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सूत्र-सूचिः part VI

ओ३म्

बहुव्रीहिसमासप्रकरणम्‌ ।

2-2-23 शेषो बहुव्रीहिः ।

वृत्तिः अधिकारोऽयं प्राग्द्वन्द्वात् । ‘2-1-24 द्वितीया श्रितातीत…’ इत्यादिना यस्य त्रिकस्य (सुब्विभक्ते:) विशिष्य समासो नोक्त: स शेष: प्रथमान्तमित्यर्थ: । ‘A compound that is composed of words ending in the nominative case is designated as बहुव्रीहिः’ – this is a governing rule which exerts its influence from here down to the सूत्रम् 2-2-28 तेन सहेति तुल्ययोगे (which is prior to 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः।) The word शेष: (remainder) used in this सूत्रम् refers to that triad (of singular, dual and plural सुँप् endings) whose compounding has not been specifically prescribed by the preceding rules 2-1-24 द्वितीया श्रितातीतपतितगतात्यस्तप्राप्तापन्नैः, 2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन, 2-1-36 चतुर्थी तदर्थार्थबलिहितसुखरक्षितैः, 2-1-37 पञ्चमी भयेन, 2-2-8 षष्ठी and 2-1-40 सप्तमी शौण्डैः etc. Since compounding has been prescribed by the preceding rules for all triads except the nominative, the word शेष: used here stands for a compound composed of words ending in the nominative case.
Note: Even though कर्मधारय: compounds are composed of words ending in the nominative case, they are not prescribed by the specific mention of प्रथमा and hence they do not count towards determining शेष:।
Note: Even though the सौनाग-वार्तिकम् (under the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः) ‘प्रादयो गताद्यर्थे प्रथमया’ does prescribe compounding with a word ending in the nominative case, it does not count towards determining शेष: because it is a वार्तिकम् and not a सूत्रम् in the अष्टाध्यायी।
Note: The words (ending in the nominative case) which compose a बहुव्रीहिः compound have समानाधिकरणम् (common locus) – they refer to the same person/thing.
Note: As per the महाभाष्यम् a बहुव्रीहि: compound is said to be a तद्गुणसंविज्ञान-बहुव्रीहि: if that which is denoted by the compound also includes that which is denoted by the constituent members of the compound. For example when we say – लम्बकर्णमानय – ‘Bring the man who has long ears’ – the man is brought along with his long ears. On the other hand when we say दृष्टसमुद्रमानय – ‘Bring the man who has seen the sea’ – the man is brought but not the sea. Hence लम्बकर्ण: is a तद्गुणसंविज्ञान-बहुव्रीहि: while दृष्टसमुद्र: is a अतद्गुणसंविज्ञान-बहुव्रीहि:।

2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे ।

वृत्तिः अनेकं प्रथमान्तमन्यस्य पदस्यार्थे वर्तमानं वा समस्यते स बहुव्रीहिः । Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)
Note: अप्रथमाविभक्त्यर्थे बहुव्रीहिरिति समानाधिकरणानामिति च फलितम् – We can conclude that i) a बहुव्रीहि: compound denotes the sense of a पदम् (which is not part of the compound) whose case ending is other than the nominative and ii) the constituent members of a बहुव्रीहि: compound denote a common item.
Note: The word बहुव्रीहि: itself is an example of a बहुव्रीहि: compound. It is analyzed as बहवो व्रीहयो यस्य स: – A person who has (owns) a lot of rice.
Note: When forming अव्ययीभाव: and तत्पुरुष: compounds only two terms may be combined at one time, while बहुव्रीहि: compounds may be formed by combining two or more terms simultaneously. For example – पञ्च गावो धनं यस्य = पञ्चगवधन: – One whose wealth is five cows.

उदाहरणानि –

चत्वारि मुखानि यस्य स: or चत्वारि मुखान्यस्येति = चतुर्मुख: (ब्रह्मा) – He (Lord Brahmā) who has four faces.
प्राप्तमुदकं यं स: or प्राप्तमुदकमिममिति = प्रप्तोदक: (ग्राम:) – That (village) to which water has reached.
ऊढो रथो येन स: or ऊढो रथोऽनेनेति = ऊढरथ: (अनड्वान्) – That (ox) which has conveyed the chariot.
उपहृत: पशुर्यस्मै स: or उपहृत: पशुरस्मा इति = उपहृतपशु: (रुद्र:) – He (Lord Rudra) to whom the sacrificial beast has been offered.
उद्धृत ओदनो यस्या: सा or उद्धृत ओदनोऽस्या इति = उद्धृतौदना (स्थाली) – That (plate) from which rice has been taken out.
पीतमम्बरं यस्य स: or पीतमम्बरमस्येति = पीताम्बर: (हरि:) – He (Lord Viṣṇu) who has a yellow garment.
बहु सस्यं यस्मिंस्तत् or बहु सस्यं यत्र तत् or बहु सस्यमस्मिन्निति or बहु सस्यमत्रेति = बहुसस्यम् (क्षेत्रम्) – That (field) in which there is a lot of grain.

Derivation –

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
चतुर् जस् + मुख जस् 2-2-24. As per 1-2-43, ‘चतुर् जस्’ as well as ‘मुख जस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.

Example continued under 2-2-35

2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ ।

वृत्तिः सप्तम्यन्तं विशेषणं च बहुव्रीहौ पूर्वं स्यात् । In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.
Note: Which सूत्रम् justifies the formation of a बहुव्रीहि: compound using a पदम् ending in a seventh case affix? We cannot use 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे because that सूत्रम् only prescribes compounding of terms (having the designation पदम् and) ending in the nominative case. Hence अत एव ज्ञापकाद्व्यधिकरणपदो बहुव्रीहिः – The सूत्रम् 2-2-35 itself serves as an indication (ज्ञापकम्) that a बहुव्रीहिः compound may be formed using terms that do not have समानाधिकरणम् (same locus) and hence do not all end in the nominative case. Otherwise there would be no point in mentioning ‘सप्तमी’ in the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ।

Example continued from 2-2-24

चतुर् जस् + मुख जस् – As per 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the adjective ‘चतुर् जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘चतुर् जस् + मुख जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= चतुर्मुख 2-4-71

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example ब्रह्मा is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘चतुर्मुख’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

चतुर्मुख + सुँ 4-1-2
= चतुर्मुख + स् 1-3-2, 1-3-9
= चतुर्मुख: 8-2-66, 8-3-15

We can similarly derive the compounds प्राप्तमुदकं यं स: = प्रप्तोदक: (ग्राम:), ऊढो रथो येन स: = ऊढरथ: (अनड्वान्) etc. Note: इह कर्मादीनां समासेनाभिहितत्वात्प्रथमा – The nominative (and not accusative etc) case ending is used with ‘प्रप्तोदक’ etc because the object etc has already been indicated by the compound.

उदाहरणम् –

अग्रे जन्म यस्य स: = अग्रजन्मा (भ्राता) – He (the brother) who is born first.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
अग्र ङि + जन्मन् सुँ 2-2-24 along with the ज्ञापकम् in 2-2-35. As per 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the पदम् ‘अग्र ङि’ which ends in the seventh case is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘अग्र ङि + जन्मन् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= अग्रजन्मन्

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example भ्राता is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अग्रजन्मन्’। It declines like राजन्-शब्द:।

अग्रजन्मन् + सुँ 4-1-2. As per 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य the affix ‘सुँ’ has the designation सर्वनामस्थानम् here. This allows 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ to apply in the next step.
= अग्रजन्मान् + सुँ 6-4-8
= अग्रजन्मान् + स् 1-3-2, 1-3-9
= अग्रजन्मान् 6-1-68. Now अग्रजन्मान् has the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 with the help of 1-1-62. This allows us to apply 8-2-7 in the next step.
= अग्रजन्मा 8-2-7

वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) सप्तम्युपमानपूर्वपदस्योत्तरपदलोपश्च ।

A compound पदम् which contains either a पदम् ending in the seventh case or a पदम् which denotes a standard of comparison drops its उत्तर-पदम् (final member) when it combines with another पदम् to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound.
Note: Compounding is already prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 itself. It is only for the elision of the उत्तरपदम् (of the compound पूर्वपदम्) that this वार्तिकम् is necessary.

उदाहरणम् –

कण्ठेस्थ: कालो यस्य स: = कण्ठेकाल: (श्रीरुद्र:) – He (Lord Rudra) who has black (poison) in his throat.
Note: The participle ‘स्थ’ is formed (by adding the affix ‘क’ to the verbal root √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७)) using the सूत्रम् 3-2-4 सुपि स्थः and the compound कण्ठेस्थ: is formed using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्।
Note: The seventh case affix in कण्ठे is prevented from taking the लुक् elision by the सूत्रम् 6-3-12 अमूर्धमस्तकात्‌ स्वाङ्गादकामे – A seventh case affix following a प्रातिपदिकम् – other than ‘मूर्ध’/’मस्तक’ – which denotes one’s body-part and ends in either a consonant or the letter ‘अ’ does not take the लुक् elision when followed by a उत्तरपदम् (final member of a compound) which is other than ‘काम’।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
कण्ठेस्थ सुँ + काल सुँ 2-2-24. As per 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the adjective ‘कण्ठेस्थ सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘कण्ठेस्थ सुँ + काल सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= कण्ठेस्थ + काल 2-4-71
= कण्ठेकाल By वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) सप्तम्युपमानपूर्वपदस्योत्तरपदलोपश्च

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example श्रीरुद्र: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कण्ठेकाल’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

कण्ठेकाल + सुँ 4-1-2
= कण्ठेकाल + स् 1-3-2, 1-3-9
= कण्ठेकाल: 8-2-66, 8-3-15

उदाहरणम् –

उष्ट्रस्य मुखमिव मुखं यस्य स: = उष्ट्रमुख: (पुरुष:) – He (the man) whose face is like the face of a camel.

Note: The compound उष्ट्रस्य मुखम् = उष्ट्रमुखम् is a षष्ठी-समास: formed using the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 षष्ठी।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
उष्ट्रमुख सुँ + मुख सुँ 2-2-24. As per 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the adjective ‘उष्ट्रमुख सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘उष्ट्रमुख सुँ + मुख सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= उष्ट्रमुख + मुख 2-4-71
= उष्ट्रमुख By वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) सप्तम्युपमानपूर्वपदस्योत्तरपदलोपश्च

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example पुरुष: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उष्ट्रमुख’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

उष्ट्रमुख + सुँ 4-1-2
= उष्ट्रमुख + स् 1-3-2, 1-3-9
= उष्ट्रमुख: 8-2-66, 8-3-15

We can similarly form the following compounds –

चन्द्रस्य कान्तिरिव कान्तिर्यस्य स: = चन्द्रकान्ति: (नर:) – He (a man) whose luster is like the luster of the Moon.
वृकस्योदरमिवोदरं यस्य स: = वृकोदर: (भीम:) – He (Bhīma) whose stomach is like the stomach of a wolf. (ref. पौण्ड्रं दध्मौ महाशङ्खं भीमकर्मा वृकोदरः || गीता 1-15||)
etc.

वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) प्रादिभ्यो धातुजस्य वाच्यो वा चोत्तरपदलोपः।

A compound पदम् in which a ‘प्र’ etc term (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः) is followed by a उत्तर-पदम् (final member) that is a कृदन्तम् (a participle formed by adding a कृत् affix to a verbal root) optionally drops this उत्तर-पदम् when it combines with another पदम् to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound.
Note: Compounding is already prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 itself. It is only for the elision of the उत्तरपदम् (of the compound पूर्वपदम्) that this वार्तिकम् is necessary.

उदाहरणम् –

प्रपतितानि पर्णानि यस्य/यस्मात् स: = प्रपतितपर्ण:/प्रपर्ण: (वृक्ष:) – He (the tree) whose or from which the leaves have completely fallen down.

Note: The compound ‘प्रपतित’ is a गति-समास: formed using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
प्रपतित जस् + पर्ण जस् 2-2-24. As per 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the adjective ‘प्रपतित जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘प्रपतित जस् + पर्ण जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= प्रपतित + पर्ण 2-4-71
= प्रपतितपर्ण or प्रपर्ण By वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) प्रादिभ्यो धातुजस्य वाच्यो वा चोत्तरपदलोपः

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example वृक्ष: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रपतितपर्ण’/’प्रपर्ण’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

प्रपतितपर्ण/प्रपर्ण + सुँ 4-1-2
= प्रपतितपर्ण/प्रपर्ण + स् 1-3-2, 1-3-9
= प्रपतितपर्ण:/प्रपर्ण: 8-2-66, 8-3-15

We can similarly form the following compounds –

विगतो धवो यस्या: सा = विधवा (नारी) – She (a woman) whose husband has passed away. Note: The feminine affix टाप् is added by 4-1-4.
निर्गतं फलं यस्मात् तत् = निष्फलम् (कर्म) – That (action) from which the fruit/result has departed. Note: The substitution ‘ष्’ is prescribed by 8-3-41.
etc.

Note: In some of these compounds both forms are found in usage while in others such as विधवा and निष्फलम् only one is found.

वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) नञोऽस्त्यर्थानां वाच्यो वा चोत्तरपदलोपः।

A compound पदम् in which the negation particle नञ् is followed by a उत्तर-पदम् (final member) that denotes the sense of ‘exists’ optionally drops this उत्तर-पदम् when it combines with another पदम् to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound.
Note: Compounding is already prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 itself. It is only for the elision of the उत्तरपदम् (of the compound पूर्वपदम्) that this वार्तिकम् is necessary.

