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वैदेह्या fIs

Today we will look at the form वैदेह्या fIs from रघुवंशम् verse 12-20.

रामोऽपि सह वैदेह्या वने वन्येन वर्तयन् ।
चचार सानुजः शान्तो वृद्धेक्ष्वाकुव्रतं युवा ॥ 12-20 ॥

टीका
सानुजः शान्तः रामोऽपि वैदेह्या सह वने वन्येन वनभवेन कन्दमूलादिना वर्तयन् वृत्तिं कुर्वञ्जीवन् वृद्धेक्ष्वाकूणां व्रतं वनवासात्मकं [वृद्धेक्ष्वाकुव्रतं ] युवा यौवनस्थ एव चचार ।।

Translation – Rāma, too with Sītā, sustaining there in the forest on forest-food, took up with his younger brother, with a mind becalmed even while in youth, the vows that bind the Ikṣvākus in their old age (20).

The above verse has been discussed in detail in the Thursday class on September 8, 2011 –  Video

The above verses have previously appeared in the following post – वैदेह्या-fis

विदेहा जनपदः, विदेहो नाम क्षत्रियः। विदेहस्यापत्यम् (स्त्री) = वैदेही – a (female) descendant of a kṣatriya king named Videha, which is also the name of his territory. It refers to Sītā, daughter of Videha (king Janaka).
In the verses the विवक्षा is तृतीया-एकवचनम्। Hence the form is वैदेह्या।

(1) विदेह ङस् + अञ् । By 4-1-168 जनपदशब्दात्‌ क्षत्रियादञ् – To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant) the तद्धित: affix ‘अञ्’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् which ends in a sixth case affix and has as its base a word that denotes the name of a kṣatriya king, as well as the name of his country/territory.
As per the सूत्रम् 4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed and which ends in a sixth case affix the तद्धिता: affixes already prescribed (by the prior rules 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् etc), as well as those that are going to be prescribed (by the following rules 4-1-95 अत इञ् etc), may be optionally applied to denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant.)
Note: The affix ‘अञ्’ over-rules the default affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्) as well as the affix ‘इञ्’ (prescribed by 4-1-95 अत इञ्)।

(2) विदेह ङस् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: ‘विदेह ङस् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) विदेह + अ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘अञ्’ is a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step.

(4) वैदेह + अ । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘वैदेह’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(5) वैदेह् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= वैदेह ।

Now we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वैदेही’ as follows –

(6) वैदेह + ङीप् । By 4-1-15 टिड्ढाणञ्द्वयसज्दघ्नञ्मात्रच्तयप्ठक्ठञ्कञ्क्वरपः – To denote the feminine gender, the affix ङीप् is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् which satisfies the following conditions:
(i) the प्रातिपदिकम् ends in the letter ‘अ’ and
(ii) the प्रातिपदिकम् ends in a non-secondary affix which is either टित् (has the letter ‘ट्’ as a इत्) or is one of the following – ‘ढ’, ‘अण्’, ‘अञ्’, ‘द्वयसच्’, ‘दघ्नच्’, ‘मात्रच्’, ‘तयप्’, ‘ठक्’, ‘ठञ्’, ‘कञ्’ or ‘क्वरप्’।

(7) वैदेह + ई । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘वैदेह’ has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(8) वैदेह् + ई । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= वैदेही । The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वैदेही’ declines like नदी-शब्दः।

Similarly, we can derive the following –
१) पञ्चाला जनपदः, पञ्चालो नाम क्षत्रियः। पञ्चालस्यापत्यम् (स्त्री) = पाञ्चाली – a (female) descendant of a kṣatriya king named Pañcāla, which is also the name of his territory. It generally refers to Draupadī.

वैनतेयात् m-Ab-s

Today we will look at the form वैनतेयात् m-Ab-s from रघुवंशम् 16.88.

इत्थं नागस्त्रिभुवनगुरोरौरसं मैथिलेयं लब्ध्वा बन्धुं तमपि च कुशः पञ्चमं तक्षकस्य ।
एकः शङ्कां पितृवधरिपोरत्यजद्वैनतेयाच्छान्तव्यालामवनिमपरः पौरकान्तः शशास ॥ 16-88॥

टीका –
इत्थं नागः कुमुदः । त्रिभुवनगुरोः त्रयाणां भुवनानां समाहारस्त्रिभुवनम् । ‘2-1-51 तद्धितार्थ-‘ इत्यादिना तत्पुरुषः । अदन्तद्विगुत्वेऽपि पात्राद्यदन्ततत्वान्नपुंसकत्वम्। ‘पात्राद्यदन्तैरेकार्थो द्विगुर्लक्ष्यानुसारतः’ इत्यमरः । तस्य गुरू रामः । तस्य औरसं धर्मपत्नीजं पुत्रम् । ‘औरसो धर्मपत्नीजः’ इति याज्ञवल्क्यः । मैथिलेयं कुशं बन्धुं लब्ध्वाकुशोऽपि च तक्षकस्य पञ्चमं पुत्रं तं कुमुदं बन्धुं लब्ध्वा एकः तयोरन्यतरः कुमुदः [पितृवधरिपोः] पितृवधेन रिपोः वैनतेयात् गरुडात् । गुरुणा वैष्णवांशेन कुशेन त्याजितक्रौर्यादिति भावः । शङ्कां भयम् अत्यजत्अपरः कुशः शान्तव्यालां कुमुदाज्ञया वीतसर्पभयाम् अवनिम् अत एव पौरकान्तः पौरप्रियः सन् शशास ।। ८८ ।।

Translation – Thus the serpent (Kumuda), having obtained Kuśa – a legitimate son of Rāma (the master of (the collection of) the three worlds) and Sītā (the princess of Mithilā) – as a relative, abandoned fear from the enemy Garuḍa (son of Vinatā) who had slain his father. And in turn Kuśa, loved by his subjects, having obtained Kumuda – the fifth son of Takṣaka – as a relative , ruled the earth freed from the fear of serpents (88).

