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वैश्रवणम् mAs/रावण mVs

Today we will look at the forms वैश्रवणम् mAs and रावण mVs from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 3.48.21 and 3.48.22.

एवमुक्ता तु वैदेही क्रुद्धा संरक्तलोचना । अब्रवीत्परुषं वाक्यं रहिते राक्षसाधिपम् ।। ३-४८-२० ।।
कथं वैश्रवणं देवं सर्वभूतनमस्कृतम् । भ्रातरं व्यपदिश्य त्वमशुभं कर्तुमिच्छसि ।। ३-४८-२१ ।।
अवश्यं विनशिष्यन्ति सर्वे रावण राक्षसाः । येषां त्वं कर्कशो राजा दुर्बुद्धिरजितेन्द्रियः ।। ३-४८-२२ ।।

Gita Press translation “Enraged when spoken to as aforesaid, Sītā (a princess of the Videha territory) for her part with blood-red eyes addressed the following harsh words to Rāvaṇa (the suzerain lord of ogres) in that lonely place : – (20) “How after calling god Kubera (son of Viśravā), who is hailed by all gods, your (half-) brother, do you seek to perpetrate a foul deed ? (21) All ogres, O Rāvaṇa, will inevitably perish inasmuch as you – who are (so) hardhearted and evil-minded and have not been able to subdue your senses – are their ruler.(22)”

The above verses have previously appeared in the following post – विनशिष्यन्ति-3ap-लृँट्

विश्रवसोऽपत्यम् (पुमान्) = वैश्रवणः, रावणः – a (male) descendant of Viśravā. Note: वैश्रवणः can refer to either Kubera or Rāvaṇa, since both were sons of Viśravā. Here in the verses वैश्रवणः refers to Kubera.
In the verses, the विवक्षा for वैश्रवणम् is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्। And the विवक्षा for रावण is सम्बुद्धिः।

(1) विश्रवण/रवण ङस् + अण् । By 4-1-112 शिवादिभ्योऽण् – To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant) the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a sixth case affix and has ‘शिव’ etc (listed in the शिवादि-गण:) as its base.
Note: ‘विश्रवण’ and ‘रवण’ are listed in the शिवादि-गणः, implying that ‘विश्रवस्’ takes the substitution ‘विश्रवण’/’रवण’ when followed by the affix ‘अण्’ in the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant).
Note: First the सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् prescribes the default affix ‘अण्’ which is over-ruled by the affix ‘इञ्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-95 अत इञ्) and finally the सूत्रम् 4-1-112 शिवादिभ्योऽण् re-prescribes the affix ‘अण्’ because ‘विश्रवण’ and ‘रवण’ are specifically listed in the शिवादि-गण:।
Note: The अनुवृत्तिः of ‘गोत्रे’ from the सूत्रम् 4-1-98 गोत्रे कुञ्जादिभ्यश्च्फञ् does not come into this सूत्रम् 4-1-112. It stops at the prior सूत्रम् 4-1-111 भर्गात्‌ त्रैगर्ते।
As per the सूत्रम् 4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed and which ends in a sixth case affix the तद्धिता: affixes already prescribed (by the prior rules 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् etc), as well as those that are going to be prescribed (by the following rules 4-1-95 अत इञ् etc), may be optionally applied to denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant.)

(2) विश्रवण/रवण ङस् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘विश्रवण/रवण ङस् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) विश्रवण/रवण + अ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step.

(4) वैश्रवण/रावण + अ । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘वैश्रवण/रावण’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(5) वैश्रवण्/रावण् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= वैश्रवण/रावण । The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वैश्रवण’ as well as ‘रावण’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

The विवक्षा for वैश्रवणम् is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।
(6a) वैश्रवण + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7a) वैश्रवणम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

And the विवक्षा for रावण is सम्बुद्धिः।
Note: By 2-3-49 एकवचनं सम्बुद्धि: – The nominative singular affix (‘सुँ’) when used in a vocative form gets the designation सम्बुद्धि:।

(6b) (हे) रावण + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। By 2-3-47 सम्बोधने च – A first case affix (‘सुँ’, ‘औ’, ‘जस्’) is used to denote ‘address’ (in addition to the meaning of the nominal stem) also. Note: सम् (सम्मुखीकृत्य) बोधनम् (ज्ञापनम्) = सम्बोधनम्। सम्बोधनम् means drawing someone’s attention (to inform him/her of something.)

(7b) (हे) रावण + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8b) (हे) रावण । By 6-1-69 एङ्ह्रस्वात्‌ सम्बुद्धेः – Following a अङ्गम् ending in ‘एङ्’ (letter ‘ए’ or ‘ओ’) or a short vowel, a consonant is dropped if it belongs to a सम्बुद्धि: affix.