उदाहरणम् –

अविद्यमान: पुत्रो यस्य स: = अविद्यमानपुत्र:/अपुत्र: (नर:) – He (the man) whose son does not exist.
Note: The लौकिक-विग्रह: for the compound अपुत्र: may also be stated as नास्ति पुत्रो यस्य स:।

Note: The compound ‘अविद्यमान’ (which is the prior member of the final बहुव्रीहि: compound) is a तत्पुरुष: compound formed using the सूत्रम् 2-2-6 नञ्‌। The elision of the letter ‘न्’ is done by the सूत्रम् 6-3-73 नलोपो नञः।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
अविद्यमान सुँ + पुत्र सुँ 2-2-24. As per 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the adjective ‘अविद्यमान सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘अविद्यमान सुँ + पुत्र सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= अविद्यमान + पुत्र 2-4-71
=अविद्यमानपुत्र or अपुत्र By वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) नञोऽस्त्यर्थानां वाच्यो वा चोत्तरपदलोपः

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example नर: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अविद्यमानपुत्र’/’अपुत्र’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

अविद्यमानपुत्र/अपुत्र + सुँ 4-1-2
= अविद्यमानपुत्र/अपुत्र + स् 1-3-2, 1-3-9
= अविद्यमानपुत्र:/अपुत्र: 8-2-66, 8-3-15

We can similarly form the following compounds –

अविद्यमानो रोगो यस्य स: = अविद्यमानरोग:/अरोग: (नर:) – He (the man) whose ailment does not exist.
अविद्यमानोऽन्तो यस्य स: = अविद्यमानान्त:/अनन्त: (भगवान्) – He (the Lord) whose end does not exist. Note: The augment नुँट् is prescribed by 6-3-74 तस्मान्नुडचि।
etc.

2-2-36 निष्ठा ।

वृत्तिः निष्ठान्तं बहुव्रीहौ पूर्वं स्यात्‌ । In a बहुव्रीहि: compound a term which ends in a निष्ठा affix (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-2-102 निष्ठा) takes the prior position.
Note: This सूत्रम् is not to be confused with the identically worded सूत्रम् 3-2-102 निष्ठा।
Note: With the help of the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-72 येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य we understand that the term निष्ठा used in this सूत्रम् 2-2-36 stands for निष्ठान्तम् (a term ending in a निष्ठा affix.)

उदाहरणम् (from भगवद्गीता – एतद्बुद्‌ध्वा बुद्धिमान्स्यात्कृतकृत्यश्च भारत || 15-20||)

कृतं कृत्यं येन स: = कृतकृत्य: (नर:) – He (the man) by whom that which is fit to be done has been done. (Hence it means the man who is fulfilled/accomplished.)
The सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ cannot help us here in determining which term should be placed in the prior position in the compound because both ‘कृत’ and ‘कृत्य’ are adjectives. That is why we need the present सूत्रम् which tells us that since ‘कृत’ ends in the affix ‘क्त’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-2-102 निष्ठा) it should be placed in the prior position in the compound.

2-2-37 वाहिताग्न्यादिषु ।

वृत्तिः आहिताग्न्यादिषु निष्ठान्तं पूर्वं वा स्यात् । In the बहुव्रीहि: compounds ‘आहिताग्नि’ etc. a term which ends in a निष्ठा affix (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-2-102 निष्ठा) optionally takes the prior position.
Note: For a term which ends in a निष्ठा affix the पूर्वनिपात: (placement in the prior position) which would have been obligatory in all बहुव्रीहि: compounds as per the prior सूत्रम् 2-2-36 निष्ठा is now made optional (by the present सूत्रम् 2-2-37) in certain बहुव्रीहि: compounds ‘आहिताग्नि’ etc.

उदाहरणम् –

आहिता अग्नयो येन स: = आहिताग्नि:/अग्न्याहित: (नर:) – He (the man) who has consecrated/installed the sacrificial fires.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
आहित जस् + अग्नि जस् 2-2-24. Note: ‘आहित जस् + अग्नि जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= आहित + अग्नि 2-4-71
= आहित + अग्नि or अग्नि + आहित As per 2-2-37 वाहिताग्न्यादिषु the term ‘आहित’ which ends in a निष्ठा affix is optionally placed in the prior position in the compound.
= आहिताग्नि 6-1-101 or अग्न्याहित 6-1-77

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example नर: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आहिताग्नि’/’अग्न्याहित’। ‘आहिताग्नि’ declines like हरि-शब्द: and ‘अग्न्याहित’ declines like राम-शब्द:।

आहिताग्नि/अग्न्याहित + सुँ 4-1-2
= आहिताग्नि/अग्न्याहित + स् 1-3-2, 1-3-9
= आहिताग्नि:/अग्न्याहित: 8-2-66, 8-3-15

Note: The आहिताग्न्यादि-गण: is a आकृति-गण: – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence when we see an accepted usage in which a term which should have been placed in the prior position (as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ or 2-2-36 निष्ठा) is actually found to be in the latter position in a बहुव्रीहि: compound we can justify the usage by considering the compound to be included in the आहिताग्न्यादि-गण:।

वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-37 वाहिताग्न्यादिषु in the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी) प्रहरणार्थेभ्य: परे निष्ठासप्तम्यौ ।

In बहुव्रीहि: compounds a term which ends in a निष्ठा affix (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-2-102 निष्ठा) or a seventh case affix takes the latter position when it follows a term which denotes a weapon.
Note: In the absence of this वार्तिकम् a term which ends in a निष्ठा affix would have taken the prior position as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-36 निष्ठा and a term which ends in a seventh case affix would have taken the prior position as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ।

उदाहरणम् –

उद्यतोऽसिर्यस्य स: = अस्युद्यत: (नर:) – He (the man) whose sword is raised.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
उद्यत सुँ + असि सुँ 2-2-24. Note: ‘उद्यत सुँ + असि सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= उद्यत + असि 2-4-71
= असि + उद्यत As per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-37 वाहिताग्न्यादिषु in the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी) प्रहरणार्थेभ्य: परे निष्ठासप्तम्यौ the term ‘उद्यत’ which ends in a निष्ठा affix is placed in the latter position in the compound because it follows the term ‘असि’ which denotes a weapon.
= अस्युद्यत 6-1-77

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example नर: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अस्युद्यत’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

अस्युद्यत + सुँ 4-1-2
= अस्युद्यत + स् 1-3-2, 1-3-9
= अस्युद्यत: 8-2-66, 8-3-15

Note: कथमुद्यतगद:, उद्यतासि:? How do we justify compounds such as उद्यतगद: and उद्यतासि: wherein the term ‘उद्यत’ which ends in a निष्ठा affix has actually taken the prior position in the बहुव्रीहि: compound in spite of the above वार्तिकम्? One way is to consider these compounds to be part of the आहिताग्न्यादि-गण: (ref. 2-2-37 वाहिताग्न्यादिषु।)

उदाहरणम् –

दण्ड: पाणौ यस्य स: = दण्डपाणि: (नर:) – He (the man) in whose hand there is a staff

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
दण्ड सुँ + पाणि ङि By the ज्ञापकम् from 2-2-35. As per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-37 वाहिताग्न्यादिषु in the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी) प्रहरणार्थेभ्य: परे निष्ठासप्तम्यौ the term ‘पाणि ङि’ which ends in a seventh case affix is placed in the latter position in the compound because it follows the term ‘दण्ड सुँ’ which denotes a weapon. Note: ‘दण्ड सुँ + पाणि ङि’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= दण्डपाणि 2-4-71

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example नर: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दण्डपाणि’। It declines like हरि-शब्द:।

दण्डपाणि + सुँ 4-1-2
= दण्डपाणि + स् 1-3-2, 1-3-9
= दण्डपाणि: 8-2-66, 8-3-15

2-2-28 तेन सहेति तुल्ययोगे ।

वृत्तिः तुल्ययोगे वर्तमानं सह इत्येतत्तृतीयान्तेन समस्यते स बहुव्रीहि: । The indeclinable सह when it denotes ‘equal connection (with an action)’ optionally compounds with a पदम् ending in a third case affix to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound.

उदाहरणम् – पुत्रेण सह (आगत: पिता) = सहपुत्र:/सपुत्र: (आगत: पिता) – (The father who has come) with the son.
Note: The third case affix used in पुत्रेण is as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
सह + पुत्र टा 2-2-28. Note: As per 1-2-43 the term ‘सह’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-28 (which prescribes the compounding) the term सह ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term सह is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘सह + पुत्र टा’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= सह + पुत्र 2-4-71

Example continued under 6-3-82

Note: तुल्ययोगवचनं प्रायिकम्‌ – the requirement that – सह should denote ‘equal connection (with an action)’ – is प्रायिकम् meaning that it usually applies but is not universal. We infer this from the fact that पाणिनि: himself has used compounds like ‘सकर्मक’ (ref. 1-3-53 उदश्चरः सकर्मकात्) in the अष्टाध्यायी। In the compound ‘सकर्मक’ the term सह does not denote ‘equal connection (with an action.)’ It simply denotes ‘existing.’ Hence सकर्मक: means विद्यमानकर्मक: – he (the verbal root) whose object exists. Note: In the compound सकर्मक: the (optional) substitution ‘स’ (in place of सह) is as per the सूत्रम् 6-3-82 वोपसर्जनस्य। The affix ‘क’ at the end of ‘सकर्मक’ is a तद्धित: affix added स्वार्थे (without changing the meaning of the compound.)

6-3-82 वोपसर्जनस्य ।

वृत्तिः बहुव्रीहेरवयवस्य सहस्य स: स्याद्वा । When it is a part of a बहुव्रीहि: compound the indeclinable सह is optionally replaced by ‘स’।
Note: The word उपसर्जनस्य used in this सूत्रम् stands for उपसर्जनसर्वावयवकस्य समासस्य – of a compound in which every member is a उपसर्जनम्। उपसर्जनपदेन शास्त्रीयं लौकिकं च गृह्यते – In this सूत्रम् 6-3-82 the word उपसर्जनम् is used in the technical sense (as defined by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् and 1-2-44 एकविभक्ति चापूर्वनिपाते) as well as in the non-technical sense of अप्रधानम् ‘secondary.’ तेन सपुत्रादेरप्युपसर्जनसर्वावयवकत्वं बोध्यम् – Hence we can see that even in compounds such as ‘सहपुत्र’/’सपुत्र’ every member is a उपसर्जनम्। एतेषु सहशब्दस्य लौकिकोपसर्जनत्वाभावेऽपि शास्त्रीयमुपसर्जनत्वमस्त्येव – In these compounds even though सह is not a उपसर्जनम् in the non-technical sense it certainly does have the technical designation उपसर्जनम् (by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम्।)
Note: Even though every member of a द्वन्द्व: compound also has the designation उपसर्जनम्, it does not make sense to interpret उपसर्जनस्य as द्वन्दस्य in this सूत्रम् because सह does not fit in to a द्वन्द्व: compound.

Example continued from 2-2-28

सह + पुत्र
= सहपुत्र or सपुत्र 6-3-82. Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire term सह is replaced by ‘स’।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example पिता is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सहपुत्र’/’सपुत्र’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

सहपुत्र/सपुत्र + सुँ 4-1-2
= सहपुत्र/सपुत्र + स् 1-3-2, 1-3-9
= सहपुत्र:/सपुत्र: 8-2-66, 8-3-15

6-3-34 स्त्रियाः पुंवद्भाषितपुंस्कादनूङ् समानाधिकरणे स्त्रियामपूरणीप्रियादिषु ।

वृत्तिः तुल्ये प्रवृत्तिनिमित्ते यदुक्तपुंस्कं तस्मात्पर ऊङोऽभावो यत्र तथाभूतस्य स्त्रीवाचकस्य शब्दस्य पुंवाचकस्येव रूपं स्यात्समानाधिकरणे स्त्रीलिङ्‌गे उत्तरपदे, न तु पूरण्यां प्रियादौ च परत: । A feminine adjective which does not end in the feminine affix ‘ऊङ्’ (ref. 4-1-66 ऊङुतः etc) and is formed from a masculine base denoting the same meaning becomes masculine-like when it is followed by a feminine final member (of a compound) which has समानाधिकरणम् (same locus/reference) but not if the final member denotes an ordinal number or belongs to the class of words ‘प्रिया’ etc.
Note: भाषितपुंस्कादनूङ्‌ – निपतनात्पञ्चम्या अलुक्‌, षष्ठ्याश्च लुक्‌ – In the compound भाषितपुंस्कादनूङ्‌ there is an ad hoc non-elision of the fifth case affix (at the end of भाषितपुंस्कात्) and elision of the sixth case affix (at the end of भाषितपुंस्कादनूङ्‌)। The grammatically regular form would be भाषितपुंस्कानूङ:।

उदाहरणम् –

चित्रा गावो यस्य स: = चित्रगु: (नर:) – He (the man) who has variegated cows.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
चित्रा जस् + गो जस् 2-2-24. As per 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the adjective ‘चित्रा जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘चित्रा जस् + गो जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= चित्रागो 2-4-71
= चित्रगो 6-3-34
= चित्रगु 1-2-48, 1-1-52, 1-1-48

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example नर: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘चित्रगु’। It declines like गुरु-शब्द:।