The above verses have previously appeared in the following post – त्रिभुवनगुरोः mGs

विनताया अपत्यम् (पुमान्) = वैनतेयः (गरुडः) – a (male) descendant of Vinatā. It refers to Garuḍa (son of Vinatā)
In the verses the विवक्षा is पञ्चमी-एकवचनम्। Hence the form is वैनतेयात्।

(1) विनता ङस् + ढक् । By 4-1-120 स्त्रीभ्यो ढक् – To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendent), the तद्धित: affix ‘ढक्’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a sixth case affix and has a base ending in a feminine affix (prescribed in the अधिकारः of 4-1-3 स्त्रियाम्)।
Note: As per the प्ररिभाषा ’प्रत्ययग्रहणे तदन्तग्रहणम्’ – The term ‘स्त्रीभ्यः’ should be understood as ’स्त्रीप्रत्ययान्तेभ्यः’, that is terms ending in the feminine affixes like टाप्, ङीप् etc.
Note: The सूत्रम् 4-1-120 स्त्रीभ्यो ढक् applies in the present example, since the प्रातिपदिकम् ’विनता’ ends in the feminine affix ‘टाप्’।
As per the सूत्रम् 4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed and which ends in a sixth case affix the तद्धिता: affixes already prescribed (by the prior rules 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् etc), as well as those that are going to be prescribed (by the following rules 4-1-95 अत इञ् etc), may be optionally applied to denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant.)

(2) विनता ङस् + ढ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: The fact that the सूत्रम् 7-1-2 आयनेयीनीयियः फढखछघां प्रत्ययादीनाम्‌ (used in step 4) specifically prescribes the substitution ‘एय्’ in place of the letter ‘ढ्’ occurring in the beginning of an affix, obviously implies that the letter ‘ढ्’ in the beginning of an affix (such as ढक्) does not get the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-7 चुटू‌। Because, otherwise the letter ‘ढ्’ would be elided by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

Note: ‘विनता ङस् + ढ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) विनता + ढ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) विनता + एय् अ । By 7-1-2 आयनेयीनीयियः फढखछघां प्रत्ययादीनाम्‌ – The letters ‘फ्’, ‘ढ्’, ‘ख्’, ‘छ्’ and ‘घ्’ – when they occur at the beginning of a प्रत्यय: (affix) – are replaced respectively by ‘आयन्’, ‘एय्’, ‘ईन्’, ‘ईय्’ and ‘इय्’।
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 1-3-10 यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम्, the substitutions take place respectively.

Note: The affix ढक् is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) and this allows 7-2-118 to apply in the next step.

(5) वैनता + एय । By 7-2-118 किति च – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘वैनता’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(6) वैनत् + एय । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= वैनतेय । The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वैनतेय’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

(7) वैनतेय + ङसिँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(8) वैनतेय + आत् । By 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः, 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य। Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘त्’ of ‘आत्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(9) वैनतेयात् । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

We can similarly derive the following –
१) कुन्त्या अपत्यम् (पुमान्) = कौन्तेयः (अर्जुनः) – a (male) descendant of Kuntī. It generally refers to Arjuna (son of Kuntī).
२) सरमाया अपत्यम् (पुमान्) = सारमेयः – a (male) descendant of Saramā. Saramā is the name of the female dog belonging to the gods. Hence Sārameya refers to a dog.
३) द्रौपद्या अपत्यम् (पुमान्) = द्रौपदेयः – a (male) descendant of Draupadī.

कौशिकात् m-Ab-s

Today we will look at the form कौशिकात् m-Ab-s from रघुवंशम् verse 11-14.

तौ सुकेतुसुतया खिलीकृते कौशिकाद्विदितशापया पथि ।
निन्यतुः स्थलनिवेशिताटनी लीलयैव धनुषी अधिज्यताम् ॥ 11-14॥

टीका – अत्र रामायणवचनम् – ‘अगस्त्यः परमक्रुद्धस्ताडकामभिशप्तवान् । पुरुषादी महायक्षी विकृता विकृतानना । इदं रूपमपाहाय दारुणं रूपमस्तु ते ॥’ इति । तदेतदाह – विदितशापयेति । कौशिकात् आख्यातुः । ‘1-4-29 आख्यातोपयोगे’ इत्यपादानात्पञ्चमी । विदितशापया सुकेतुसुतया ताडकया खिलीकृते पथि । ‘खिलमप्रहतं स्थानम्’ इति हलायुधः । तौ रामलक्ष्मणौ [ स्थलनिवेशिताटनी ] स्थले निवेशिते अटनी धनु:कोटी याभ्यां तौ तथोक्तौ । ‘कोटिरस्याटनिः’ (2-8-84) इत्यमरः । लीलयैव धनुषी । अधिकृते ज्ये मौर्व्यौ ययोस्ते अधिज्ये । ‘ज्या मौर्वीमातृभूमिषु’ इति विश्वः । तयोर्भावस्तत्ताम् अधिज्यतां निन्यतुः नीतवन्तौ । नयतिर्द्विकर्मकः ॥

Translation – And on the way laid waste by Suketu’s daughter, of whose curse Kauśika had spoken to them, they playfully strung their bows, having rested their bow-ends on the grounds (14).