We can similarly derive the following –
१) ककुत्स्थस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्) = काकुत्स्थः (रामः) – a (male) descendant of (the king) Kakutstha. It refers to Śrī Rāma.

सौमित्रिः mNs

Today we will look at the form सौमित्रिः mNs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 3.16.3.

स कदाचित् प्रभातायां शर्वर्यां रघुनन्दनः । प्रययावभिषेकार्थं रम्यां गोदावरीं नदीम् ।। ३-१६-२ ।।
प्रह्वः कलशहस्तस्तु सीतया सह वीर्यवान् । पृष्ठतोऽनुव्रजन्भ्राता सौमित्रिरिदमब्रवीत् ।। ३-१६-३ ।।
अयं स कालः सम्प्राप्तः प्रियो यस्ते प्रियंवद । अलङ्कृत इवाभाति येन संवत्सरः शुभः ।। ३-१६-४ ।।
नीहारपरुषो लोकः पृथिवी सस्यमालिनी । जलान्यनुपभोग्यानि सुभगो हव्यवाहनः ।। ३-१६-५ ।।

Gita Press translation – Once that delight of the Raghus, at break of day, went to the beautiful Godāvarī river for the sake of a bath (2). Following at the heels of Śrī Rāma with a vessel for water in his hand together with Sītā, his brave brother, the son of Sumitrā, spoke as follows :- (3) “Now has arrived that season which is dear to you, O polite brother, with which the blessed year appears as though ornamented (4). The people feel dry with cold, the earth is rich with crops; the waters are unenjoyable, the fire is agreeable.” (5)

The above verses have previously appeared in the following post – प्रियंवद-mvs

सुमित्राया अपत्यम् (पुमान्) = सौमित्रिः (लक्ष्मणः) – a (male) descendant of Sumitrā. It refers to Lakṣmaṇa (son of Sumitrā)
In the verses the विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(1) सुमित्रा ङस् + इञ् । By 4-1-96 बाह्वादिभ्यश्च – To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant) the तद्धित: affix ‘इञ्’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a sixth case affix and has ‘बाहु’ etc (listed in the बाह्वादि-गण:) as its base. As per the सूत्रम् 4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed and which ends in a sixth case affix the तद्धिता: affixes already prescribed (by the prior rules 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् etc), as well as those that are going to be prescribed (by the following rules 4-1-95 अत इञ् etc), may be optionally applied to denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant.)

Note: First the सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् prescribes the default affix ‘अण्’ which is over-ruled by the affix ‘ढक्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-120 स्त्रीभ्यो ढक्) which in turn is over-ruled by the affix ‘इञ्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-96 बाह्वादिभ्यश्च) because ‘सुमित्रा’ is specifically listed in the बाह्वादि-गण:।
Note: Since ‘सुमित्रा’ does not end in the letter ‘अ’ the सूत्रम् 4-1-95 अत इञ् cannot apply here.

Note: आकृतिगणोऽयम्। The बाह्वादि-गण: is a आकृतिगणः – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and there is room left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations.

(2) सुमित्रा ङस् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘सुमित्रा ङस् + इ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) सुमित्रा + इ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘इञ्’ is a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step.

(4) सौमित्रा + इ । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘सौमित्रा’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(5) सौमित्र् + इ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= सौमित्रि । The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सौमित्रि’ declines like हरि-शब्दः।

(6) सौमित्रि + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(7) सौमित्रि + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) सौमित्रिः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Similarly, we can derive the following –
१) कृष्णस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्) = कार्ष्णिः – a (male) descendant of Kṛṣṇa (of the Vṛṣṇi dynasty)
२) प्रद्युम्नस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्) = प्राद्युम्निः – a (male) descendant of Pradyumna (of the Vṛṣṇi dynasty)
३) सत्यकस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्) = सात्यकिः – a (male) descendant of Satyaka (of the Vṛṣṇi dynasty)
४) युधिष्ठिरस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्) = यौधिष्ठिरिः – a (male) descendant of Yudhiṣṭhira (of the Kuru dynasty)
५) अर्जुनस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्) = आर्जुनिः – a (male) descendant of Arjuna (of the Kuru dynasty)

Note: In the above examples, first the सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् prescribes the default affix ‘अण्’ which is over-ruled by the affix ‘इञ्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-95 अत इञ्) which in turn is over-ruled by the affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-114 ऋष्यन्धकवृष्णिकुरुभ्यश्च) and finally the सूत्रम् 4-1-96 बाह्वादिभ्यश्च brings back the affix ‘इञ्’ since ‘कृष्ण’, ‘प्रद्युम्न’, ‘सत्यक’, ‘युधिष्ठिर’ and ‘अर्जुन’ are specifically listed in the बाह्वादि-गण:।

दैत्यान् mAp, आदित्याः mNp

Today we will look at the form दैत्यान् mAp, आदित्याः mNp from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 3.14.15.