चित्रगु + सुँ 4-1-2
= चित्रगु + स् 1-3-2, 1-3-9
= चित्रगु: 8-2-66, 8-3-15

उदाहरणम् –

रूपवती भार्या यस्य स: = रूपवद्भार्य: (नर:) – He (the man) who has a good looking wife.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
रूपवती सुँ + भार्या सुँ 2-2-24. As per 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the adjective ‘रूपवती सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘रूपवती सुँ + भार्या सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= रूपवतीभार्या 2-4-71
= रूपवत्भार्या 6-3-34
= रूपवत्भार्य 1-2-48, 1-1-52
= रूपवद्भार्य 8-2-39

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example नर: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘रूपवद्भार्य’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

रूपवद्भार्य + सुँ 4-1-2
= रूपवद्भार्य + स् 1-3-2, 1-3-9
= रूपवद्भार्य: 8-2-66, 8-3-15

भाषितपुंस्कात्‌ किम्‌? Why is the condition भाषितपुंस्कात्‌ mentioned in this सूत्रम्? Consider the example – गङ्गा भार्या यस्य स: = गङ्‌गाभार्य: – He (a man) whose wife is Gaṅgā. Here गङ्गा does not take पुंवद्भाव: (a masculine-like form) because the feminine noun गङ्गा does not have a corresponding masculine form denoting the same meaning. If the सूत्रम् did not mention the condition भाषितपुंस्कात्‌, here गङ्गा would have to take पुंवद्भाव: which is undesirable. Note: In the compound गङ्‌गाभार्य: the ending long vowel (‘आ’) of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् has been shortened as per 1-2-48 गोस्त्रियोरुपसर्जनस्य।

अनूङ्‌ किम्‌? Why is the condition अनूङ्‌ mentioned in this सूत्रम्? Consider the example – वामोरूर्भार्या यस्य स: = वामोरूभार्य: – He (a man) whose wife has lovely thighs. (वामोरू: is also a बहुव्रीहि: compound explained as वामावूरू यस्या: सा = वामोरू: – one (a woman) who has lovely thighs.) Here ‘वामोरू’ does not take पुंवद्भाव: (the corresponding masculine-like form ‘वामोरु’) because it ends in the feminine affix ऊङ् (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-70 संहितशफलक्षणवामादेश्च।) If the सूत्रम् did not mention the condition अनूङ्‌, here ‘वामोरू’ would have to take पुंवद्भाव: which is undesirable. Note: In the compound वामोरूभार्य: the ending long vowel (‘आ’) of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् has been shortened as per 1-2-48 गोस्त्रियोरुपसर्जनस्य।

समानाधिकरणे किम्‌? Why is the condition समानाधिकरणे mentioned in this सूत्रम्? Consider the example – कल्याण्या माता = कल्याणीमाता – Mother of an auspicious woman. Here ‘कल्याणी’ does not take पुंवद्भाव: (the corresponding masculine-like form ‘कल्याण’) because it does not have समानाधिकरणम् (same locus/reference) as ‘माता’। (‘कल्याणी’ and ‘माता’ refer to two different persons.) If the सूत्रम् did not mention the condition समानाधिकरणे, here ‘कल्याणी’ would have to take पुंवद्भाव: which is undesirable.

स्त्रियां किम्‌? Why is the condition स्त्रियाम् mentioned in this सूत्रम्? Consider the example – कल्याणी प्रधानं यस्य स: = कल्याणीप्रधान: – He (a man) who has an auspicious woman as his chief. Here ‘कल्याणी’ does not take पुंवद्भाव: (the corresponding masculine-like form ‘कल्याण’) because it is not followed by a feminine final member. (The noun ‘प्रधान’ is a neuter प्रातिपदिकम्।) If the सूत्रम् did not mention the condition स्त्रियाम्, here ‘कल्याणी’ would have to take पुंवद्भाव: which is undesirable.

अपूरणीति किम्‌? Why is the exclusion ‘अपूरणी’ mentioned in this सूत्रम्? Consider the example – कल्याणी पञ्चमी यासां (रात्रीणां) ता: = कल्याणीपञ्चमा: (रात्रय:) – Those (nights) whose fifth (night) is auspicious. Here ‘कल्याणी’ does not take पुंवद्भाव: (the corresponding masculine-like form ‘कल्याण’) because of the exclusion ‘अपूरणी’। (The feminine ordinal number पञ्चमी is a पूरणी-शब्द: because it ends in the पूरण-प्रत्यय: ‘डट्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 5-2-48 तस्य पूरणे डट्।) If the सूत्रम् did not mention the exclusion ‘अपूरणी’, here ‘कल्याणी’ would have to take पुंवद्भाव: which is undesirable. Note: The detailed derivation of the compound कल्याणीपञ्चमा: is shown under the सूत्रम् 5-4-116 अप् पूरणीप्रमाण्योः।

अप्रियादिष्विति किम्‌? Why is the exclusion अप्रियादिषु mentioned in this सूत्रम्? Consider the example – कल्याणी प्रिया यस्य स: = कल्याणीप्रिय: – He (a man) who has an auspicious woman as his beloved. Here ‘कल्याणी’ does not take पुंवद्भाव: (the corresponding masculine-like form ‘कल्याण’) because it is followed by ‘प्रिया’ which is the first member of the प्रियादि-गण:। If the सूत्रम् did not mention the exclusion अप्रियादिषु, here ‘कल्याणी’ would have to take पुंवद्भाव: which is undesirable. Note: In the compound कल्याणीप्रिय: the ending long vowel (‘आ’) of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् has been shortened as per 1-2-48 गोस्त्रियोरुपसर्जनस्य।
Another example – दर्शनीया कान्ता यस्य स: = दर्शनीयाकान्त: – He (a man) whose beloved is good-looking. Here ‘दर्शनीया’ does not take पुंवद्भाव: (the corresponding masculine-like form ‘दर्शनीय’) because it is followed by ‘कान्ता’ which is listed in the प्रियादि-गण:।

5-4-116 अप् पूरणीप्रमाण्योः ।

वृत्तिः पूरणार्थप्रत्ययान्तं यत्स्त्रीलिङ्गं तदन्तात्प्रमाण्यन्ताच्च बहुव्रीहेरप्स्यात् । Following a बहुव्रीहि: compound ending in either i) a feminine term which ends in a पूरण-प्रत्यय: (an affix prescribed by the rules 5-2-48 तस्य पूरणे डट् etc used to form an ordinal number) or ii) the term ‘प्रमाणी’, the तद्धित: affix अप् is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.

उदाहरणम् –

कल्याणी पञ्चमी यासां (रात्रीणां) ता: = कल्याणीपञ्चमा: (रात्रय:) – Those (nights) whose fifth (night) is auspicious

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
कल्याणी सुँ + पञ्चमी सुँ 2-2-24. As per 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the adjective ‘कल्याणी सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘कल्याणी सुँ + पञ्चमी सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= कल्याणीपञ्चमी 2-4-71. Note: Here ‘कल्याणी’ does not take पुंवद्भाव: (the corresponding masculine-like form ‘कल्याण’) because of the exclusion ‘अपूरणी’। (The feminine ordinal number पञ्चमी is a पूरणी-शब्द: because it ends in the पूरण-प्रत्यय: ‘डट्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 5-2-48 तस्य पूरणे डट्।)
= कल्याणीपञ्चमी + अप् 5-4-116
= कल्याणीपञ्चमी + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
= कल्याणीपञ्चम् + अ 1-4-18, 6-4-148. The gender/number/case of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example रात्रय: is being qualified. Hence we assign the feminine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कल्याणीपञ्चम’।
= कल्याणीपञ्चम + टाप् 4-1-4
= कल्याणीपञ्चम + आ 1-3-3, 1-3-7, 1-3-9
= कल्याणीपञ्चमा 6-1-101. The compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कल्याणीपञ्चमा’ declines like रमा-शब्द:।

उदाहरणम् –

स्त्री प्रमाणी यस्य स: = स्त्रीप्रमाणः – He (a man) for whom a woman is the authority

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
स्त्री सुँ + प्रमाणी सुँ 2-2-24. As per 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the adjective ‘स्त्री सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘स्त्री सुँ + प्रमाणी सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= स्त्रीप्रमाणी 2-4-71. Note: Here स्त्री does not take पुंवद्भाव: (a masculine-like form) by 6-3-34 because the feminine noun स्त्री does not have a corresponding masculine form denoting the same meaning.
= स्त्रीप्रमाणी + अप् 5-4-116
= स्त्रीप्रमाणी + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
= स्त्रीप्रमाण् + अ 1-4-18, 6-4-148
= स्त्रीप्रमाण

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example नर: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्त्रीप्रमाण’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

5-4-113 बहुव्रीहौ सक्थ्यक्ष्णोः स्वाङ्गात्‌ षच् ।

वृत्तिः स्वाङ्गवाचिसक्थ्यक्ष्यन्ताद्बहुव्रीहेः षच् स्यात् । Following a बहुव्रीहि: compound ending in either i) ‘सक्थि’ (when denoting a limb of one’s body) or ii) ‘अक्षि’ (when denoting a limb of one’s body) the तद्धित: affix षच् is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.
Note: In this सूत्रम् the seventh case affix used in बहुव्रीहौ actually stands for a fifth case affix. Hence बहुव्रीहौ should be interpreted as बहुव्रीहेः।
Note: In this सूत्रम् the sixth/seventh case affix used in सक्थ्यक्ष्णोः actually stands for a fifth case affix. Hence सक्थ्यक्ष्णोः should be interpreted as सक्थ्यक्षिभ्याम्। And since it is qualifying बहुव्रीहेः, as per 1-1-72 येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य we get सक्‍थ्‍यक्ष्यन्‍ताद् बहुव्रीहेः।
Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of बहुव्रीहौ runs from this सूत्रम् down to 5-4-160 निष्प्रवाणिश्च which is the last सूत्रम् in the Fifth Chapter of the अष्टाध्यायी।

उदाहरणम् –

दीर्घे सक्थिनी यस्य स: = दीर्घसक्‍थः (नर:) – He (a man) who has long thighs.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
दीर्घ औ + सक्थि औ 2-2-24. As per 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the adjective ‘दीर्घ औ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘दीर्घ औ + सक्थि औ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= दीर्घसक्थि 2-4-71
= दीर्घसक्थि + षच् 5-4-113
= दीर्घसक्थि + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-6, 1-3-9
= दीर्घसक्थ् + अ 1-4-18, 6-4-148
= दीर्घसक्‍थ

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example नर: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दीर्घसक्‍थ’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

In the feminine –

दीर्घे सक्थिनी यस्या: सा = दीर्घसक्‍थी (नारी) – She (a woman) who has long thighs.

दीर्घसक्‍थ + ङीष् 4-1-41
= दीर्घसक्‍थ + ई 1-3-3, 1-3-8, 1-3-9
= दीर्घसक्‍थ् + ई 1-4-18, 6-4-148
= दीर्घसक्‍थी

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example नारी is being qualified. Hence we assign the feminine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दीर्घसक्‍थी’। It declines like नदी-शब्द:।

उदाहरणम् –

विशाले अक्षिणी यस्या: सा = विशालाक्षी (देवी) – She (the goddess) who has big eyes.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
विशाल औ + अक्षि औ 2-2-24. As per 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the adjective ‘विशाल औ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘विशाल औ + अक्षि औ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= विशाल + अक्षि 2-4-71
= विशालाक्षि 6-1-101
= विशालाक्षि + षच् 5-4-113
= विशालाक्षि + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-6, 1-3-9
= विशालाक्ष् + अ 1-4-18, 6-4-148 The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example देवी is being qualified. Hence we assign the feminine gender to this compound प्रातिपदिकम्।
= विशालाक्ष + ङीष् 4-1-41
= विशालाक्ष + ई 1-3-3, 1-3-8, 1-3-9
= विशालाक्ष् + ई 1-4-18, 6-4-148
= विशालाक्षी । Declines like नदी-शब्द:।

स्‍वाङ्गात्‍किम्? Why does this सूत्रम् mention the condition स्वाङ्गात्‌? Consider the example – दीर्घं सक्थि यस्य तत् = दीर्घसक्थि (शकटम्) – that (a carriage) which has a long shaft. Here ‘सक्थि’ does not denote a limb of one’s body and hence the समासान्त-प्रत्यय: षच् (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 5-4-113) does not apply. Similarly in the example – स्थूलान्यक्षीणि (पर्वग्रन्थय:) यस्या: सा = स्‍थूलाक्षा (वेणुयष्‍टिः) – that (a bamboo-stick) which has large joints. (See derivation under the सूत्रम् 5-4-76 अक्ष्णोऽदर्शनात्‌।)

5-4-76 अक्ष्णोऽदर्शनात्‌ ।

वृत्तिः अचक्षु:पर्यायादक्ष्णोऽच्‌स्यात्समासान्त:। Following a compound ending in ‘अक्षि’ – when not denoting an eye – the तद्धित: affix अच् is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.
Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दर्शन’ as used in this सूत्रम् is derived by using the affix ल्युट् (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-3-117 करणाधिकरणयोश्च) to denote the instrument of the action (of seeing.) दृश्यतेऽनेनेति दर्शनम् – that by means of which something is seen is called दर्शनम्। Hence it stands for an eye.

