position as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) सङ्ख्याया अल्पीयस्याः पूर्वनिपातो वक्तव्यः – In a compound the term which denotes a smaller number is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘अष्टन् जस् + चत्वारिंशत् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) अष्टन् + चत्वारिंशत् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्। Note: Now ‘अष्टन्’ has the पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows 8-2-7 to apply in step 6.

(5) अष्टाचत्वारिंशत् । By 6-3-47 द्व्यष्टनः संख्यायामबहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः – When followed by the final member of a compound, (the final letter of) the term ‘द्वि’ as well as ‘अष्टन्’ takes the substitution ‘आ’ provided the compound is not a बहुव्रीहि: compound and the final member of the compound denotes a number other than ‘अशीति’।
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending letter (of ‘द्वि’/’अष्टन्’) is replaced by ‘आ’।

As per the सूत्रम् 6-3-49 विभाषा चत्वारिंशत्प्रभृतौ सर्वेषाम् – The substitution ‘आ’ (in place of ‘द्वि’/’अष्टन्’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 6-3-47 as well as the substitution ‘त्रयस्’ (in place of ‘त्रि’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 6-3-48 is only optional in those compounds whose final members denote numbers forty or greater.

In the case where the substitution ‘आ’ (by 6-3-47) is not done, we get –

(6) अष्टन् + चत्वारिंशत् = अष्टचत्वारिंशत् । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: As a convention in the language, numbers from विंशति: (twenty) up to नवति: (ninety) – as well as compound numbers ending in these numbers – are always used in the feminine (even when they’re adjectives to non-feminine terms.) They are used in the singular except when used as just numbers (not adjectives) they may be used in the dual/plural also.
For example – विंशतिर्नरा: = twenty men, विंशतिर्नार्य: = twenty women, विंशति: कुटुम्बानि = twenty families, नवनवतिर्नरा: = ninety-nine men, नवनवतिर्नार्य: = ninety-nine women, नवनवति: कुटुम्बानि = ninety-nine families. (नराणां/नारीणां/कुटुम्बानां) विंशति: = twenty (of men/women/families), (नराणां/नारीणां/कुटुम्बानां) द्वे विंशती = two twenties (of men/women/families) = forty (of men/women/families), (नराणां/नारीणां/कुटुम्बानां) तिस्रो विंशतय: = three twenties (of men/women/families) = sixty (of men/women/families) etc.

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा।

(7) अष्टाचत्वारिंशत्/अष्टचत्वारिंशत् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(8) अष्टाचत्वारिंशत्/अष्टचत्वारिंशत् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(9) अष्टाचत्वारिंशत्/अष्टचत्वारिंशत् । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् – A single letter affix ‘सुँ’, ‘ति’ or ‘सि’ is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix ‘ङी’ or ‘आप्’।


1. What is the विग्रह: of the compound वियद्वित्तस्य (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वियद्वित्त’, पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

2. What is the alternate form for the compound सकुटुम्बस्य used in the verses?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-40 द्यतिस्यतिमास्थामित्ति किति been used in the verses?

4. In which word(s) in the verses has the substitution ‘शतृँ’ (in place of the affix ‘लँट्’) been used?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a second case affix in the form उद्यमम् used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I am not the only one studying grammar. Forty-eight other students also study grammar with me.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘केवल’ for ‘only one.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the गुण: substitution (‘ओ’) in the form जातवेपथोः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जातवेपथु’, पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

2. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 7-1-9 अतो भिस ऐस् apply in the form पञ्चदशभिः (used in the commentary)?

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