पुत्रांस्त्रैलोक्यभर्तॄन्वै जनयिष्यथ मत्समान् । अदितिस्तन्मना राम दितिश्च दनुरेव च ।। ३-१४-१३ ।।
कालका च महाबाहो शेषास्त्वमनसोऽभवन् । अदित्यां जज्ञिरे देवास्त्रयस्त्रिंशदरिन्दम ।। ३-१४-१४ ।।
आदित्या वसवो रुद्रा अश्विनौ च परन्तप । दितिस्त्वजनयत्पुत्रान्दैत्यांस्तात यशस्विनः ।। ३-१४-१५ ।।

Gita Press translation – ‘You will give birth to sons like me, masters of the three worlds.’ O Rāma of mighty arms – Aditi, Diti, Danu and Kālakā were attentive, the rest were indifferent. “Of Aditi thirty-three gods were born, O vanquisher of foes – the (twelve) Ādityas, the (eight) Vasus, the (eleven) Rudras and the two Aświns, O tormentor of foes! Diti for her part gave birth to the famous Daityas (demons), O dear one! (13-15).”

The above verses have previously appeared in the following post – जनयिष्यथ 2Ap-लृँट्

दितेरपत्यम् (पुमान्) = दैत्यः – a (male) descendant of Diti
In the verses the विवक्षा is द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्, hence the form used is दैत्यान्।

(1) दिति ङस् + ण्य । By 4-1-85 दित्यदित्यादित्यपत्युत्तरपदाण्ण्यः – The affix ‘ण्य’ is authorized for all rules down prior to the सूत्रम् 4-4-2 तेन दीव्यति खनति जयति जितम्, provided it is applied to a पदम् derived from a प्रातिपदिकम् which is either ‘दिति’, ’अदिति’, ’आदित्य’ or a compound which has ‘पति’ as its latter member.
Note: The affix ‘ण्य’ prescribed by this सूत्रम् is a अपवादः to the affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्।
As per the सूत्रम् 4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed and which ends in a sixth case affix the तद्धिता: affixes already prescribed (by the prior rules 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् etc), as well as those that are going to be prescribed (by the following rules 4-1-95 अत इञ् etc), may be optionally applied to denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant.)

(2) दिति ङस् + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘दिति ङस् + य’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) दिति + य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘ण्य’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step.

(4) दैति + य । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘दैति’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(5) दैत् + य । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= दैत्य । The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दैत्य’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

(6) दैत्य + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(7) दैत्य + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘शस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(8) दैत्यास् । By 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः – When a अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(9) दैत्यान् । By 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि – In the masculine gender, when the letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘शस्’ follows a vowel which has been elongated by 6-1-102 then it is replaced by the letter ‘न्’।

Similarly, we can derive the form आदित्याः used in the verses.
अदितेरपत्यम् (पुमान्) = आदित्यः – a (male) descendant of Aditi
In the verses the विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्, hence the form used is आदित्याः।

The derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम्‌ ‘आदित्य’ is similar to the derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम्‌ ’दैत्य’ as shown above. The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आदित्य’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

राघवम् mAs

Today we will look at the form राघवम् mAs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 4.16.4.

सोढुं न च समर्थोऽहं युद्धकामस्य संयुगे । सुग्रीवस्य च संरम्भं हीनग्रीवस्य गर्जितम् ।। ४-१६-४ ।।
न च कार्यो विषादस्ते राघवं प्रति मत्कृते । धर्मज्ञश्च कृतज्ञश्च कथं पापं करिष्यति ।। ४-१६-५ ।।
निवर्तस्व सह स्त्रीभिः कथं भूयोऽनुगच्छसि । सौहृदं दर्शितं तारे मयि भक्तिः कृता त्वया ।। ४-१६-६ ।।
प्रतियोत्स्याम्यहं गत्वा सुग्रीवं जहि सम्भ्रमम् । दर्पं चास्य विनेष्यामि न च प्राणैर्वियोक्ष्यते ।। ४-१६-७ ।।

Gita Press translation – Nay, I am not able to tolerate the arrogance, much less the roar, of the weak-necked Sugrīva, who seeks an encounter on the battlefield (with me) (4). Nor should any anxiety be entertained by you from the side of Śrī Rāma on my account. How can Śrī Rāma – who knows what is right and cognizes his duty – perpetrate sin (in the form of killing one who is innocent)? (5) (Please) return with the (other) ladies. Why do you still follow me? Affection has been shown to such an extent and service rendered to me by you (6). Going out I shall give battle to Sugrīva; (pray) give up (all) perplexity. Nay, I shall take away his pride, yet he will not be rid of his life (7).