उदाहरणम् –

स्थूलान्यक्षीणि (पर्वग्रन्थय:) यस्या: सा = स्‍थूलाक्षा (वेणुयष्‍टिः) – That (a bamboo-stick) which has large joints.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
स्‍थूल जस् + अक्षि जस् 2-2-24. As per 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the adjective ‘स्‍थूल जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘स्‍थूल जस् + अक्षि जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= स्‍थूल + अक्षि 2-4-71
= स्‍थूलाक्षि 6-1-101
= स्‍थूलाक्षि + अच् 5-4-76
= स्‍थूलाक्षि + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
= स्‍थूलाक्ष् + अ 1-4-18, 6-4-148. The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example वेणुयष्‍टिः is being qualified. Hence we assign the feminine gender to this compound प्रातिपदिकम्।
= स्‍थूलाक्ष + टाप् 4-1-4
= स्‍थूलाक्ष + आ 1-3-3, 1-3-7, 1-3-9
= स्‍थूलाक्षा 6-1-101. Declines like रमा-शब्द:।

उदाहरणम् –

गवामक्षीव = गवाक्ष: – A round window (which is like the bulls’ eye.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
गो आम् + अक्षि सुँ 2-2-8. As per 1-2-43 the term ‘गो आम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term ‘गो आम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘गो आम् + अक्षि सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= गो + अक्षि 2-4-71

6-1-123 अवङ् स्फोटायनस्य ।

वृत्तिः पदान्‍ते एङन्‍तस्‍य गोरवङ् वाऽचि । When followed by a vowel, the term ‘गो’ is optionally replaced by ‘अवङ्’ provided ‘गो’ ends in a letter belonging to the प्रत्याहार: ‘एङ्’ and this letter is at the end of a पदम्।
Note: The substitution ‘अवङ्’ takes place only in the opinion of the teacher स्फोटायन: (and not in the opinion of other teachers.) Hence it implies that the substitution is optional.
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-53 ङिच्च the substitution ‘अवङ्’ comes in place of only the ending letter (‘ओ’) of ‘गो’।

Example continued from 5-4-76

गो + अक्षि । Note: Here ‘गो’ does have the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows 6-1-123 to apply in the next step.
= ग् अवङ् + अक्षि 6-1-123, 1-1-53. Note: In the present situation the substitution ‘अवङ्’ in not optional because as per the commentators the option implied in the सूत्रम् 6-1-123 is a व्यवस्थित-विभाषा – an option which applies necessarily in some cases and does not apply at all in other cases (like in the present situation.)
= ग् अव + अक्षि 1-3-3, 1-3-9
= गवाक्षि 6-1-101
= गवाक्षि + अच् 5-4-76
= गवाक्षि + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
= गवाक्ष् + अ 1-4-18, 6-4-148
= गवाक्ष

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गवाक्ष’ should have been neuter since the latter member ‘अक्षि’ of the compound is neuter. But पुंस्त्वं लोकात् – this compound is used in the masculine gender in the language. It declines like राम-शब्द:।

पदान्‍ते किम्? Why does the सूत्रम् 6-1-123 require that the ‘एङ्’ letter (of ‘गो’) be at the end of a पदम् in order for the substitution ‘अवङ्’ to take place? Consider the example – गो + ङि = गो + इ 1-3-8, 1-3-9. Even though here ‘गो’ is followed by a vowel it does not take the substitution ‘अवङ्’ because the ending letter ‘ओ’ of ‘गो’ is not at the end of a पदम्। Hence 6-1-123 does not apply. We instead apply 6-1-78 to get गव् + इ = गवि।

5-4-122 नित्यमसिच् प्रजामेधयोः ।

वृत्तिः नञ्दु:सुभ्य इत्येव । Following a बहुव्रीहि: compound whose latter member is either ‘प्रजा’ or ‘मेधा’ and whose prior member is either (the negation particle) ‘नञ्’ or ‘दुस्’ or ‘सु’ the तद्धित: affix असिँच् is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.
Note: The term अन्यतरस्याम् in the prior सूत्रम् is not marked with a स्वरित: accent (ref. 1-3-11 स्वरितेनाधिकारः।) Hence the term अन्यतरस्याम् does not come down in to the present सूत्रम् 5-4-122. Then what is the point of mentioning नित्यम् in 5-4-122? As per the काशिका – नित्यग्रहणादन्यत्रापि भवतीति सूच्यते। The mention of नित्यम् in 5-4-122 suggests that the affix असिँच् may occur in situations other than those mentioned in 5-4-122. For example – अन्तवत्तु फलं तेषां तद्भवत्यल्पमेधसाम्‌ || गीता 7-23|| Here the latter member ‘मेधा’ is preceded by ‘अल्प’ (and not by ‘नञ्’ or ‘दुस्’ or ‘सु’) but still the affix असिँच् has been applied.

उदाहरणम् –

अविद्यमाना प्रजा यस्य स: = अप्रजा: (नर:) – He (the man) whose offspring does not exist.
Note: The लौकिक-विग्रह: for the compound अप्रजा: may also be stated as नास्ति प्रजा यस्य स:।
Note: The compound ‘अविद्यमान’ is formed using the सूत्रम् 2-2-6 नञ्‌। The elision of the letter ‘न्’ is done by the सूत्रम् 6-3-73 नलोपो नञः।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
अविद्यमान सुँ + प्रजा सुँ 2-2-24. As per 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the adjective ‘अविद्यमान सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘अविद्यमान सुँ + प्रजा सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= अविद्यमान + प्रजा 2-4-71
= अप्रजा By वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) नञोऽस्‍त्‍यर्थानां वाच्‍यो वा चोत्तरपदलोपः।
= अप्रजा + असिँच् 5-4-122
= अप्रजा + अस् 1-3-2, 1-3-3, 1-3-9
= अप्रज् + अस् 1-4-18, 6-4-148
= अप्रजस्

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example नर: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अप्रजस्’। It declines like ‘वेधस्’-शब्द:।

अप्रजस् + सुँ 4-1-2
= अप्रजस् + स् 1-3-2, 1-3-9
= अप्रजास् + स् 6-4-14
= अप्रजास् 6-1-68
= अप्रजा: 8-2-66, 8-3-15

We can similarly derive the following compounds –

दु: (दुष्टा:) प्रजा यस्य स: = दुष्प्रजा: – He whose offspring are bad.
सु (शोभना:) प्रजा यस्य स: = सुप्रजा: – He whose offspring are good.
अविद्यमाना मेधा यस्य स: = अमेधा: – He whose intelligence does not exist.
दु: (दुष्टा) मेधा यस्य स: = दुर्मेधा: – He whose intelligence is bad. Note: न विमुञ्चति दुर्मेधा धृतिः सा पार्थ तामसी || गीता 18-35||
सु (शोभना) मेधा यस्य स: = सुमेधा: – He whose intelligence is good.

5-4-124 धर्मादनिच् केवलात्‌ ।

वृत्तिः केवलात्पूर्वपदात्परो यो धर्मशब्दस्तदन्ताद्बहुव्रीहेरनिच्‌स्यात्‌ । Following a बहुव्रीहि: compound in which the prior member is a single पदम् and the final member is ‘धर्म’ the तद्धित: affix अनिँच्‌ is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.

उदाहरणम् –

कल्याणो धर्मो यस्य स: = कल्याणधर्मा – He (a man) whose duty/morality/nature is auspicious.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
कल्याण सुँ + धर्म सुँ 2-2-24. As per 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the adjective ‘कल्याण सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘कल्याण सुँ + धर्म सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= कल्याणधर्म 2-4-71
= कल्याणधर्म + अनिँच्‌ 5-4-124
= कल्याणधर्म + अन् 1-3-2, 1-3-3, 1-3-9
= कल्याणधर्म् + अन् 1-4-18, 6-4-148
= कल्याणधर्मन्

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example नर: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कल्याणधर्मन्’। It declines like ‘आत्मन्’-शब्द:।

कल्याणधर्मन् + सुँ 4-1-2. The affix ‘सुँ’ has the सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा here by 1-1-43.
= कल्याणधर्मन् + स् 1-3-2, 1-3-9
= कल्याणधर्मान् + स् 6-4-8
= कल्याणधर्मान् 6-1-68. Now ‘कल्याणधर्मान्’ gets the पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 with the help of 1-1-62.
= कल्याणधर्मा 8-2-7

केवलात्‌ किम्‌? To understand the importance of the condition केवलात्‌ mentioned in this सूत्रम् consider the example – परम: स्वो धर्मो यस्य = परमस्वधर्म: – He for whom his own duty is supreme. This is a बहुव्रीहि: compound composed of three members. So even though the final member is ‘धर्म’ we cannot apply 5-4-124 because the prior member is not a single पदम्। There are two prior members ‘परम’ and ‘स्व’।

But if we first form परमश्चासौ स्वश्च = परमस्व: as a कर्मधारय: compound and then form a बहुव्रीहि: compound परमस्वो धर्मो यस्य स: we can use 5-4-124 to get the form परमस्वधर्मा because the prior member is a single (compound) पदम् ‘परमस्व’।

5-4-132 धनुषश्च ।

वृत्तिः धनुरन्तस्य बहुव्रीहेरनङादेश: स्यात्‌ । The ending letter of a बहुव्रीहि: compound which ends in the term ‘धनुस्’ takes the substitution ‘अनँङ्’ and this substitution becomes the ending member of the compound. Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-53 ङिच्च only the ending letter of the compound – and not the entire compound – is replaced by ‘अनँङ्’।
Note: साहचर्यात् ङित्त्वश्रवणाच्चास्यादेशत्वम् – Based on the following two considerations we conclude that the ‘अनँङ्’ prescribed by this सूत्रम् is a आदेश: (substitute) and not a प्रत्यय: (affix) – i) The rules from 5-4-129 through 5-4-150 prescribe substitutions and not affixes. Since 5-4-132 is placed in this section it is logical to expect this सूत्रम् to prescribe a substitution ii) The purpose of the letter ‘ङ्’ as a इत् in ‘अनँङ्’ is to facilitate the application of 1-1-53 ङिच्च which only makes sense if ‘अनँङ्’ is a substitute.
Note: The purpose of specifying the substitution ‘अनँङ्’ as being the ending member of the compound is to prevent the application of 5-4-154 शेषाद्विभाषा which only applies if no other समासान्त: operation has been prescribed.

उदाहरणम् –

शार्ङ्गं धनुर्यस्य स: = शार्ङ्गधन्वा – He (Lord Viṣṇu) who has the bow (named) Śārṅga.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
शार्ङ्ग सुँ + धनुस् सुँ 2-2-24. As per 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the adjective ‘शार्ङ्ग सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘शार्ङ्ग सुँ + धनुस् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= शार्ङ्गधनुस् 2-4-71
= शार्ङ्गधनु अनँङ् 5-4-132, 1-1-53
= शार्ङ्गधनु अन् 1-3-2, 1-3-3, 1-3-9
= शार्ङ्गधन्वन् 6-1-77

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example विष्णु: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शार्ङ्गधन्वन्’। It declines like ‘यज्वन्’-शब्द:।

शार्ङ्गधन्वन् + सुँ 4-1-2. The affix ‘सुँ’ has the सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा here by 1-1-43.
= शार्ङ्गधन्वन् + स् 1-3-2, 1-3-9
= शार्ङ्गधन्वान् + स् 6-4-8
= शार्ङ्गधन्वान् 6-1-68. Now ‘शार्ङ्गधन्वान्’ gets the पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 with the help of 1-1-62.
= शार्ङ्गधन्वा 8-2-7

5-4-140 संख्यासुपूर्वस्य ।

वृत्तिः पादस्य लोप: स्यात्समासान्तो बहुव्रीहौ । The ending letter of a बहुव्रीहि: compound in which the prior member either denotes a number or is the term ‘सु’ and the final member is ‘पाद’ is elided and this elision becomes the ending member of the compound.
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य only the ending letter of the compound – and not the entire compound – is elided.
Note: The purpose of specifying the elision as being the ending member of the compound is to prevent the application of 5-4-154 शेषाद्विभाषा which only applies if no other समासान्त: operation has been prescribed.

उदाहरणम् –

द्वौ पादौ यस्य स: = द्विपात् – He (a man) who has two feet.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
द्वि औ + पाद औ 2-2-24. As per 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the adjective ‘द्वि औ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘द्वि औ + पाद औ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= द्विपाद 2-4-71
= द्विपाद् 5-4-140, 1-1-52

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example नर: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘द्विपाद्’।

द्विपाद् + सुँ 4-1-2
= द्विपाद् + स् 1-3-2, 1-3-9
= द्विपाद् 6-1-68. Now ‘द्विपाद्’ gets the पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 with the help of 1-1-62.
= द्विपात्/द्विपाद् 8-4-56

We can similarly derive the compound सु (शोभनौ) पादौ यस्य स: = सुपात् – He (a man) who has beautiful feet.