The above verses have previously appeared in the following post – अधिज्यताम् fAs

Note: The above verse has been discussed in detail in the Thursday class on April 8th 2010. Please refer to the following link for the class recording – Video

कुशिकस्य गोत्रापत्यम् (पुमान्) = कौशिकः – a (male) descendant (but not immediate) of (the sage) Kuśika. It refers to sage Viśwāmitra.
In the verses the विवक्षा is पञ्चमी-एकवचनम्। Hence the form is कौशिकात्।

(1) कुशिक ङस् + अञ् । By 4-1-104 अनृष्यानन्तर्ये बिदादिभ्योऽञ् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, and which ends in a sixth case affix and has ‘बिद’ etc (listed in the बिदादि-गण:) as its base the तद्धित: affix ‘अञ्’ may be applied optionally to denote the sense of
i) गोत्रापत्यम् (ref: 4-1-162 अपत्यं पौत्रप्रभृति गोत्रम्‌) of a sage
ii) अनन्तरापत्यम् (immediate descendant) of one who is not a sage.
As per the सूत्रम् 4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed and which ends in a sixth case affix the तद्धिता: affixes already prescribed (by the prior rules 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् etc), as well as those that are going to be prescribed (by the following rules 4-1-95 अत इञ् etc), may be optionally applied to denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant.)
As per 4-1-162 अपत्यं पौत्रप्रभृति गोत्रम्‌ – The designation ‘गोत्र’ is assigned to a grandson/granddaughter onward when the intention is to express him/her as a descendant (अपत्यम्)।
Note: Since ‘कुशिक’ is the name of a sage, the affix ‘अञ्’ in the present example denotes the sense of गोत्रापत्यम् (and not अनन्तरापत्यम्।)

(2) कुशिक ङस् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘कुशिक ङस् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) कुशिक + अ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘अञ्’ is a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step.

(4) कौशिक + अ । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘कौशिक’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(5) कौशिक् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= कौशिक । The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कौशिक’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

(6) कौशिक + ङसिँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌
As per the सूत्रम् 1-4-29 आख्यातोपयोगे – The कारकम् (participant in the action) which denotes a teacher/instructor from whom a student formally (observing the proper rules of conduct) receives knowledge is designated as अपादानम्। By 2-3-28 अपादाने पञ्चमी – A fifth case affix (‘ङसिँ’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used to denote the अपादानम् (that from which detachment/ablation takes place) provided it has not been expressed otherwise.

(7) कौशिक + आत् । By 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः, 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य। Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘त्’ of ‘आत्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) कौशिकात् । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

We can similarly derive the following –
१) भरद्वाजस्य गोत्रापत्यम् (पुमान्) = भारद्वाजः – a (male) descendant (but not immediate) of (the sage) Bharadwāja. It refers to Droṇācārya.
२) कश्यपस्य गोत्रापत्यम् (पुमान्) = काश्यपः – a (male) descendant (but not immediate) of (the sage) Kaśyapa.
३) शुनकस्य गोत्रापत्यम् (पुमान्) = शौनकः – a (male) descendant (but not immediate) of (the sage) Śunaka.

असह्यानि nNp

Today we will look at the form असह्यानि  nNp from रघुवंशम् verse 13-27.

एतद्गिरेर्माल्यवतः पुरस्तादाविर्भवत्यम्बरलेखि शृङ्गम् ।
नवं पयो यत्र घनैर्मया च त्वद्विप्रयोगाश्रु समं विसृष्टम् ॥ 13-26॥
गन्धश्च धाराहतपल्वलानां कादम्बमर्धोद्गतकेसरं च ।
स्निग्धाश्च केकाः शिखिनां बभूवुर्यस्मिन्नसह्यानि विना त्वया मे ॥ 13-27 ।।

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
माल्यवतो नाम गिरेरम्बरलेख्यभ्रङ्कषं शृङ्गमेतत्पुरस्तादग्र आविर्भवतियत्र शृङ्गे घनैर्मेघैर्नवं पयो मया त्वद्विप्रयोगेण यदश्रु तच्च समं युगपद्विसृष्टम् । मेघदर्शनाद्वर्षतुल्यमश्रु विमुक्तमिति भावः ।। २६ ।। यस्मिञ्छृङ्गे धाराभिर्वर्षधाराभिर्हतानां पल्वलानां गन्धश्चअर्धोद्गतकेसरं कादम्बं नीपकुसुमं स्निग्धा मधुराः शिखिनां बर्हिणाम् । ‘शिखिनौ वह्निबर्हिणौ’ इत्यमरः । केकाश्चत्वया विना मेऽसह्यानि बभूवुः । ‘नपुंसकमनपुंसकेन -‘ इति नपुंसकैकशेषः ।। २७ ।।

Translation – ‘Here comes to view in front, this sky-scraping peak of the Mālyavān mountain, where was let fall the first shower of water by the clouds, and tears due to your separation by me also, simultaneously; and where, the fragrant smell of the puddles struck by the showers (of rain), and the Kādamba flower with the filaments half opened, and the pleasant notes of the peacocks became unbearable to me, without you (26-27).

(1) The masculine form असह्य: (गन्धः) and the neuter form असह्यम् (कादम्बम्) and the feminine form असह्या: (केकाः) have been referred to collectively by the neuter form असह्यानि as per the सूत्रम् 1-2-69 नपुंसकमनपुंसकेनैकवच्चास्यान्यतरस्याम् – Only the neuter form remains and is optionally treated as singular when used with non-neuter forms provided that the difference between the forms is only due to gender.
Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of ‘तल्लक्षणश्चेदेव विशेषः’ comes down from the सूत्रम् 1-2-65 वृद्धो यूना तल्लक्षणश्चेदेव विशेषः in to this सूत्रम् 1-2-69.

See question 1.