The above verses have previously appeared in the following post – सोढुम्-ind

रघोरपत्यम् (पुमान्) = राघवः – a (male) descendant of (the king) Raghu. Refers to Śrī Rāma.
In the verses the विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्, hence the form used is राघवम्।

(1) रघु ङस् + अण् । By 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् – The affix ‘अण्’ is hereby authorized as the default affix for all rules from here (4-1-83) down prior to the सूत्रम् 4-4-2 तेन दीव्यति खनति जयति जितम्। Note: The affix ‘अण्’ comes in by default in the section starting from 4-1-83 prior to 4-4-2.
As per the सूत्रम् 4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed and which ends in a sixth case affix the तद्धिता: affixes already prescribed (by the prior rules 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् etc), as well as those that are going to be prescribed (by the following rules 4-1-95 अत इञ् etc), may be optionally applied to denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant.)
Note: The use of a तद्धित: affix is optional because a sentence or a compound may also be constructed to convey the same meaning. So for example – the तद्धित: form राघवः and the sentence रघोरपत्यम् and the compound रघ्वपत्यम् all convey the same meaning – a descendant of (the king) Raghu.

(2) रघु ङस् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘रघु ङस् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) रघु + अ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step.

(4) राघु + अ । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘राघु’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम्

(5) राघो + अ । By 6-4-146 ओर्गुणः – When followed by a तद्धितः affix, the ending letter ‘उ’/’ऊ’ of a अङ्गम् which has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा (ref. 1-4-18 यचि भम्) takes the गुण: substitution (‘ओ’)।

(6) राघव । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘राघव’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

(7) राघव + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) राघवम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

जीमूतम् mAs

Today we will look at the form जीमूतम्  mAs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 5.4.108.

जातरूपमयैः शृङ्गैर्भ्राजमानैर्महाप्रभैः । आदित्यशतसंकाशः सोऽभवद्गिरिसत्तमः ।। ५-४-१०६ ।।
समुत्थितमसङ्गेन हनूमानग्रतः स्थितम् । मध्ये लवणतोयस्य विघ्नोऽयमिति निश्चितः ।। ५-४-१०७ ।।
स तमुच्छ्रितमत्यर्थं महावेगो महाकपिः । उरसा पातयामास जीमूतमिव मारुतः ।। ५-४-१०८ ।।
स तदाऽऽसादितस्तेन कपिना पर्वतोत्तमः । बुद्ध्वा तस्य हरेर्वेगं जहर्ष च ननाद च ।। ५-४-१०९ ।।

Gita Press translation – With its shining peaks of gold, emitting a dazzling splendor, that jewel among mountains shone brightly like a hundred suns (106). Hanumān positively considered the mountain, which instantly stood very high before him in the midst of the salty sea, to be a stumbling block (in his journey) (107). Hanumān, the mighty monkey who was possessed of great impetuosity, felled with his breast the exceedingly lofty mountain (even) as the wind would strike down a cloud (108). Worsted on that occasion by the aforesaid monkey (Hanumān) and recognizing his impetuosity, Maināka (the foremost of mountains) felt rejoiced and roared too (109).

There are a few different ways of deriving the compound जीमूत:। One of them is as follows –

(1) जीवनस्य (जलस्य) मूत: = जीमूत: – a cloud (a collection of water.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) जीवन ङस् + मूत सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘जीवन ङस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘जीवन ङस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘जीवन ङस् + मूत सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) जीवन + मूत । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) जीमूत । As per 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् – The forms such as ‘पृषोदर’ etc (which contain irregular operations – like an elision or an augment or a transformation of a letter – not prescribed by any rule) are to be taken as valid forms as they are used by the scholars.
The पृषोदरादि-गण: is listed in the गण-पाठ: as follows – ‘पृषोदर’, ‘पृषोत्थान’, ‘बलाहक’, ‘जीमूत‘, ‘श्मशान’, ‘उलूखल’, ‘पिशाच’, ‘बृसी’, ‘मयूर’।
6-3-109 is used to justify the ad hoc elision of the letters ‘वन’ of ‘जीवन’ in order to arrive at the final compound form ‘जीमूत’ listed in the पृषोदरादि-गण:।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the तत्पुरुष: compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जीमूत’ is masculine since the final member ‘मूत’ of the compound is used here in the masculine. It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(6) जीमूत + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) जीमूतम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. What type of compound is यथोपदिष्टम् which occurs in the सूत्रम् 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् (used in step 5)?
i. अव्ययीभाव:
ii. तत्पुरुष:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. द्वन्द्व:

2. Among the two compounds महावेग: and महाकपिः used in the verses which one is a कर्मधारय: compound and which one is a बहुव्रीहि: compound?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the word विघ्न:?

4. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 2-2-10 न निर्धारणे prevent the formation of the compound पर्वतोत्तमः?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form उरसा used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Yesterday there were many clouds in the sky. Today there is not even one.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the वार्त्तिकम् (under 3-1-35 कास्प्रत्ययादाममन्त्रे लिटि) कास्यनेकाच आम् वक्तव्यो लिटि been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the वृद्धि: substitution in the form ननाद?

बलाबलम् nAs

Today we will look at the form बलाबलम्  nAs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 5.34.25.

किं नु स्याच्चित्तमोहोऽयं भवेद्वातगतिस्त्वियम् । उन्मादजो विकारो वा स्यादयं मृगतृष्णिका ।। ५-३४-२३ ।।
अथवा नायमुन्मादो मोहोऽप्युन्मादलक्षणः । सम्बुध्ये चाहमात्मानमिमं चापि वनौकसम् ।। ५-३४-२४ ।।
इत्येवं बहुधा सीता सम्प्रधार्य बलाबलम् । रक्षसां कामरूपत्वान्मेने तं राक्षसाधिपम् ।। ५-३४-२५ ।।
एतां बुद्धिं तदा कृत्वा सीता सा तनुमध्यमा । न प्रतिव्याजहाराथ वानरं जनकात्मजा ।। ५-३४-२६ ।।

Gita Press translation – “Can this (meeting of mine with a monkey) be a delusion of my mind? Or it may be a delusion caused by my being possessed by a ghost (clothed with an aerial body). Or (again) it may be a malady born of insanity or it may be (only) an optic illusion (23). Or this may not be (a case of) insanity, nor even delusion showing symptoms similar to those of insanity, for I am conscious of my own self as well as of this monkey (24).” Having thus duly considered in many ways the strength of ogres and the weakness of monkeys (who cannot be expected to leap across a vast sea), and (also) considering the fact that the ogres are able to change their form at will, Sītā concluded Hanūmān to be Rāvaṇa (the suzerain ruler of ogres) (25). Having arrived at this conclusion at that time that lady of slender waist, Sītā, Janaka’s daughter, did not speak any more to the monkey (26).

(1) बलं चाबलं चानयो: समाहार: = बलाबलम् – a group (in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) of strength and weakness.
Note: अबलम् itself is a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound, explained as न बलम् = अबलम् – weakness (not strength.)

(2) बल सुँ + अबल सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) बल सुँ + अबल सुँ । As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌, ‘अबल सुँ’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound because ‘अबल’ begins with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’ while ‘बल’ does not. But since ‘बल’ has only two syllables while ‘अबल’ has three syllables, ‘बल सुँ’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.
Note: 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ being a later rule in the अष्टाध्यायी has greater force than the prior rule 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌। Therefore ‘बल सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in this compound.

Note: ‘बल सुँ + अबल सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) बल + अबल । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) बलाबल । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

Since the terms of this द्वन्द्व: compound have opposite meanings and do not denote physical objects, it is optionally singular in number and hence expresses either a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) or इतरेतरयोग: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is evident) as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-13 विप्रतिषिद्धं चानधिकरणवाचि – A द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms have opposite meanings and do not denote physical objects is optionally singular in number and hence expresses either a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) or इतरेतरयोग: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is evident.).

In the present example, the compound is singular in number and hence expresses a समाहार:।

See questions 1 and 2.

And as per 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌ it is neuter in gender. The compound declines like वन-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(6) बलाबल + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(7) बलाबल + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. Note: 7-1-24 is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) बलाबलम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. What would be the final form in this example if the compound were to express इतरेतरयोग:?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-4-13 विप्रतिषिद्धं चानधिकरणवाचि (used in step 5) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – वैकल्पिक: समाहारद्वन्द्व: ‘चार्थे द्वन्द्वः’ इति सूत्रेण प्राप्त: स विरुद्धार्थानां यदि भवति तर्हि अद्रव्यवाचिनामेवेति नियमार्थमिदम्। तेन द्रव्यवाचिनामितरेतरयोग एव। शीतोष्णे उदके स्त:। Please explain.

3. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – विप्रतिषिद्धं किम्? नन्दकपाञ्चजन्यौ। इह पाक्षिक: समाहारद्वन्द्वो भवत्येव। Please explain.

4. What is the विग्रह: of the compound तनुमध्यमा as used in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a fifth case affix in the form कामरूपत्वात् used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should engage in war only after having duly considered the strength and weakness of the enemy.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the letter ‘अ’ in the form स्यात्?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि been used in the verses?