6-4-130 पादः पत् ।

वृत्तिः पाच्‍छब्‍दान्‍तं यदङ्गं भं तदवयवस्‍य पाच्‍छब्‍दस्‍य पदादेशः । The term ‘पद्’ is substituted in place of the term ‘पाद्’ which is part of a अङ्गम् (base) that i) has the designation ‘भ’ and ii) ends in the term ‘पाद्’।
Note: पादः is qualifying अङ्गस्य (which is coming down from 6-4-1 अङ्गस्य) and hence as per 1-1-72 येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य this सूत्रम् applies to a अङ्गम् ending in the term ‘पाद्’।
Note: The परिभाषा ‘निर्दिश्यमानस्यादेशा भवन्ति‘ states that ‘substitutes take the place of that (or part of that) which (in a rule) is actually enunciated.’ Hence it is the term ‘पाद्’ (which is actually enunciated in the सूत्रम् 6-4-130) and not the entire अङ्गम् which gets replaced. And since the substitute ‘पद्’ has more than one letter, as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire term ‘पाद्’ is replaced by ‘पद्’।

उदाहरणम् –

द्विपाद् + शस् 4-1-2
= द्विपाद् + अस् 1-3-8, 1-3-9. The अङ्गम् ‘द्विपाद्’ gets the designation ‘भ’ here by 1-4-18. Note: 1-3-4 prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘शस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
= द्विपद् + अस् 6-4-130, 1-1-55
= द्विपद: 8-2-66, 8-3-15

The declension table for ‘द्विपाद्’ is as follows –
प्रथमा – द्विपात्/द्विपाद्, द्विपादौ, द्विपाद:
द्वितीया – द्विपादम्, द्विपादौ, द्विपद:
तृतीया – द्विपदा, द्विपाद्भ्याम्, द्विपाद्भि:
चतुर्थी – द्विपदे, द्विपाद्भ्याम्, द्विपाद्भ्य:
पञ्चमी – द्विपद:, द्विपाद्भ्याम्, द्विपाद्भ्य:
षष्ठी – द्विपद:, द्विपदो:, द्विपदाम्
सप्तमी – द्विपदि, द्विपदो:, द्विपात्सु
सम्बोधनम् – (हे) द्विपात्/द्विपाद्, (हे) द्विपादौ, (हे) द्विपाद:

5-4-150 सुहृद्दुर्हृदौ मित्रामित्रयोः ।

वृत्तिः सुदुर्भ्यां हृदयस्य हृद्भावो निपात्यते । ‘सुहृद्’ and ‘दुर्हृद्’ are given as two ready-made compounds in the meaning of ‘friend’ and ‘enemy’ respectively. Note: This implies that when following ‘सु’ and ‘दुर्’ the term ‘हृदय’ is replaced by ‘हृद्’ to derive compounds meaning ‘friend’ and ‘enemy’ respectively.
Note: The compounds ‘सुहृद्’ and ‘दुर्हृद्’ could also be formed by using the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हृद्’ (instead of ‘हृदय’)। Hence the real purpose of this सूत्रम् is not to facilitate the construction of the compounds ‘सुहृद्’ and ‘दुर्हृद्’ but to prevent the construction of the compounds ‘सुहृदय’ and ‘दुर्हृदय’ in the meanings of ‘friend’ and ‘enemy’ respectively.

उदाहरणम् –

सु (शोभनं) हृदयं यस्य स: = सुहृत् (मित्रम्) – A friend.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
सु + हृदय सुँ 2-2-24. As per 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the adjective ‘सु’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘सु + हृदय सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= सु + हृदय 2-4-71
= सुहृद् 5-4-150

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example नर: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सुहृद्’।

सुहृद् + सुँ 4-1-2
= सुहृद् + स् 1-3-2, 1-3-9
= सुहृद् 6-1-68. Now ‘सुहृद्’ gets the पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 with the help of 1-1-62.
= सुहृत्/सुहृद् 8-4-56

We can similarly derive the compound दु: (दुष्टं/अशोभनं) हृदयं यस्य स: = दुर्हृत् (अमित्र:) – An enemy.

Note: अन्यत्र सुहृदय:, दुर्हृदय: – When the resulting compounds do not have the meanings of ‘friend’ and ‘enemy’ respectively this सूत्रम् does not apply. The substitution ‘हृद्’ (in the place of ‘हृदय’) does not take place. Hence we get the compounds –
सु (शोभनं) हृदयं यस्य स: = सुहृदय: – A man who has a good-heart
दु: (अशोभनं) हृदयं यस्य स: = दुर्हृदय: – A man who has an evil heart

5-4-151 उरःप्रभृतिभ्यः कप्‌ ।

वृत्तिः उर:प्रभृत्यन्ताद् बहुव्रीहे: कप् स्यात् समासान्त: । Following a बहुव्रीहि: compound ending in one of the terms ‘उरस्’ etc the तद्धित: affix कप्‌ is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.
Note: The उर:प्रभृतिगण: is listed as follows – उरस् । सर्पिस् । उपानह् । पुमान् । अनड्वान् । पय: । नौ: । लक्ष्मी: । दधि । मधु । शालि । अर्थान्नञ: (गणसूत्रम्)।
Note: इह पुमान्‌, अनड्वान्‌, पय:, नौ:, लक्षमीरित्येकवचनान्तानि पठ्यन्ते। In the listing of the उर:प्रभृतिगण: the five words पुमान्‌, अनड्वान्‌, पय:, नौ: and लक्षमी: are listed with a nominative singular ending. From this we conclude that the affix कप् (prescribed by this सूत्रम्) is applied following a बहुव्रीहि: compound ending in one of these five words only if one of these five words is used in the nominative singular in the compound. For example – प्रिया लक्ष्मीर्यस्य स: = प्रियलक्ष्मीक:।
द्विवचनबहुवचनान्तेभ्यस्तु शेषाद्विभाषा इति विकल्पेन कप्‌। Otherwise – if one of these words is used in the compound in the nominative dual or plural – the affix कप् is applied only optionally as per the सूत्रम् 5-4-154 शेषाद्विभाषा। For example प्रिया लक्ष्म्यो यस्य स: = प्रियलक्ष्मीक: प्रियलक्ष्मीर्वा।

उदाहरणम् –

व्यूढमुरो यस्य स: = व्यूढोरस्क: – He (a man) who has a broad chest.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
व्यूढ सुँ + उरस् सुँ 2-2-24. As per 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the adjective ‘व्यूढ सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘व्यूढ सुँ + उरस् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= व्यूढ + उरस् 2-4-71
= व्यूढोरस् 6-1-87
= व्यूढोरस् + कप् 5-4-151
= व्यूढोरस् + क 1-3-3, 1-3-9. Now ‘व्यूढोरस्’ gets the designation पदम् as per 1-4-17
= व्यूढोर: + क 8-2-66, 8-3-15

Example continued under 8-3-38 सोऽपदादौ

8-3-38 सोऽपदादौ ।

वृत्तिः पाश-कल्प-क-काम्येषु विसर्गस्य स: । The literal meaning of this सूत्रम् is that a विसर्ग: is replaced by the letter ‘स्’ when followed by a letter which is not at the beginning of a पदम् and belongs to either the क-वर्ग: or प-वर्ग:। The only time these conditions are satisfied is when a विसर्ग: is followed by either the affix ‘पाश’ or ‘कल्प’ or ‘क’ or ‘काम्य’। Hence this सूत्रम् effectively means that – when followed by the affix ‘पाश’ or ‘कल्प’ or ‘क’ or ‘काम्य’ a विसर्ग: is replaced by the letter ‘स्’।

Example continued from 5-4-151

व्यूढोर: + क
= व्यूढोरस्क 8-3-38

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example नर: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘व्यूढोरस्क’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

अर्थान्नञ: । गण-सूत्रम् (in the उरःप्रभृतिगण: (ref. 5-4-151) of the गणपाठ:) ।

Following a बहुव्रीहि: compound which has the negation particle ‘नञ्’ as its prior member and ‘अर्थ’ as its final member the तद्धित: affix कप्‌ is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.

उदाहरणम् –

अविद्यमानोऽर्थो यस्य तत् = अनर्थकं (वच:) = A meaningless statement.

Note: The compound ‘अविद्यमान’ is formed using the सूत्रम् 2-2-6 नञ्‌। The elision of the letter ‘न्’ is done by the सूत्रम् 6-3-73 नलोपो नञः।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
अविद्यमान सुँ + अर्थ सुँ 2-2-24. As per 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the adjective ‘अविद्यमान सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘अविद्यमान सुँ + अर्थ सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= अविद्यमान + अर्थ 2-4-71
= अ + अर्थ By वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) नञोऽस्‍त्‍यर्थानां वाच्‍यो वा चोत्तरपदलोपः
= अ + नुँट् अर्थ 6-3-74, 1-1-46
= अ + न् अर्थ 1-3-2, 1-3-3, 1-3-9
= अनर्थ + कप् by the गण-सूत्रम् (in the उरःप्रभृतिगण: (ref. 5-4-151) of the गणपाठ:) अर्थान्नञ:
= अनर्थक 1-3-3, 1-3-9

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example वच: is being qualified. Hence we assign the neuter gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अनर्थक’। It declines like वन-शब्द:।

8-3-39 इणः षः ।

वृत्तिः इण उत्तरस्य विसर्गस्य पाश-कल्प-क-काम्येषु ष: । The literal meaning of this सूत्रम् is that a विसर्ग: is replaced by the letter ‘ष्’ when it is preceded by a letter of the इण्-प्रत्याहार: and followed by a letter which is not at the beginning of a पदम् and belongs to either the क-वर्ग: or प-वर्ग:। The only time these conditions are satisfied is when a विसर्ग: is preceded by a letter of the इण्-प्रत्याहार: and followed by either the the affix ‘पाश’ or ‘कल्प’ or ‘क’ or ‘काम्य’। Hence this सूत्रम् effectively means that – when preceded by a letter of the इण्-प्रत्याहार: and followed by the affix ‘पाश’ or ‘कल्प’ or ‘क’ or ‘काम्य’ a विसर्ग: is replaced by the letter ‘ष्’।
Note: The present सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to the prior सूत्रम् 8-3-38 सोऽपदादौ।

उदाहरणम् –

प्रियं सर्पिर्यस्य स: = प्रियसर्पिष्क: – He (the man) who likes ghee.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
प्रिय सुँ + सर्पिस् सुँ 2-2-24. As per 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the adjective ‘प्रिय सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘प्रिय सुँ + सर्पिस् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= प्रिय + सर्पिस् 2-4-71
= प्रियसर्पिस् + कप् 5-4-151
= प्रियसर्पिस् + क 1-3-3, 1-3-9. Now ‘प्रियसर्पिस्’ gets the designation पदम् as per 1-4-17
= प्रियसर्पि: + क 8-2-66, 8-3-15
= प्रियसर्पिष्क 8-3-39

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example नर: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रियसर्पिष्क’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

5-4-153 नद्‍यृतश्च ।

वृत्तिः नद्‍युत्तरपदादृदन्तोत्तरपदाच्च बहुव्रीहे: कप्स्यात्‌ । Following a बहुव्रीहि: compound whose final member either has the designation नदी or ends in the letter ‘ऋ’ the तद्धित: affix कप्‌ is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.

उदाहरणम् –

बहव: कर्तारो यस्य स: = बहुकर्तृक: (समारम्भ:) – That (an undertaking) which has may doers/participants.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
बहु जस् + कर्तृ जस् 2-2-24. As per 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the adjective ‘बहु जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘बहु जस् + कर्तृ जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= बहु + कर्तृ 2-4-71
= बहुकर्तृ + कप् 5-4-153
= बहुकर्तृक 1-3-3, 1-3-9

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example समारम्भ: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘बहुकर्तृक’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

उदाहरणम् –

बह्व्य: कुमार्यो यस्मिन् स: = बहुकुमारीक: (देश:) – A place where there are many maidens.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
बह्वी जस् + कुमारी जस् 2-2-24. As per 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the adjective ‘बह्वी जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘बह्वी जस् + कुमारी जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= बह्वी + कुमारी 2-4-71
= बहुकुमारी 6-3-34
= बहुकुमारी + कप् 5-4-153
= बहुकुमारीक 1-3-3, 1-3-9. Now 7-4-13 would shorten the ending long vowel ‘ई’ of ‘बहुकुमारी’ but is prevented from doing so by 7-4-14.

Example continued under 7-4-13

7-4-13 केऽणः ।

वृत्तिः के परेऽणो ह्रस्व: स्यात् । A long vowel belonging to the प्रत्याहार: ‘अण्’ is replaced by its short counterpart when followed by the affix ‘क’।

Example continued from 5-4-153

बहुकुमारीक । 7-4-13 would shorten the ending long vowel ‘ई’ of ‘बहुकुमारी’ but is prevented from doing so by 7-4-14.

Example continued under 7-4-14

7-4-14 न कपि ।

वृत्तिः कपि परे ह्रस्वो न स्यात् । A long vowel belonging to the प्रत्याहार: ‘अण्’ is not replaced by its short counterpart when followed by the affix ‘कप्’।

Example continued from 7-4-13

बहुकुमारीक । 7-4-13 would shorten the ending long vowel ‘ई’ of ‘बहुकुमारी’ but is prevented by doing so by 7-4-14.