The विवक्षा is नपुंसकलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् ।

(2) असह्य + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(3) असह्य + शि ।By 7-1-20 जश्शसोः शिः – The affixes ‘जस्’ and ‘शस्’ get ‘शि’ as the replacement when they follow a neuter अङ्गम्। ‘शि’ gets the सर्वनामस्थानसंज्ञा by 1-1-42 शि सर्वनामस्थानम्। This allows 7-1-72 to apply below.

(4) असह्य + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) असह्य नुँम् + इ । By 7-1-72 नपुंसकस्य झलचः – When a सर्वनामस्थानम् affix follows, the neuter bases that end in a झल् letter or an अच् (vowel) get the नुँम् augment. As per 1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः, the ‘नुँम्’ augment is placed after the last अच् (the letter ‘अ’ after the letter ‘य्’) in ‘असह्य’।

(6) असह्यन् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) असह्यान् + इ । By 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ – The penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् (base) ending in the letter ‘न्’ gets elongated if it is followed by an affix having the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्, and not the vocative singular.

= असह्यानि ।

Questions:

1. What would be the alternate final form in this example?

2. Where does the सूत्रम् 1-2-69 नपुंसकमनपुंसकेनैकवच्चास्यान्यतरस्याम् (used in step 1) find application in the last five verses of Chapter Three of the गीता?

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-2-69 नपुंसकमनपुंसकेनैकवच्चास्यान्यतरस्याम् (used in step 1) the काशिका says – ‘अनपुंसकेन’ इति किम्? शुक्लं च शुक्लं च शुक्लं च शुक्लानि। एकवच्चेति न भवति। Please explain.

4. Can you spot the कृत् affix ‘णिनिँ’ in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Heaven, earth and the intermediate region (between heaven and earth) – all these/this are/is pervaded by the Lord.” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अन्तरिक्ष’ for ‘the intermediate region (between heaven and earth.)’

Advanced question:

1. Derive the उपपद-तत्पुरुष: compound ‘अभ्रङ्कष’ (used in the form अभ्रङ्कषम् (नपुंसकलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) in the commentary.) You will need to use the following सूत्रम् (which we have not studied so far) – 3-2-42 सर्वकूलाभ्रकरीषेषु कषः – The affix ‘खच्’ may be used after the verbal root √कष् (कषँ हिंसार्थः १.७८१) when in composition with a कर्म-पदम् (a पदम् which denotes the object of the action) which is either ‘सर्व’ or ‘कूल’ or ‘अभ्र‘ or ‘करीष’।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-3-32 ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण्नित्यम् been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment वुक् in the form बभूवु:?

पवनाग्निसमागमः mNs

Today we will look at the form पवनाग्निसमागमः  mNs from रघुवंशम् verse 8-4.

स बभूव दुरासदः परैर्गुरुणाऽथर्वविदा कृतक्रियः ।
पवनाग्निसमागमो ह्ययं सहितं ब्रह्म यदस्त्रतेजसा ॥ ८-४ ॥

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
इति अथर्वविदाऽथर्ववेदाभिज्ञेन गुरुणा वसिष्ठेन कृतक्रियः । अथर्वोक्तविधिना कृताभिषेकसंस्कार इत्यर्थ: । सोऽजः परैः शत्रुभिर्दुरासदो दुर्धर्षो बभूव । तथा हि – अस्त्रतेजसा क्षत्रतेजसा सहितं युक्तं यद्ब्रह्म ब्रह्मतेजोऽयं पवनाग्निसमागमो हि तत्कल्प इत्यर्थः । ‘पवनाग्नि’ इत्यत्र पूर्वनिपातशास्त्रस्यानित्यत्वात् ‘2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि’ इति नाग्निशब्दस्य पूर्वनिपातः । तथा च काशिकायाम् – ‘अयमेकस्तु लक्षणहेत्वोरिति निर्देशः पूर्वनिपातव्यभिचारचिह्नम्’ इति । क्षात्रेणैवायं दुर्धर्षः किमयं पुनर्वसिष्ठमन्त्रप्रभावे सतीत्यर्थः । अत्र मनुः – ‘नाक्षत्रं ब्रह्म भवति क्षत्रं नाब्रह्म वर्धते । ब्रह्म क्षत्रं च संपृक्तमिह चामुत्र च वर्धते ।।’ इति ।। ४ ।।

Translation – Thus when his preceptor, who was deep-learned in Atharva texts, had performed the rites for his installation, he became irresistible to his foes: for like Wind and Fire uniting are sacred lore joined to the glory of weapons (4).

(1) पवनश्चाग्निश्च = पवनाग्नी – Wind and Fire

(2) पवन सुँ + अग्नि सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) पवन सुँ + अग्नि सुँ । ‘अग्नि’ has the designation ‘घि’ (as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि) while ‘पवन’ does not. Hence ‘अग्नि सुँ’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the designation ‘घि’ is placed in the prior position.
Also ‘पवन’ has three syllables while ‘अग्नि’ has two syllables. Therefore ‘अग्नि सुँ’ should be placed in the prior position as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.

(4) The placement of ‘पवन सुँ’ in the prior position is justified using the ज्ञापकम् contained in the सूत्रम् 3-2-126 लक्षणहेत्वोः क्रियायाः। ‘लक्षण’ has three syllables while ‘हेतु’ has two syllables. Also, ‘हेतु’ has the designation ‘घि’ (as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि) while ‘लक्षण’ does not. Therefore as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ as well as 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि, ‘हेतु’ should have been placed in the prior position (in the compound लक्षणहेत्वोः)। But पाणिनि: has placed ‘लक्षण’ in the prior position. This gives us a hint that we may occasionally find violations of the rules which prescribe prior placement in a compound.