पाणिपादम् nAs

Today we will look at the form पाणिपादम्  nAs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 6.48.13.

समग्रयवमच्छिद्रं पाणिपादं च वर्णवत् । मन्दस्मितेत्येव च मां कन्यालाक्षणिका विदुः ।। ६-४८-१३ ।।
अाधिराज्येऽभिषेको मे ब्राह्मणैः पतिना सह । कृतान्तकुशलैरुक्तं तत्सर्वं वितथीकृतम् ।। ६-४८-१४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Those capable of interpreting the bodily marks of maidens declared my hands and feet to be rosy, devoid of space between the fingers and toes and with the mark of a barleycorn fully manifest on them and (also) spoke of me as distinguished by a gentle smile (which are all auspicious marks) (13). It was predicted by Brāhmaṇas well-versed in the conclusion of astrology that I should be consecrated along with my husband on the imperial throne. All that has (however) been falsified (14).

(1) पाणी च पादौ चैषां समाहार: = पाणिपादम् – (A group of) (two) hands and (two) feet.

(2) पाणि औ + पाद औ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) पाणि औ + पाद औ । ‘पाणि’ has the designation ‘घि’ (as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि) while ‘पाद’ does not. Hence ‘पाणि औ’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the designation ‘घि’ is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘पाणि औ + पाद औ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) पाणि + पाद । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= पाणिपाद ।

Since the terms of this द्वन्द्व: compound denote the limbs of a living being, it is always singular in number and hence always expresses a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-2 द्वन्द्वश्च प्राणितूर्यसेनाङ्गानाम्‌ – A द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms denote either the limbs of a living being or players of musical instruments in a band or parts of an army is always singular in number and hence always expresses a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) and not इतरेतरयोग: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is evident.)

And as per 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌ it is neuter in gender. The compound declines like वन-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(5) पाणिपाद + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(6) पाणिपाद + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. Note: 7-1-24 is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) पाणिपादम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-4-2 द्वन्द्वश्च प्राणितूर्यसेनाङ्गानाम्‌ (used in step 4) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – समाहारस्यैकत्वादेकत्वे सिद्धे नियमार्थं प्रकरणम्‌। प्राण्यङ्गादीनां समाहार एव यथा स्यात्। Please explain.

2. Commenting on the same सूत्रम् the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – द्विगुरेकवचनमित्यत एकवचनं वर्तते। Please explain.

3. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) नञोऽस्त्यर्थानां वाच्यो वा चोत्तरपदलोपः been used in the verses?

4. What type of compound is मन्दस्मिता as used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. सुप्सुपा

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form पतिना used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Enter the temple only after washing (your) hands and feet.”

Easy questions:

1. The form पतिना used in the verses is आर्ष: (grammatically irregular.) What is the grammatically correct form?

2. What is the alternate form for विदुः?

ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विजान् mAp

Today we will look at the form ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विजान् mAp from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 3.69.31.

अग्निज्वालानिकाशेन ललाटस्थेन दीप्यता । महापक्ष्मेण पिङ्गेन विपुलेनायतेन च ।। ३-६९-२९ ।।
एकेनोरसि घोरेण नयनेन सुदर्शिना । महादंष्ट्रोपपन्नं तं लेलिहानं महामुखम् ।। ३-६९-३० ।।
भक्षयन्तं महाघोरानृक्षसिंहमृगद्विजान् । घोरौ भुजौ विकुर्वाणमुभौ योजनमायतौ ।। ३-६९-३१ ।।
कराभ्यां विविधान्गृह्य ऋक्षान्पक्षिगणान्मृगान् । आकर्षन्तं विकर्षन्तमनेकान्मृगयूथपान् ।। ३-६९-३२ ।।

Gita Press translation – Endowed with a single fearful reddish yet brown fiery eye, both long and wide and bright as a flame, located in a forehead in (the center of) the chest, (nay) furnished with long lashes and possessing a good vision, the ogre was licking again and again his enormous mouth set with big teeth (29-30). The ogre devoured the fiercest bears and lions as well as other beasts and birds. Stretching out both his frightful arms, each eight miles long, and seizing with his hands bears and other beasts and flocks of birds of various kinds, he drew towards himself many leaders of herds of deer and cast aside others (31-32).

(1) ऋक्षाश्च सिंहाश्च मृगाश्च द्विजाश्च = ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विजा: – bears and lions and (other) beasts and birds

(2) ऋक्ष जस् + सिंह जस् + मृग जस् + द्विज जस् । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) ऋक्ष जस् + सिंह जस् + मृग जस् + द्विज जस् । By 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term which begins with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’ is placed in the prior position. ‘ ऋक्ष’ begins with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’। Hence as per 2-2-33, ‘ ऋक्ष जस्’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound (and the remaining terms of the compound may be placed in any order.)