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example देश: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘बहुकुमारीक’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

5-4-154 शेषाद्विभाषा ।

वृत्तिः अनुक्तसमासान्ताच्छेषाधिकारस्थाद्बहुव्रीहे: कब्वा स्यात्‌ । Following a बहुव्रीहि: compound for which no other समासान्त: operation has been prescribed and which is composed using a rule in the अधिकार: of शेष: (which runs from 2-2-23 शेषो बहुव्रीहिः to 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) the तद्धित: affix कप्‌ is optionally prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.
Note: शेषशब्दोऽर्थद्वयपर: – The word ‘शेष’ as used in this सूत्रम् carries two meanings – i) it refers to a compound other than one for which a समासान्त: operation has already been prescribed and ii) it refers to a compound composed by a rule in the अधिकार: of शेष: (which runs from 2-2-23 शेषो बहुव्रीहिः to 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे।)

उदाहरणम् –

महद्यशो यस्य स: = महायशा:/महायशस्क: – He who has great renown.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
महत् सुँ + यशस् सुँ 2-2-24. As per 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the adjective ‘महत् सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘महत् सुँ + यशस् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= महत् + यशस् 2-4-71
= मह आ + यशस् 6-3-46, 1-1-52
= महायशस् 6-1-101

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example नर: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महायशस्’। It declines like ‘वेधस्’-शब्द:।

महायशस् + सुँ 4-1-2
= महायशस् + स् 1-3-2, 1-3-9
= महायशास् + स् 6-4-14
= महायशास् 6-1-68. Now ‘महायशास्’ gets the पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 with the help of 1-1-62.
= महायशा: 8-2-66, 8-3-15

कप्-पक्षे

महायशस् + कप् 5-4-154
= महायशस् + क 1-3-3, 1-3-9. Now ‘महायशस्’ gets the designation पदम् as per 1-4-17
= महायश: + क 8-2-66, 8-3-15
= महायशस्क 8-3-38

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example नर: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महायशस्क’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

Note: अनुक्तसमासान्तात्‌ किम्‌? Why does the वृत्ति: of this सूत्रम् say अनुक्तसमासान्तात्‌ (following a compound other than one for which a समासान्त: operation has already been prescribed)? Consider the example – द्वौ पादौ यस्य स: = द्विपात्। This compound has already undergone a समासान्त: operation in the form of an elision (prescribed by 5-4-140) of its final letter ‘अ’। Hence it now cannot optionally take the समासान्त: affix कप् (prescribed by 5-4-154.)
Note: शेषाधिकारस्थात्‌ किम्‌? Why does the वृत्ति: of this सूत्रम् say शेषाधिकारस्थात्‌ (following a compound composed by a rule in the the अधिकार: of शेष: (which runs from 2-2-23 शेषो बहुव्रीहिः to 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे))? Consider the example – पुत्रेण सह (आगत: पिता) = सहपुत्र:/सपुत्र: (आगत: पिता)। This compound is composed using the सूत्रम् 2-2-28 which is outside the अधिकार: of शेष:। Hence it cannot optionally take the समासान्त: affix कप् (prescribed by 5-4-154.)

7-4-15 आपोऽन्यतरस्याम् ।

वृत्तिः कप्याबन्तस्य ह्रस्वो वा स्यात् । (The ending long vowel ‘आ’ of) a अङ्गम् (base) ending in the feminine affix ‘आप्’ is optionally replaced by its short counterpart ‘अ’ when followed by the affix ‘कप्’। Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य only the ending long vowel ‘आ’ of the अङ्गम् – and not the entire अङ्गम् – is replaced.

उदाहरणम् –

बह्व्यो माला यस्य स: = बहुमाल:/बहुमालाक:/बहुमालक: (नर:) – He (the man) who has many garlands.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
बह्वी जस् + माला जस् 2-2-24. As per 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the adjective ‘बह्वी जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘बह्वी जस् + माला जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= बह्वी + माला 2-4-71
= बहुमाला 6-3-34
= बहुमाल 1-2-48, 1-1-52

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example नर: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘बहुमाल’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

कप्-पक्षे

बहुमाला + कप् 5-4-154
= बहुमाला + क 1-3-3, 1-3-9
= बहुमालक/बहुमालाक 7-4-15

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example नर: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘बहुमालक/बहुमालाक’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

द्वन्द्वसमासप्रकरणम्‌ ।

2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः ।

वृत्तिः अनेकं सुबन्तं चार्थे वर्तमानं वा समस्यते स द्वन्द्वः । Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

Note: This सूत्रम् has the अनुवृत्ति: of ‘अनेकम्’ from 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे and ‘सुँप्’ from 2-1-2 सुबामन्त्रिते पराङ्गवत्‌ स्वरे। As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-72 येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य, ‘सुँप्’ is interpreted as सुँबन्तम्।
Note: This सूत्रम् is in the अधिकार: of समासः (which starts from 2-1-3 प्राक् कडारात्‌ समासः) and विभाषा (which starts from 2-1-11 विभाषा।)
Note: In general, a द्वन्द्व: compound is उभयपदप्रधान: which means that both (all) its members have prominence. (Unless the compound denotes a समाहार: (collection) in which case the group has prominence but not the individual members.)
So for example – हरिहरौ वन्दे – I salute/worship Lord Viṣṇu and Lord Śiva. Both Lord Viṣṇu and Lord Śiva are participating (as the objects) equally in the action of saluting/worshiping.

Note: समुच्चयान्वाचयेतरेतरयोगसमाहाराश्चार्थाः । ‘च’ may indicate any one of the following four meanings – समुच्चय:, अन्वाचय:, इतरेतरयोग: or समाहार:। तत्र ‘ईश्वरं गुरुं च भजस्व’ इति परस्परनिरपेक्षस्यानेकस्यैकस्मिन्नन्वयः समुच्चयः । Among these four meanings, समुच्चय: is when two or more terms (having the designation पदम्) not having mutual expectancy are connected with a single factor as in the example – Worship the Lord and the teacher. Here the term ‘the Lord’ first connects with the action of worshiping and then the term ‘the teacher’ connects separately with the same action. Hence these two terms do not have mutual expectancy.
‘भिक्षामट गां चानय’ इत्यन्यतरस्यानुषङ्गिकत्वेन अन्वयोऽन्वाचयः । The meaning अन्वाचय: is when two or more terms (having the designation पदम्) of unequal importance are connected with separate factors as in the example – Roam for alms and bring a cow. Here roaming for alms is primary while bringing the cow is secondary/incidental. The person will certainly roam for alms. He will bring a cow only if he happens to see one.
अनयोरसामर्थ्यात्समासो न । In the above two meaning of ‘च’ no compounding is possible because the terms lack a proper syntactic relationship.

‘धवखदिरौ छिन्धि’ इति मिलितानामन्वय इतरेतरयोगः । इतरेतरयोगः is when two or more terms (having the designation पदम्) having mutual expectancy connect jointly with a single factor while the individuality of the terms is not lost as in the example – Cut the Dhava and Khadira trees. Note: A द्वन्द्वः compound which expresses इतरेतरयोगः is either dual (if it has two members) or plural (if it has three or more members) in number. And as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, its gender is the same as the gender of the final member of the compound.

धवश्च खदिरश्च = धवखदिरौ (तौ छिन्धि) – The Dhava and Khadira trees. (Cut those two.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
धव सुँ + खदिर सुँ 2-2-29. As per 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम्, ‘धव सुँ’ as well as ‘खदिर सुँ’ has the designation उपसर्जनम्। Hence 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ cannot help us here in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.

Example continued under 2-2-34

‘संज्ञापरिभाषम्’ इति समूहः समाहारः । The meaning समाहारः is when there is a collection of two or more terms (having the designation पदम्) and the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group as in the example – A group of a name/designation and a rule of interpretation. Note: Since there is only a single group in a द्वन्द्वः compound which expresses a समाहारः it is always singular in number and as per 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌ it is always neuter in gender.

संज्ञा च परिभाषा च तयो: समाहार: = संज्ञापरिभाषम् – A group of a name/designation and a rule of interpretation
Note: The लौकिक-विग्रह: may also be stated as संज्ञा च परिभाषा चानयो: समाहार: or संज्ञा च परिभाषा च समाहृते or even simply as संज्ञा च परिभाषा च।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
संज्ञा सुँ + परिभाषा सुँ 2-2-29. As per 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम्, ‘संज्ञा सुँ’ as well as ‘परिभाषा सुँ’ has the designation उपसर्जनम्। Hence 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ cannot help us here in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.

Example continued under 2-2-34

2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ ।

वृत्तिः अल्पाच्तरं पदं द्वन्द्वे पूर्वं स्यात् । In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.

Example continued from 2-2-29

धव सुँ + खदिर सुँ । ‘धव’ has two syllables while ‘खदिर’ has three. Hence as per 2-2-34, ‘धव सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound. Note: ‘धव सुँ + खदिर सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= धवखदिर 2-4-71

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धवखदिर’ is masculine since the final member ‘खदिर’ of the compound is masculine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members. It declines like राम-शब्द:।

Example continued from 2-2-29

संज्ञा सुँ + परिभाषा सुँ । ‘संज्ञा’ has two syllables while ‘परिभाषा’ has four. Hence as per 2-2-34, ‘संज्ञा सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound. Note: ‘संज्ञा सुँ + परिभाषा सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= संज्ञापरिभाषा 2-4-71. Since there is only a single group in a द्वन्द्वः compound which expresses a समाहारः it is always singular in number and as per 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌ it is always neuter in gender.
= संज्ञापरिभाष 1-2-47, 1-1-52. The compound declines like वन-शब्द:।

उदाहरणम् –

शिवश्च केशवश्च = शिवकेशवौ – Lord Śiva and Lord Viṣṇu

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
शिव सुँ + केशव सुँ 2-2-29. ‘शिव’ has two syllables while ‘केशव’ has three. Hence as per 2-2-34, ‘शिव सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound. Note: ‘शिव सुँ + केशव सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= शिवकेशव 2-4-71

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शिवकेशव’ is masculine since the final member ‘केशव’ of the compound is masculine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members. It declines like राम-शब्द:।

Note: बहुष्वनियम: – when more than one member of the compound has the least number of syllables (vowels), any of these members may be placed in the prior position and the remaining members of the compound may be placed in any order. For example, शङ्खश्च दुन्दुभिश्च वीणा च = शङ्खदुन्दुभिवीणा: or शङ्खवीणादुन्दुभय: or वीणाशङ्खदुन्दुभय: or वीणादुन्दुभिशङ्खा:।

Note: In the सूत्रम् 3-2-126 लक्षणहेत्वोः क्रियायाः, पाणिनि: himself has not followed the सूत्रम् 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌। This gives us a hint that we may occasionally find violations of the rules which prescribe prior placement in a compound.

2-2-31 राजदन्तादिषु परम्‌ ।

वृत्तिः एषु पूर्वप्रयोगार्हं परं स्यात् । दन्तानां राजानो राजदन्ताः । In the list of compounds ‘राजदन्त’ etc the term which ought to be placed in the prior position in the compound is actually placed in the latter position.
Note: Some compounds in the राजदन्तादि-गण: are तत्पुरुष: compounds while others are द्वन्द्व: compounds.
Note: आकृतिगणोऽयम्‌ – the राजदन्तादि-गण: is a आकृतिगण: – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence when we see a शिष्ट-प्रयोग: (a scholarly usage) of a compound in which the term which ought to be placed in the prior position in the compound is actually placed in the latter position, we may justify the usage by considering the compound as part of the राजदन्तादि-गण:।

उदाहरणम् –

दन्तानां राजा = राजदन्त: – the king of teeth. It refers to the front middle tooth. The word राजा has been used here in the sense of प्रधान: (main/principal.)
Note: According to some, there are a total of four teeth (the two front middle teeth on the top row and the two front middle teeth on the bottom row) that are called (चत्वारो) राजदन्ता:। While according to others only the two front middle teeth on the top row are called राजदन्तौ।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
दन्त आम् + राजन् सुँ 2-2-8. As per 1-2-43 the term ‘दन्त आम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term ‘दन्त आम्’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound. But since this compound is part of the राजदन्तादि-गण: we place ‘दन्त आम्’ in the latter position
= राजन् सुँ + दन्त आम् 2-2-31 Note: ‘राजन् सुँ + दन्त आम्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= राजन् + दन्त 2-4-71. Note: Here ‘राजन्’ has the designation पदम् as per 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य to apply in the next step.
= राजदन्त 8-2-7

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘राजदन्त’ is masculine since the latter member ‘दन्त’ of the compound is masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

Note: धर्मादिष्वनियम: – In द्वन्द्व: compounds, the terms ‘धर्म’ etc may be placed either in the prior or latter position in the compound.

उदाहरणम् –

धर्मश्चार्थश्च = धर्मार्थौ or अर्थधर्मौ – righteousness and prosperity

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
धर्म सुँ + अर्थ सुँ 2-2-29. As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌, ‘अर्थ सुँ’ should necessarily be placed in the prior position in the compound because ‘अर्थ’ begins with a vowel and ends with the letter ‘अ’।
= धर्म सुँ + अर्थ सुँ or अर्थ सुँ + धर्म सुँ 2-2-31. Since the compound धर्मार्थौ as well as अर्थधर्मौ is listed in the राजदन्तादि-गण: it can be concluded that ‘धर्म सुँ’ may be placed in the final or prior position in the compound. Note: ‘धर्म सुँ + अर्थ सुँ’ as well as ‘अर्थ सुँ + धर्म सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= धर्म + अर्थ or अर्थ + धर्म 2-4-71
= धर्मार्थ or अर्थधर्म 6-1-101

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धर्मार्थ’ as well as ‘अर्थधर्म’ is masculine since the final member ‘अर्थ’ (of the compound ‘धर्मार्थ’) as well as ‘धर्म’ (of the compound ‘अर्थधर्म’) is masculine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members. It declines like राम-शब्द:।

We may similarly justify the following compounds – शब्दार्थौ/अर्थशब्दौ, कामार्थौ/अर्थकामौ, आद्यन्तौ/अन्तादी, गुणवृद्धी/वृद्धिगुणौ etc.