Note: ‘पवन सुँ + अग्नि सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(5) पवन + अग्नि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(6) पवनाग्नि । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

Now we form the षष्ठी-समास: – पवनाग्न्योः समागम: = पवनाग्निसमागम: ।

(6) पवनाग्नि ओस् + समागम सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(7) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘पवनाग्नि ओस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘पवनाग्नि ओस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘पवनाग्नि ओस् + समागम सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(8) पवनाग्नि + समागम । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= पवनाग्निसमागम ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पवनाग्निसमागम’ is masculine since the latter member ‘समागम’ of the compound is masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(9) पवनाग्निसमागम + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(10) पवनाग्निसमागम + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(11) पवनाग्निसमागम: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. What type of compound is कृतक्रियः used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. षष्ठीतत्पुरुष:
iii. कर्मधारय:
iv. बहुव्रीहि:

2. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the form दुरासदः used in the verse?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने been used in the verse?

4. Can you spot the affix ‘क्विँप्’ in the verse?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a seventh case affix in the words वसिष्ठमन्त्रप्रभावे and सति in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should avoid onion and garlic.” Construct a द्वन्द्व: compound for ‘onion and garlic’ = पलाण्डुं च लशुनं च। Use the verbal root √वृज् (वृजीँ वर्जने १०. ३४४) for ‘to avoid.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment ‘वुक्’ in the form बभूव?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-79 टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे been used in the commentary?

अग्निसाक्षिकः mNs

Today we will look at the form अग्निसाक्षिकः  mNs from रघुवंशम् verse 11-48.

मैथिलः सपदि सत्यसंगरो राघवाय तनयामयोनिजाम् ।
संनिधौ द्‍युतिमतस्तपोनिधेरग्निसाक्षिक इवातिसृष्टवान् ॥ 11-48॥

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
सत्यसङ्गरः सत्यप्रतिज्ञ: । ‘अथ प्रतिज्ञाजिसंविदापत्सु सङ्गरः’ इत्यमरः । मैथिलो राघवायायोनिजां तनयां द्‍युतिमतस्तेजस्विनस्तपोनिधेः कौशिकस्य संनिधौ । अग्निः साक्षी यस्य सोऽग्निसाक्षिकः । ‘शेषाद्विभाषा’ इति कप्प्रत्ययः । स इवसपद्यतिसृष्टवान्दत्तवान् ।। ४८ ।।

Translation – The king of Mithilā, true to [his] promise, instantly gave away to Rāma [his] daughter – not born from the womb – in the presence of the lustrous ascetic, as though he had fire as the witness [for the offering].

(1) अग्निः साक्षी यस्य सः = अग्निशाक्षिकः (मैथिलः) – one (King Janaka) who had fire as the witness.

(2) अग्नि सुँ + साक्षिन् सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) As per the सूत्रम् 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘अग्नि सुँ’ as well as ‘साक्षिन् सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.

‘अग्नि सुँ’ – which is qualifying ‘साक्षिन् सुँ’ – is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘अग्नि सुँ + साक्षिन् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) अग्नि + साक्षिन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= अग्निसाक्षिन् ।

(5) अग्निसाक्षिन् कप् । By 5-4-154 शेषाद्विभाषा – Following a बहुव्रीहि: compound for which no other समासान्त: operation has been prescribed and which is composed using a rule in the अधिकार: of शेष: (which runs from 2-2-23 शेषो बहुव्रीहिः to 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) the तद्धित: affix कप्‌ is optionally prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.

See question 3.

(6) अग्निसाक्षिन् क । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
Note: ‘अग्निसाक्षिन्’ gets the designation पदम् here as per 1-4-17 स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(7) अग्निसाक्षिक । By 8-2-7 नलोप: प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example, अग्निसाक्षिकः is qualifying मैथिलः (the king of Mithilā.) Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अग्निसाक्षिक’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(8) अग्निसाक्षिक + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(9) अग्निसाक्षिक + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(10) अग्निसाक्षिक: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 5-4-154 शेषाद्विभाषा (used in step 5) been used in verses 25-30 of Chapter Eighteen of the गीता?

2. Which other (besides अग्निसाक्षिक:) compound used in the verses is a बहुव्रीहि: compound?

3. Commenting on the word शेष: used in the सूत्रम् 5-4-154 शेषाद्विभाषा the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – शेषशब्दोऽर्थद्वयपर:। Please explain.

4. Can you spot the negation particle नञ् in the verses?

5. In which word in the commentary has the सूत्रम् 7-4-46 दो दद् घोः been used?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“This entire universe has the Self as its witness.” Paraphrase to – “This entire universe is that which has the Self as its witness.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘that which has the Self as its witness’ = ‘आत्मा साक्षी यस्य तत्’।

Easy Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-102 सुपि च been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘औ’ in the form संनिधौ (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘संनिधि’, सप्तमी-एकवचनम्)?

विनाशधर्मसु mLp

Today we will look at the form विनाशधर्मसु  mLp from रघुवंशम् verse 8-10.

अथ वीक्ष्य रघुः प्रतिष्ठितं प्रकृतिष्वात्मजमात्मवत्तया ।
विषयेषु विनाशधर्मसु त्रिदिवस्थेष्वपि निःस्पृहोऽभवत् ॥ ८-१० ॥

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
अथेति । अथ रघुरात्मजं पुत्रमात्मवत्तया निर्विकारमनस्कतयेत्यर्थः । ‘उदयादिष्वविकृतिर्मनसः सत्त्वमुच्यते । आत्मवान्सत्त्ववानुक्तः’ इत्युत्पलमालायाम् । प्रकृतिष्वमात्यादिषु प्रतिष्ठितं रूढमूलं वीक्ष्य ज्ञात्वा विनाशो धर्मो येषां तेषु विनाशधर्मसु । अनित्येष्वित्यर्थः । ‘5-4-124 धर्मादनिच् केवलात्‌’ इत्यनिच्प्रत्ययः समासान्तः । त्रिदिवस्थेष्वपि विषयेषु शब्दादिषु निःस्पृहो निर्गतेच्छोऽभवत् ।। १० ।।

Translation – Raghu, seeing that his son with an undisturbed mind was now well established among his subjects (ministers etc), became indifferent towards objects of sense which are perishable by nature – even though they might belong to heavenly regions (10).