Note: ‘ऋक्ष जस् + सिंह जस् + मृग जस् + द्विज जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) ऋक्ष + सिंह + मृग + द्विज । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विज ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विज’ is masculine since the latter member ‘द्विज’ of the compound is used here in the masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्।

(5) ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विज + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(6) ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विज + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘शस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(7) ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विजास् । By 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः – When a अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(8) ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विजान् । By 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि – In the masculine gender, when the letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘शस्’ follows a vowel which has been elongated by 6-1-102 then it is replaced by the letter ‘न्’।

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌ (used in step 3) the काशिका says – तपरकरणं किम्? अश्वावृषौ, वृषाश्व इति वा। Please explain.

2. In which word(s) in the verses has the कृत् affix ‘क’ been used?

3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ल्युट् in the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नयन’ (used in the form नयनेन (तृतीया-एकवचनम्) in the verses)? Hint: The विग्रह: is नीयतेऽनेन।

4. The form महापक्ष्मेण used in the verses is a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (irregular grammatical usage.) What is the grammatically correct form?

5. Is the use of the affix ‘ल्यप्’ in the form गृह्य justified?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“There was a fierce battle between Indra and Vṛtra.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उग्र’ for ‘fierce.’ Construct a द्वन्द्व: compound for ‘Indra and Vṛtra’ = इन्द्रश्च वृत्रश्च।

Easy questions:

1. In the verses can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् which is used only in the dual (no singular or plural)?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-102 सुपि च been used in the verses?

धर्मार्थौ mNd

Today we will look at the form धर्मार्थौ  mNd from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 6.64.8.

यांस्तु धर्मार्थकामांस्त्वं ब्रवीषि पृथगाश्रयान् । अनुबोद्‍धुं स्वभावेन न हि लक्षणमस्ति तान् ।। ६-६४-६ ।।
कर्म चैव हि सर्वेषां कारणानां प्रयोजनम् । श्रेयः पापीयसां चात्र फलं भवति कर्मणाम् ।। ६-६४-७ ।।
निःश्रेयसफलावेव धर्मार्थावितरावपि । अधर्मानर्थयोः प्राप्तिः फलं च प्रात्यवायिकम् ।। ६-६४-८ ।।
ऐहलौकिकपारक्यं कर्म पुम्भिर्निषेव्यते । कर्माण्यपि तु कल्प्यानि लभते काममास्थितः ।। ६-६४-९ ।।

Gita Press translation – The capacity to know virtue, worldly gain and sensuous pleasure in their true character does not exist in you in that you speak of them as incompatible (lit., existing in different individuals) (6). “Again, action is the root of all the (three) means to happiness (viz., virtue, worldly gain and sensuous pleasure); moreover the fruit of actions, (both) noble and exceedingly sinful, in this world accrues to the same agent (7). Virtue (in the shape of muttering of prayers, meditation etc., which have no dependence on wealth) and the performance of sacrifices and practice of charity etc. (for the accomplishment of which wealth is indispensable), though conducive to final beatitude alone ( if pursued in a disinterested spirit), also lead (if pursued with some interested motive) to goals other than final beatitude (such as heavenly bliss and worldly prosperity). From the omission of an obligatory virtue follow unrighteousness and evil, and (along with them) the bitter fruit of the offense of omission (8). The fruit of (past) actions (good or bad) is reaped by living beings in this as well as in the other world. He (however) who remains sedulously devoted to actions with a view to attaining sensuous pleasure (perceptibly) enjoys blessings even in this life (and not hereafter as in the case of virtue and material gain) (9).

(1) धर्मश्चार्थश्च = धर्मार्थौ or अर्थधर्मौ – virtue and wealth

(2) धर्म सुँ + अर्थ सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌, ‘अर्थ सुँ’ should necessarily be placed in the prior position in the compound because ‘अर्थ’ begins with a vowel and ends with the letter ‘अ’।

(4) धर्म सुँ + अर्थ सुँ or अर्थ सुँ + धर्म सुँ । By 2-2-31 राजदन्तादिषु परम्‌ – In the list of compounds ‘राजदन्त’ etc the term which ought to be placed in the prior position in the compound is actually placed in the latter position. Since the compound धर्मार्थौ as well as अर्थधर्मौ is listed in the राजदन्तादि-गण: it can be concluded that ‘धर्म सुँ’ may be placed in the final or prior position in the compound. Note: ‘धर्म सुँ + अर्थ सुँ’ as well as ‘अर्थ सुँ + धर्म सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(5) धर्म + अर्थ or अर्थ + धर्म । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(6) धर्मार्थ or अर्थधर्म । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धर्मार्थ’ or ‘अर्थधर्म’ is masculine since the final member ‘अर्थ’ (of the compound ‘धर्मार्थ’) as well as ‘धर्म’ (of the compound ‘अर्थधर्म’) is masculine. (‘धर्म’ is rarely used in the neuter.) This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members. It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-द्विवचनम् ।