उदाहरणम् –

जाया च पतिश्च = जायापती/दम्पती/जम्पती – wife and husband.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
जाया सुँ + पति सुँ 2-2-29. ‘पति’ has the designation ‘घि’ as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-8 पतिः समास एव and hence as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि we should place ‘पति सुँ’ in the prior position in the compound.
= जाया सुँ + पति सुँ 2-2-31. In spite of the सूत्रम् 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि, ‘पति सुँ’ is placed in the final position in the compound in order to arrive at the compound जायापती as listed in the राजदन्तादि-गण:। Note: ‘जाया सुँ + पति सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= जायापति 2-4-71

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जायापति’ is masculine since the final member ‘पति’ of the compound is masculine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members. It declines like हरि-शब्द:।

Note: जायाशब्दस्य जम्भावो दम्भावश्च वा निपात्यते – The compounds जम्पती and दम्पती are listed in the राजदन्तादि-गण: hence we conclude that ‘जाया’ may optionally take the form ‘जम्’ or ‘दम्’ in the compound जायापती to give the two optional compound forms जम्पती and दम्पती।

2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि ।

वृत्तिः द्वन्द्वे घिसंज्ञं पूर्वं स्यात् । In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the designation ‘घि’ is placed in the prior position.
Note: The designation ‘घि’ is defined by the सूत्रम् 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि।

उदाहरणम् –

हरिश्च हरश्च = हरिहरौ – Lord Viṣṇu and Lord Śiva.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
हरि सुँ + हर सुँ 2-2-29. ‘हरि’ has the designation ‘घि’ (by 1-4-7) while ‘हर’ does not. Hence as per 2-2-32, ‘हरि सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound. Note: ‘हरि सुँ + हर सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= हरिहर 2-4-71

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हरिहर’ is masculine since the final member ‘हर’ of the compound is masculine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members. It declines like राम-शब्द:।

उदाहरणम् –

सखा च सुतश्च = सखिसुतौ or सुतसखायौ – A friend and a son.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
सखि सुँ + सुत सुँ 2-2-29
= सखि सुँ + सुत सुँ or सुत सुँ + सखि सुँ । Because of the exclusion ‘असखि’ mentioned in the सूत्रम् 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि, ‘सखि’ does not have the designation ‘घि’। ‘सुत’ does not have the designation ‘घि’ either. Hence 2-2-32 does not apply and as a result either ‘सखि सुँ’ or ‘सुत सुँ’ may be placed in the prior position in this compound. Note: ‘सखि सुँ + सुत सुँ’ as well as ‘सुत सुँ + सखि सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= सखिसुत or सुतसखि 2-4-71

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सखिसुत’ as well as ‘सुतसखि’ is masculine since the final member ‘सुत’ (of the compound ‘सखिसुत’) as well as ‘सखि’ (of the compound ‘सुतसखि’) is masculine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members. ‘सखिसुत’declines like राम-शब्द: while ‘सुतसखि’declines like सखि-शब्द:।

Note: अनेकत्रप्रप्तावेकत्र नियमोऽनियम: शेषे । This is a वार्तिकम् under the सूत्रम् 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि। When more than one term in a द्वन्द्वः compound has the designation ‘घि’, any one of these terms (having the designation ‘घि’) may be placed in the prior position in the compound and the remaining terms of the compound may be placed in any order. So for example, हरिश्च हरश्च गुरुश्च = हरिहरगुरव: or हरिगुरुहरा: or गुरुहरहरय: or गुरुहरिहरा:।

2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌ ।

वृत्तिः अजाद्यदन्तं पदं द्वन्द्वे पूर्वं स्यात् । In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term which begins with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’ is placed in the prior position.

उदाहरणम् –

ईशश्च कृष्णश्च = ईशकृष्णौ – Lord Śiva and Lord Kriṣṇa.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
ईश सुँ + कृष्ण सुँ 2-2-29. ‘ईश’ begins with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’। Hence as per 2-2-33, ‘ईश सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound. Note: ‘ईश सुँ + कृष्ण सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= ईशकृष्ण 2-4-71

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ईशकृष्ण’ is masculine since the final member ‘कृष्ण’ of the compound is masculine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members. It declines like राम-शब्द:।

Note: बहुष्वनियम: – when more than one member of the compound begins with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’, any of these members may be placed in the prior position (and the remaining members of the compound may be placed in any order.) For example, अश्वश्च रथश्च इन्द्रश्च = अश्वरथेन्द्रा: or अश्वेन्द्ररथा: or इन्द्ररथाश्वा: or इन्द्राश्वरथा:।
Note: घ्यन्तादजाद्यदन्तं विप्रतिषेधेन – The सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌ being a later rule in the अष्टाध्यायी has greater force than the earlier rule 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि। Hence when in a द्वन्द्व: compound there is one term which has the designation ‘घि’ and another which beings with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’, the term which beings with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’ is placed in the prior position. For example इन्द्रश्च वायुश्च = इन्द्रवायू।
[Similarly the सूत्रम् 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ being a later rule in the अष्टाध्यायी has greater force than the prior rule 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌ (which in turn has greater force than the prior rule 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि।)]

वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) लघ्वक्षरं पूर्वम्‌ ।

In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term whose vowels have the designation ‘लघु’ (ref. 1-4-10 ह्रस्वं लघु) is placed in the prior position.

For example, कुशाश्च काशाश्चैषां समाहार: = कुशकाशम् – A collection of Kuśa and Kāśa grass. ‘कुश’ is placed in the prior position because both of its vowels (‘उ’ and ‘अ’) have the designation ‘लघु’ while in ‘काश’ the vowel ‘आ’ does not have the designation ‘लघु’।

वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) अभ्यर्हितं च ।

In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term which denotes that which commands greater respect is placed in the prior position.
Note: This वार्तिकम् over-rides all the other rules which prescribe placement in a prior position in a द्वन्द्व: compound.

For example, वासुदेवश्चार्जुनश्च = वासुदेवार्जुनौ – Lord Kriṣṇa (son of Vasudeva) and Arjuna. As per 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ (as well as 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌) ‘अर्जुन’ should have been placed in the prior position in this compound. But since Lord Kriṣṇa (the teacher) commands greater respect than Arjuna (the student), ‘वासुदेव’ is placed in the prior position as per this वार्तिकम्।

वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) भ्रातुर्ज्यायस: ।

In a द्वन्द्व: compound the name of an elder brother is placed in the prior position.

For example, युधिष्ठिरश्चार्जुनश्च = युधिष्ठिरार्जुनौ – Yudhiṣṭhira and Arjuna. As per 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ (as well as 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌) ‘अर्जुन’ should have been placed in the prior position in this compound. But since Yudhiṣṭhira is the name of the elder brother, ‘युधिष्ठिर’ is placed in the prior position as per this वार्तिकम्।

वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) सङ्ख्याया अल्पीयस्याः पूर्वनिपातो वक्तव्यः ।

In a compound the term which denotes a smaller number is placed in the prior position.

For example, पञ्च च दश च = पञ्चदश – Fifteen (five and ten.) As per the वार्तिकम् ‘लघ्वक्षरं पूर्वम्‌’, ‘दश’ should have been placed in the prior position in this compound. But since ‘पञ्च’ denotes a smaller number it is placed in the prior position as per this वार्तिकम्।

2-4-2 द्वन्द्वश्च प्राणितूर्यसेनाङ्गानाम्‌ ।

वृत्तिः एषां द्वन्द्व एकवत् । A द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms denote either the limbs of a living being or players of musical instruments in a band or parts of an army is always singular in number and hence always expresses a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) and not इतरेतरयोग: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is evident.)
Note: द्विगुरेकवचनमित्यत एकवचनं वर्तते – The अनुवृत्ति: of एकवचनम् comes down from the prior सूत्रम् 2-4-1 द्विगुरेकवचनम्‌ in to this सूत्रम् 2-4-2.
Note: समाहारस्यैकत्वादेकत्वे सिद्धे नियमार्थं प्रकरणम्‌ – We already have the सूत्रम् 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः which may be used to construct a द्वन्द्व: compound expressing a समाहार: (which is always singular.) परिभाषा # 34 in the परिभाषेन्दुशेखर: (by नागेशभट्ट:) states – सर्वो द्वन्द्वो विभाषैकवद् भवति। Then why do we need the section of the अष्टाध्यायी starting with the present सूत्रम् (down to 2-4-11) to prescribe singularity? It is नियमार्थम् (for the purpose of restriction) meaning that the द्वन्द्व: compounds mentioned in this section may be constructed only in the sense of समाहारे (and not इरेतरयोगे।)

उदाहरणम् –

पाणी च पादौ चैषां समाहार: = पाणिपादम् – A group of (two) hands and (two) legs.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
पाणि औ + पाद औ 2-2-29. ‘पाणि’ has the designation ‘घि’ (by 1-4-7) while ‘पाद’ does not. Hence as per 2-2-32, ‘पाणि औ’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound. Note: ‘पाणि औ + पाद औ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= पाणिपाद 2-4-71
Since the terms of this द्वन्द्व: compound denote the limbs of a living being, it is always singular in number and hence always expresses a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) as per the present सूत्रम् 2-4-2. And as per 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌ it is neuter in gender. The compound declines like वन-शब्द:।

We can similarly derive the following compounds-
मार्दङ्गिकाश्च वैणविकाश्चैषां समाहार: = मार्दङ्गिकवैणविकम् – A group of Mṛdaṅga (a kind of drum) players and Vīṇa (lute) players.
Since the terms of this द्वन्द्व: compound denote players of musical instruments in a band, it is always singular in number and hence always expresses a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) as per the present सूत्रम् 2-4-2. And as per 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌ it is neuter in gender. The compound declines like वन-शब्द:।

रथिकाश्चाश्वारोहाश्चैषां समाहार: = रथिकाश्वारोहम् – A group of chariot riders and horse-back riders.
Since the terms of this द्वन्द्व: compound denote parts of an army, it is always singular in number and hence always expresses a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) as per the present सूत्रम् 2-4-2. And as per 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌ it is neuter in gender. The compound declines like वन-शब्द:।

Note: If the terms of a द्वन्द्व: compound denote parts of an army that are just animals (and not riders) then the compound only optionally expresses a समाहार: as per the later सूत्रम् 2-4-12 विभाषा वृक्षमृगतृणधान्यव्यञ्जनपशुशकुन्यश्ववडवपूर्वापराधरोत्तराणाम्‌। (हस्त्यश्वादिषु सेनाङ्गत्वात् नित्ये प्राप्ते विकल्पनार्थम्।)
For example – हस्तिनोऽश्वाश्च = हस्त्यश्वम् or हस्त्यश्वा:।

2-4-6 जातिरप्राणिनाम्‌ ।

वृत्तिः प्राणिवर्ज्यजातिवाचिनां द्वन्द्व एकवत् । A द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms denote classes (generic names) of things which are not living beings is always singular in number and hence always expresses a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) and not इतरेतरयोग: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is evident.)

उदाहरणम् –
धानाश्च शष्कुल्यश्चासां समाहार: = धानाशष्कुलि – A collection of fried grain and cakes.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
धाना जस् + शष्कुली जस् 2-2-29. ‘धाना’ has two syllables while ‘शष्कुली’ has three. Hence as per 2-2-34, ‘धाना जस्’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound. Note: ‘धाना जस् + शष्कुली जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= धानाशष्कुली 2-4-71
Since the terms of this द्वन्द्व: compound denote classes (generic names) of things which are not living beings, it is always singular in number and hence always expresses a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) as per the present सूत्रम् 2-4-6. And as per 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌ it is neuter in gender. This allows 1-2-47 to apply in the next step.
= धानाशष्कुलि 1-2-47, 1-1-52. The compound declines like वारि-शब्द:।

Note: प्राणिनां तु विट्शूद्रा:। When the terms of a द्वन्द्व: compound denote classes (generic names) of living beings, the present सूत्रम् 2-4-6 does not apply and hence we have example विशश्च शूद्राश्च = विट्शूद्रा: (a group of merchants and servants) which is a द्वन्द्व: compound expressing इतरेतरयोग: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is evident.)

Note: द्रव्यजातीनामेव – The present सूत्रम् 2-4-6 applies only when the terms of a द्वन्द्व: compound denote classes (generic names) of things (physical objects – not qualities or actions.) Hence it does not apply in the following examples which are द्वन्द्व: compounds expressing इतरेतरयोग: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is evident.)
रूपं च रसश्च = रूपरसौ – form/color and taste
गमनं चाकुञ्चनं च = गमनाकुञ्चने – going and bending

Note: जातिप्राधान्य एवायमेकवद्भाव: – The present सूत्रम् 2-4-6 applies only when the terms of a द्वन्द्व: compound denote classes (generic names) of things. द्रव्यविशेषविवक्षायां तु – When the terms of a द्वन्द्व: compound denote specific individual items, the सूत्रम् 2-4-6 does not apply and hence we have the example बदराणि चामलकानि च = बदरामलकानि (jujube and Amalaka fruits) which is a द्वन्द्व: compound expressing इतरेतरयोग: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is evident.)

2-4-9 येषां च विरोधः शाश्वतिकः ।

वृत्तिः एषां द्वन्द्व एकवत् । A द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms denote those among whom there is permanent enmity is always singular in number and hence always expresses a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) and not इतरेतरयोग: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is evident.)