(1) विनाशो धर्मो यस्य स: = विनाशधर्मा – One whose nature is perishing (impermanent.)

(2) विनाश सुँ + धर्म सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) The adjective ‘विनाश सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘विनाश सुँ + धर्म सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) विनाश + धर्म । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) विनाशधर्म + अनिँच्‌ । By 5-4-124 धर्मादनिच् केवलात्‌ Following a बहुव्रीहि: compound in which the prior member is a single पदम् and the final member is ‘धर्म’ the तद्धित: affix अनिँच्‌ is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.

(6) विनाशधर्म + अन् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘विनाशधर्म’ has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(7) विनाशधर्म् + अन् । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= विनाशधर्मन् ।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example विषय: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विनाशधर्मन्’। It declines like ‘आत्मन्’-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is सप्तमी-बहुवचनम्।

(8) विनाशधर्मन् + सुप् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(9) विनाशधर्मन् + सु । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
Note: ‘विनाशधर्मन्’ gets the पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-17 स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने – Excluding the affixes that have the सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा, when any of the other affixes from ‘सुँ’ up to ‘कप्’ follow, the base gets the पद-सञ्ज्ञा।
This allows 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(10) विनाशधर्म + सु । By 8-2-7 नलोप: प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

= विनाशधर्मसु ।

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 5-4-124 धर्मादनिच् केवलात्‌ (used in step 5) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – केवलात्‌ किम्‌? परम: स्वो धर्मो यस्येति त्रिपदे बहुव्रीहौ मा भूत्‌। Please explain.

2. Commenting on the same सूत्रम् the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – अनिचोऽकारश्चिन्त्यप्रयोजन इत्येके। Please explain.

3. Which compound used in the verse may be justified using the सौनाग-वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः in the महाभाष्यम्) निरादयः क्रान्‍ताद्यर्थे पञ्चम्‍या?

4. Can you spot the affix ‘ड’ in the verse?

5. Which two compounds used in the commentary are नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compounds?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Even though we know that sense objects are by nature perishable still we are attached to (towards) them.” Use the verbal root √सञ्ज् (षञ्जँ सङ्गे १. ११४२) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘आङ्’ (‘आ’) for ‘to be attached.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-71 लुङ्लङ्लृङ्क्ष्वडुदात्तः been used in the verse?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes सम्प्रसारणम् in the form उच्यते used in the commentary?

सुप्रजाः mNs

Today we will look at the form सुप्रजाः mNs from रघुवंशम् 8.32.

स कदाचिदवेक्षितप्रजः सह देव्या विजहार सुप्रजाः । नगरोपवने शचीसखो मरुतां पालयितेव नन्दने ॥ ८-३२ ॥

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
इति । अवेक्षितप्रजोऽकुतोभयत्वेनानुसंहितप्रजः । न केवलं स्त्रैण इति भाव: । शोभना प्रजा यस्यासौ सुप्रजाः सुपुत्रवान् । ‘नित्यमसिच्प्रजामेधयोः’ इत्यसिच्प्रत्ययः । पुत्रन्यस्तभार इति भावः । सोऽजः कदाचिद्देव्या महिष्येन्दुमत्या सह नगरोपवनेनन्दने नन्दनाख्येऽमरावत्युपकण्ठवने शचीसखः । शच्या सहेत्यर्थः । मरुतां देवानां पालयितेन्द्र इव विजहार चिक्रीड ।। ३२ ।।

Translation – Once upon a time, he (the king Aja) who looked after his subjects, and who had a fine son, sported with his queen (Indumatī) in the city garden, like Indra (the protector of the gods) with Ṡaci in his company (sports) in the Nandana garden.

(1) सु (शोभना) प्रजा यस्य स: = सुप्रजा: – He whose offspring is good.

(2) सु + प्रजा सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) The adjective ‘सु’ (meaning ‘शोभना’) is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘सु + प्रजा सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) सु + प्रजा । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) सुप्रजा + असिँच् । By 5-4-122 नित्यमसिच् प्रजामेधयोः – Following a बहुव्रीहि: compound whose latter member is either ‘प्रजा’ or ‘मेधा’ and whose prior member is either (the negation particle) ‘नञ्’ or ‘दुस्’ or ‘सु’ the तद्धित: affix असिँच् is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.

See questions 2 and 3.

(6) सुप्रजा + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘सुप्रजा’ has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(7) सुप्रज् + अस् । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= सुप्रजस् ।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example स: (the king) is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सुप्रजस्’। It declines like ‘वेधस्’-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(8) सुप्रजस् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(9) सुप्रजस् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(10) सुप्रजास् + स् । By 6-4-14 अत्वसन्तस्य चाधातोः – When the ‘सुँ’ affix which is not सम्बुद्धिः follows, a base that ends in ‘अतुँ’ or a base that ends in ‘अस्’ which is not of a verbal root, has its penultimate letter elongated.

(11) सुप्रजास् । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् – A single letter affix ‘सुँ’, ‘ति’ or ‘सि’ is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix ‘ङी’ or ‘आप्’।
Note: Now ‘सुप्रजास्’ gets पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम् । This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-66 to apply in the next step.