(7) धर्मार्थ + औ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(8) धर्मार्थौ । By 6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि । Note: 6-1-104 नादिचि stops 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः।

Questions:

1. What type of compound is निःश्रेयसफलौ used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. प्रादि-तत्पुरुष:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
vi. कर्मधारय:

2. Can you spot the augment नुँट् in a compound used in the verses?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रयोजन’ (used in the form प्रयोजनम् (प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-3-94 स्त्रियां क्तिन् been used in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘इ’ in the form आस्थितः?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Between virtue and wealth, virtue is more important.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गरीयस्’ (which ends in the affix ‘इयसुँन्’) for ‘more important.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment ‘ईट्’ in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ए’ in the form लभते?

रामलक्ष्मणौ mNd

Today we will look at the form रामलक्ष्मणौ  mNd from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 1.31.1.

अथ तां रजनीं तत्र कृतार्थौ रामलक्ष्मणौ । ऊषतुर्मुदितौ वीरौ प्रहृष्टेनान्तरात्मना ।। १-३१-१ ।।
प्रभातायां तु शर्वर्यां कृतपौर्वाह्णिकक्रियौ । विश्वामित्रमृषींश्चान्यान्सहितावभिजग्मतुः ।। १-३१-२ ।।
अभिवाद्य मुनिश्रेष्ठं ज्वलन्तमिव पावकम् । ऊचतुः परमोदारं वाक्यं मधुरभाषिणौ ।। १-३१-३ ।।
इमौ स्म मुनिशार्दूल किङ्करौ समुपागतौ । आज्ञापय मुनिश्रेष्ठ शासनं करवाव किम् ।। १-३१-४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Delighted on having accomplished their purpose (in the shape of protecting the sacrifice of Viśwāmitra), the two heroes Śrī Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa, then spent that night with a most cheerful mind in the sacrificial hall (of Viśwāmitra at Siddhāśrama itself) (1). Having finished their morning duties at the close of night, the two brothers for their part sought together Viśwāmitra and the other Ṛṣis (2). Greeting Viśwāmitra (the foremost of the sages), who shone as a blazing fire, the two sweet-tongued brothers made the following highly noble submission :- (3) “Here are we, your servants, present before you, O tiger among hermits! Tell us, O jewel among sages, what injunction of yours should we carry out.” (4)

(1) रामश्च लक्ष्मणश्च = रामलक्ष्मणौ – Śrī Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa

(2) राम सुँ + लक्ष्मण सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) राम सुँ + लक्ष्मण सुँ । As per 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position. Since ‘राम’ has two syllables while ‘लक्ष्मण’ has three, ‘राम सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound.
Note: ‘राम सुँ + लक्ष्मण सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) राम + लक्ष्मण । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= रामलक्ष्मण ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘रामलक्ष्मण’ is masculine since the final member ‘लक्ष्मण’ of the compound is masculine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members. It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-द्विवचनम् ।

(5) रामलक्ष्मण + औ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्।

(6) रामलक्ष्मणौ । By 6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि । Note: 6-1-104 नादिचि stops 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः।

Questions:

1. Can you spot a द्वन्द्व: compound in verse 27 of Chapter Five of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः (used in step 2) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – समुच्चयान्वाचयेतरेतरयोगसमाहाराश्चार्थाः । तत्र ‘ईश्वरं गुरुं च भजस्व’ इति परस्परनिरपेक्षस्यानेकस्यैकस्मिन्नन्वयः समुच्चयः । ‘भिक्षामट गां चानय’ इत्यन्यतरस्यानुषङ्गिकत्वेनान्वयोऽन्वाचयः । अनयोरसामर्थ्यात्समासो न । Please explain.

3. Which सूत्रम् justifies the formation of the compound ‘मुनिशार्दूल’ used in the verses?

4. What type of compound is कृतार्थौ (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कृतार्थ’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-द्विवचनम्) as used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:

5. In which word in the verses has the affix ‘णिनिँ’ been used?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“(Śrī) Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa protected the sacrificial rite of the sage Viśwāmitra.” Use the masculine noun ‘यज्ञ’ for ‘sacrificial rite.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ष्’ in the form ऊषतु:?

2. Can you spot the augment ‘आट्’ in the verses?

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