(12) सुप्रजाः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 5-4-122 नित्यमसिच् प्रजामेधयोः (used in step 5) been used in verses 30-35 of Chapter Eighteen of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 5-4-122 नित्यमसिच् प्रजामेधयोः the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – अकारोच्चारणं भत्वसम्पादनार्थम्, तेन सुप्रजसावित्यादौ ‘यस्येति च’ इत्याकारलोपः सिध्यति। Please explain.

3. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – अस्वरितत्वादेव अन्यतरस्यांग्रहणाननुवृत्तिसिद्धौ नित्यग्रहणमन्यतो विधानार्थम्। तेन ‘अल्पमेधस:’ इति सिध्यतीति वृत्तिकारादयः। Please explain.

4. In which compound in the verse has the affix ‘टच्’ been used?

5. In which compound in the verse has the first member of the compound taken पुंवद्भाव: (a masculine-like form)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“King Daśaratha, who had no offspring, performed a sacrifice for getting a son.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘one who has no offspring’ = ‘अविद्यमाना प्रजा यस्य स:’। Use a causative form of the verbal root √वृत् (वृतुँ वर्तने १. ८६२) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘निर्’ for ‘to perform.’

Easy questions:

1. From which verbal root is the form विजहार derived?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘च्’ in the form चिक्रीड used in the commentary?

गवाक्षाः mNp

Today we will look at the form गवाक्षाः mNp from रघुवंशम् 16.20.

रात्रावनाविष्कृतदीपभासः कान्तामुखश्रीवियुता दिवापि ।
तिरस्क्रियन्ते कृमितन्तुजालैर्विच्छिन्नधूमप्रसरा गवाक्षाः॥ 16-20॥

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
रात्रावनाविष्कृतदीपभासः । दीपप्रभाशून्या इत्यर्थः । दिवापि दिवसेऽपि कान्तामुखानां श्रिया कान्त्या वियुता रहिता विच्छिन्नो नष्टो धूमप्रसरो येषां ते गवाक्षाः कृमितन्तुजालैर्लूतातन्तुवितानैस्तिरस्क्रियन्ते छाद्यन्ते ।।

Translation – The round windows are displaying no light of lamps at night and are void of the luster of the faces of the beautiful ladies during the day too. Their diffusion of smoke has ended and they are (now) being covered by cob-webs (20).

(1) गवामक्षीव = गवाक्ष: – round window (which is like the bulls’ eye.)
Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गो’ also has the meaning ‘ray’ (in addition to the more common meaning of ‘cow/bull’). Hence गवामक्षि may be interpreted as गवाम् (= किरणानाम्) अक्षि (= रन्ध्रम्) = an opening for the rays.

(2) गो आम् + अक्षि सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By the सूत्रम् 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – ‘गो आम्’ (which ends in a sixth case affix) gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 षष्ठी (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case.
And hence as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ the term ‘गो आम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘गो आम् + अक्षि सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च । This allows the सूत्रम् 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) गो + अक्षि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्। Note: Now the term ‘गो’ has the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 6-1-123 to apply in the next step.

(5) ग् अवङ् + अक्षि । By 6-1-123 अवङ् स्फोटायनस्य – When followed by a vowel, the term ‘गो’ is optionally replaced by ‘अवङ्’ provided ‘गो’ ends in a letter belonging to the प्रत्याहार: ‘एङ्’ and this letter is at the end of a पदम्।
Note: The substitution ‘अवङ्’ takes place only in the opinion of the teacher स्फोटायन: (and not in the opinion of other teachers.) Hence it implies that the substitution is optional.
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-53 ङिच्च the substitution ‘अवङ्’ comes in place of only the ending letter (‘ओ’) of ‘गो’।

See questions 1, 2 and 3.

(6) ग् अव + अक्षि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) गवाक्षि । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

(8) गवाक्षि + अच् । By 5-4-76 अक्ष्णोऽदर्शनात्‌ – Following a compound ending in ‘अक्षि’ – when not denoting an eye – the तद्धित: affix अच् is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.
Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दर्शन’ as used in this सूत्रम् is derived by using the affix ल्युट् (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-3-117 करणाधिकरणयोश्च) to denote the instrument of the action (of seeing.) दृश्यतेऽनेनेति दर्शनम् – that by means of which something is seen is called दर्शनम्। Hence it stands for an eye.

(9) गवाक्षि + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘गवाक्षि’ has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(10) गवाक्ष् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= गवाक्ष ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गवाक्ष’ should have been neuter since the latter member ‘अक्षि’ of the compound is neuter. But पुंस्त्वं लोकात् – this compound is used in the masculine gender in the language. It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्।

(11) गवाक्ष + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(12) गवाक्ष + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘जस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(13) गवाक्षास् । 6-1-102 प्रथमयो: पूर्वसवर्ण: – When a अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(14) गवाक्षाः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-1-123 अवङ् स्फोटायनस्य (used in step 5) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – विभाषानुवृत्तेः स्फोटायनग्रहणं पूजार्थम्। Please explain.

2. Commenting on the same सूत्रम् the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अतीति निवृत्तम्। The तत्त्वबोधिनी expands on this by saying – अत्राचीत्यनुवर्तते। ‘अतीति तु निवृत्तम्’ इत्यत्र व्याख्यानमेव शरणम्। Please explain.

3. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – व्यवस्थितविभाषया गवाक्ष:। Please explain.

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the (optional) substitution ‘स्’ (in the place of the विसर्ग:) in the form तिरस्क्रियन्ते?

5. What is the विग्रह: of the compound विच्छिन्नधूमप्रसरा: used in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In our village, all the houses have beautiful round windows.” Paraphrase to – “In our village, of all the houses there are beautiful round windows.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the substitution ‘रिङ्’ in the verse?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the affix ‘णिच्’ in the form छाद्यन्ते used in the commentary?

दृढभक्तिः mNs

Today we will look at the form दृढभक्तिः mNs from रघुवंशम् 12.19.

दृढभक्तिरिति ज्येष्ठे राज्यतृष्णापराङ्‍मुखः । मातुः पापस्य भरतः प्रायश्चित्तमिवाकरोत्॥ १२-१९ ॥

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
ज्येष्ठे दृढभक्ती राज्यतृष्णापराङ्‍मुखो भरत इति पूर्वोक्तानुष्ठानेन मातुः पापस्य प्रायश्चित्तं तदपनोदकं कर्माकरोदिव इत्युत्प्रेक्षा । दृढभक्तिरित्यत्र दृढशब्दस्य ‘स्त्रियाः पुंवत्’ – इत्यादिना पुंवद्भावो दुर्घटः । ‘अप्रियादिषु’ इति निषेधात् । भक्तिशब्दस्य प्रियादिषु पाठात् । अतो दृढं भक्तिरस्येति नपुंसकपूर्वपदो बहुव्रीहिरिति गणव्याख्याने दृढभक्तिरित्येवमादिषु पूर्वपदस्य नपुंसकस्य विवक्षितत्वात्सिद्धमिति समाधेयम् । वृत्तिकारश्च दीर्घनिवृत्तिमात्रपरो दृढभक्तिशब्दो लिङ्गविशेषस्यानुपकारकत्वात् स्त्रीत्वमविवक्षितमेव, तस्मादस्त्रीलिङ्गत्वाद्दृढभक्तिशब्दस्यायं प्रयोग इत्यभिप्रायः । न्यासकारोऽप्येवम् । भोजराजस्तु – कर्मसाधनस्यैव भक्तिशब्दस्य प्रियादिपाठाद्भवानीभक्तिरित्यादौ कर्मसाधनत्वात् पुंवद्भावप्रतिषेधः, दृढभक्तिरित्यादौ भावसाधनत्वात् पुंवद्भावसिद्धिः पूर्वपदस्येत्याह ।। १९ ।।

Translation – Bharata, who had a firm devotion to his elder [brother] and was averse to the greed for the kingdom, thus made, as it were, atonement for the sin of his mother.

(1) दृढं भक्तिर्यस्य सः = दृढभक्ति: (भरत:) – He (Bharata) who had a firm devotion.

(2) दृढ सुँ + भक्ति सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) By the सूत्रम् 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘दृढ सुँ’ as well as ‘भक्ति सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.

The adjective ‘दृढ सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘दृढ सुँ + भक्ति सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) दृढ + भक्ति । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: By 6-3-34 स्त्रियाः पुंवद्भाषितपुंस्कादनूङ् समानाधिकरणे स्त्रियामपूरणीप्रियादिषु – A feminine adjective which does not end in the feminine affix ‘ऊङ्’ (ref. 4-1-66 ऊङुतः etc) and is formed from a masculine base denoting the same meaning becomes masculine-like when it is followed by a feminine final member (of a compound) which has समानाधिकरणम् (same locus/reference) but not if the final member denotes an ordinal number or belongs to the class of words ‘प्रिया’ etc.
In the present example the feminine final member ‘भक्ति’ of the compound belongs to the प्रियादि-गणः। Hence if we were to analyze the compound as दृढा भक्तिर्यस्य स: we would get the final form as ‘दृढाभक्ति’ (which is also a valid form) but not the form ‘दृढभक्ति’ used in the verse. The exclusion ‘अप्रियादिषु’ (mentioned in the सूत्रम् 6-3-34) would prevent ‘दृढा’ from taking its masculine-like form ‘दृढ’। This is the reason for analyzing the compound as दृढं भक्तिर्यस्य सः in order to get the form ‘दृढभक्ति’। The use of the neuter form दृढम् is justified by the maxim सामान्ये नपुंसकम् – the neuter gender is used to refer to something in general terms. In order words, neuter is the default gender. When a word is not intended to be gender-specific it is used in the neuter gender. That is how दृढम् has been used in the विग्रह: – दृढं भक्तिर्यस्य सः।

See question 2.

= दृढभक्ति ।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example दृढभक्तिः is qualifying भरतः । Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दृढभक्ति’। It declines like हरि-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(5) दृढभक्ति + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) दृढभक्ति + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) दृढभक्ति: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. In verses 5-10 of Chapter Six of the गीता can you spot a बहुव्रीहिः compound in which the पूर्वपदम् has taken पुंवद्भाव:?

2. Commenting on the use of the form दृढम् (in दृढं भक्तिर्यस्य सः) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – अदार्ढ्यनिवृत्तिमात्रपरत्वेनात्र दृढशब्दप्रयोगान्न लिङ्गविशेषविवक्षा। Please explain.

3. The seventh case affix in the form ज्येष्ठे used in the verse is prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-3-36 सप्तम्यधिकरणे च because ‘ज्येष्ठ’ has the designation अधिकरणम् as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-45 आधारोऽधिकरणम्। आधारः is of three kinds (i) औपश्लेषिक: involving contact or proximity (ii) वैषयिक: involving a subject matter (iii) अभिव्यापक: involving pervasion. Which one (of these three) is it here?

4. In which word in the commentary has the affix ‘खल्’ been used?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-65 ईद्यति been used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Knowledge and renunciation come only to the one whose devotion is firm.” Use the verbal root √इ (इण् गतौ २. ४०) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘उप’ for ‘to come to (to approach.)’

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the सूत्रम् 6-1-111 ऋत उत्‌ been used?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘उ’ in the verses?

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