उदाहरणम् –
अहयश्च नकुलाश्चैषां समाहार: = अहिनकुलम् – A collection of snakes and mongooses.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
अहि जस् + नकुल जस् 2-2-29. ‘अहि’ has the designation ‘घि’ (by 1-4-7) while ‘नकुल’ does not and’अहि’ has two syllables while ‘नकुल’ has three. Hence as per 2-2-32 as well as 2-2-34, ‘अहि जस्’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound. Note: ‘अहि जस् + नकुल जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= अहिनकुल 2-4-71
Since the terms of this द्वन्द्व: compound denote those (snakes and mongooses) among whom there is permanent enmity, it is always singular in number and hence always expresses a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) as per the present सूत्रम् 2-4-6. And as per 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌ it is neuter in gender. The compound declines like वन-शब्द:।

Note: The force of the word च used in this सूत्रम् is that of एव (‘only.’) Hence गोव्याघ्रम्। काकोलूकमित्यादौ परत्वात् ‘2-4-12 विभाषा वृक्षमृगतृणधान्यव्यञ्जनपशुशकुन्यश्ववडवपूर्वापराधरोत्तराणाम्‌’ इति प्राप्तं चकारेण बाध्यते – In the example गावश्च व्याघ्राश्च = गोव्याघ्रम् (a collection of cows and tigers) as well as काकाश्चोलूकाश्च = काकोलूकम् (a collection of crows and owls) the compound would only optionally expresses a समाहार: as per the later सूत्रम् 2-4-12 विभाषा वृक्षमृगतृणधान्यव्यञ्जनपशुशकुन्यश्ववडवपूर्वापराधरोत्तराणाम्‌ but because च (having the force of एव here) is mentioned in the सूत्रम् 2-4-9 येषां विरोधः शाश्वतिकः it overrules 2-4-12. The compound expresses a समाहार: – there is no optional form.

Note: शाश्वतिकः किम्? Why does this सूत्रम् contain the condition शाश्वतिक: (permanent)? Consider the example ‘देवासुरैरमृतमम्बुनिधिर्ममन्थे’ – The ocean was churned by the gods and demons for (obtaining) nectar. The compound देवासुरै: (which expresses इतरेतरयोग:) is allowed because the enmity between the देवा: (gods) and असुरा: (demons) is not permanent. (They cooperated during the churning of the ocean.)

2-4-13 विप्रतिषिद्धं चानधिकरणवाचि ।

वृत्तिः विरुद्धार्थानामद्रव्यवाचिनां द्वन्द्व एकवद्वा । A द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms have opposite meanings and do not denote physical objects is optionally singular in number and hence expresses either a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) or इतरेतरयोग: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is evident.)

उदाहरणम् –
शीतं चोष्णं चानयो: समाहार: = शीतोष्णम् – a group (in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) of cold and hot
or
शीतं चोष्णं चेतरेतरयोग: = शीतोष्णे – a group (in which the individuality of the terms is evident) of cold and hot

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
शीत सुँ + उष्ण सुँ 2-2-29. Note: Since ‘उष्ण’ begins with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’, as per 2-2-33 the term ‘उष्ण सुँ’ should be placed in the prior position in this compound. But since we find the usage शीतोष्णम् in the महाभाष्यम् we instead place the term ‘शीत सुँ’ in the prior position in this compound.
Note: ‘शीत सुँ + उष्ण सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= शीत + उष्ण 2-4-71
= शीतोष्ण 6-1-87
Since the terms of this द्वन्द्व: compound have opposite meanings and do not denote physical objects, it is optionally singular in number and hence expresses either a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) or इतरेतरयोग: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is evident) as per the present सूत्रम् 2-4-13.
When it expresses a समाहार: it is singular. As per 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌ it is neuter in gender and hence declines like वन-शब्द:।
When it expresses इतरेतरयोग: it is dual in number. As per 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः its gender is the same as the gender of the final member of the compound which in the present example is neuter and hence the compound is neuter in gender and declines like वन-शब्द:।

Note: वैकल्पिक: समाहारद्वन्द्व: ‘2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः’ इति सूत्रेण प्राप्त: स विरुद्धार्थानां यदि भवति तर्हि अद्रव्यवाचिनामेवेति नियमार्थमिदम् – A द्वन्द्व: compound optionally expressing a समाहार: is already available by the सूत्रम् 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः। The present सूत्रम् is for the purpose of the following restriction – If the terms of the द्वन्द्व: compound have opposite meanings then it can optionally express a समाहार: only if the terms do not denote physical objects.
तेन द्रव्यवाचिनामितरेतरयोग एव – Thus if the terms of the द्वन्द्व: compound have opposite meanings and denote physical objects then the compound can express इतरेतरयोग: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is evident) only and not समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group.) For example, शीतोष्णे उदके स्त: – There are cold and hot waters.

Note: विप्रतिषिद्धं किम्? Why does the सूत्रम् 2-4-13 mention the condition विप्रतिषिद्धम् (opposite meanings)? Consider the example नन्दकश्च पाञ्चजन्यश्च = नन्दकपाञ्चजन्यौ – The sword and the conch of Lord Viṣṇu. Since ‘नन्दक’ and ‘पाञ्चजन्य’ do not have opposite meanings the restriction imposed by the सूत्रम् 2-4-13 does not apply.
इह पाक्षिक: समाहारद्वन्द्वो भवत्येव – Hence it is possible to have the द्वन्द्व: compound नन्दकपाञ्चजन्यौ expressing इतरेतरयोग: or नन्दकपाञ्चजन्यम् expressing समाहार: (as allowed by the सूत्रम् ‘2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः’)।

6-3-25 आनङ् ऋतो द्वन्द्वे ।

वृत्तिः विद्यायोनिसम्बन्धवाचिनामृदन्तानां द्वन्द्वे आनङ्‌ स्यादुत्तरपदे परे । When the final term of the compound follows, there is a substitution of ‘आनँङ्’ (in place of the penultimate term) in a द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms – i) all end in the letter ‘ऋ’ and ii) denote a relationship either via knowledge/study or birth.
Note: न चाकारमात्रमेव विधीयतामिति वाच्यम्। ‘उरण् रपरः’ इति रपरप्रसङ्गात्। Since the letter ‘न्’ of the substitution ‘आनँङ्’ always gets elided by the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य wouldn’t it be sufficient to prescribe the substitution as only ‘आ’ (instead of ‘आनँङ्’)? No, because if the substitution were to be only ‘आ’ it would trigger the undesired addition of the letter ‘र्’ by the सूत्रम् 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः।

उदाहरणम् –

होता च पोता च = होतापोतारौ – The ṚgVeda priest and the priest assisting the Brahma priest.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
होतृ सुँ + पोतृ सुँ 2-2-29. Note: As per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌) अभ्यर्हितं च, we place ‘होतृ सुँ’ in the prior position in the compound because the ṚgVeda priest commands greater respect than the priest assisting the Brahma priest.
Note: ‘होतृ सुँ + पोतृ सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= होतृ + पोतृ 2-4-71
= होत् आनँङ् + पोतृ 6-3-25, 1-1-53
= होतान् + पोतृ 1-3-2, 1-3-3, 1-3-9. Note: Here ‘होतान्’ has the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 with the help of 1-1-62. This allows 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.
= होतापोतृ 8-2-7

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘होतापोतृ’ is masculine since the final member ‘पोतृ’ of the compound is masculine here. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members.

होतापोतृ + औ 4-1-2
= होतापोतर् + औ 7-3-110, 1-1-51
= होतापोतारौ 6-4-11

Note: होता च पोता च नेष्टा चोद्गाता च = होतृपोतृनेष्टोद्गातार:। Here only ‘नेष्टृ’ (and not ‘होतृ’ or ‘पोतृ’) takes the substitution ‘आनँङ्’ because only ‘नेष्टृ’ is followed by the उत्तरपदम् (the compound’s final member) ‘उद्गातृ’।
On the other hand, we get the form होतापोतानेष्टोद्गातार: if we first form the two compounds होता च पोता च = होतापोतारौ and नेष्टा चोद्गाता च = नेष्टोद्गातारौ and then form होतापोतारौ च नेष्टोद्गातारौ च = होतापोतानेष्टोद्गातार:।

उदाहरणम् –

माता च पिता च = मातापितरौ or पितरौ – mother and father.
Note: The derivation of the form पितरौ will be shown under the सूत्रम् 1-2-70 पिता मात्रा। We will presently derive the form मातापितरौ।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
मातृ सुँ + पितृ सुँ 2-2-29. Note: As per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌) अभ्यर्हितं च, we place ‘मातृ सुँ’ in the prior position in the compound because the mother commands greater respect than the father. Otherwise, as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌) लघ्वक्षरं पूर्वम्‌ the term ‘पितृ सुँ’ would have been placed in the prior position.
Note: ‘मातृ सुँ + पितृ सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= मातृ + पितृ 2-4-71
= मात् आनँङ् + पितृ 6-3-25, 1-1-53 Note: Since the parents are jointly involved in the birth of their offspring, they do have a relationship via birth.
= मातान् + पितृ 1-3-2, 1-3-3, 1-3-9. Note: Here ‘मातान्’ has the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 with the help of 1-1-62. This allows 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.
= मातापितृ 8-2-7

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मातापितृ’ is masculine since the final member ‘पितृ’ of the compound is masculine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members.

मातापितृ + औ 4-1-2
= मातापितर् + औ 7-3-110, 1-1-51
= मातापितरौ

Note: ‘6-3-22 पुत्रेऽन्यतरस्याम्’ इत्यतो मण्डूकप्लुत्या ‘पुत्रे’ इत्यनुवृत्ते: पितापुत्रौ। The अनुवृत्ति: of ‘पुत्रे’ comes down in to this सूत्रम् 6-3-25 via मण्डूकप्लुति: (frog-jump) – which means that the अनुवृत्ति: skips the intervening rules 6-3-23 and 6-3-24.
Therefore, the application of the सूत्रम् 6-3-25 is extended to those compounds whose final member is ‘पुत्र’ (even though ‘पुत्र’ does not end in the letter ‘ऋ’)। For example – पिता च पुत्रश्च = पितापुत्रौ। But not here – तातश्च पुत्रश्च = तातपुत्रौ because ‘तात’ does not end in the letter ‘ऋ’।

6-3-26 देवताद्वन्द्वे च ।

वृत्तिः इहोत्तरपदे परे आनङ्‌ । When the final term of the compound follows, there is a substitution of ‘आनँङ्’ (in place of the penultimate term) in a द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms denote names of deities.
Note: वार्तिकम् – वायुशब्दप्रयोगे प्रतिषेध: – The substitution ‘आनँङ्’ is prohibited if the द्वन्द्व: compound contains ‘वायु’ as the final or prior member. For example – there is no substitution ‘आनँङ्’ in the compounds अग्निश्च वायुश्च = अग्निवायू or वाय्वग्नी।
Note: पुनर्द्वन्द्वग्रहणं प्रसिद्धसाहचर्यस्य परिग्रहार्थम्‌। The term ‘द्वन्द्व’ is mentioned in this सूत्रम् in spite of being available as अनुवृत्ति: from the prior सूत्रम् in order to convey the fact that the substitution ‘आनँङ्’ takes place only if the terms of a द्वन्द्व: compound denote names of deities whose association is well-known. तेन ब्रह्मप्रजापती इत्यादौ नानङ्‌। एतद्धि नैकहविर्भागित्वेन श्रुतं नापि लोके प्रसिद्धं साहचर्यम्‌। Hence for example there is no substitution ‘आनँङ्’ in compounds such as ब्रह्मा च प्रजापतिश्च = ब्रह्मप्रजापती because the association of the deities ब्रह्मा and प्रजापति: is well-known neither in the Vedic sense (as being the recipients of a common sacrificial offering) nor in the worldly (classical) sense.

उदाहरणम् –

मित्रश्च वरुणश्च = मित्रावरुणौ – the deities Mitra and Varuṇa.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
मित्र सुँ + वरुण सुँ 2-2-29. Note: ‘मित्र’ has two syllables while ‘वरुण’ has three. Hence as per 2-2-34, ‘मित्र सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound.
Note: ‘मित्र सुँ + वरुण सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= मित्र + वरुण 2-4-71
= मित्र् आनँङ् + वरुण 6-3-26, 1-1-53
= मित्रान् + वरुण 1-3-2, 1-3-3, 1-3-9. Note: Here ‘मित्रान्’ has the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 with the help of 1-1-62. This allows 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.
= मित्रावरुण 8-2-7

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मित्रावरुण’ is masculine since the final member ‘वरुण’ of the compound is masculine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members. It declines like राम-शब्द:।

6-3-29 दिवो द्यावा ।

वृत्तिः देवताद्वन्द्वे उत्तरपदे परे । When the final member of the compound follows, in a द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms denote names of deities there is a substitution of ‘द्यावा’ in the place of the term ‘दिव्’।

उदाहरणम् –

द्यौश्च भूमिश्च = द्यावाभूमी – Heaven and earth.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
दिव् सुँ + भूमि सुँ 2-2-29. Note: ‘दिव्’ has one syllable while ‘भूमि’ has two. Hence as per 2-2-34, ‘दिव् सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound.
Note: ‘दिव् सुँ + भूमि सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= दिव् + भूमि 2-4-71
= द्यावाभूमि 6-3-29, 1-1-55

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘द्यावाभूमि’ is feminine since the final member ‘भूमि’ of the compound is feminine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members. It declines like मति-शब्द:।

6-3-30 दिवसश्च पृथिव्याम् ।

वृत्तिः दिव: इत्येव, चाद्द्यावा । In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term ‘दिव्’ takes the substitution ‘दिवस्’ as well as ‘द्यावा’ when followed by ‘पृथिवी’ as the final term of the compound.

उदाहरणम् –

द्यौश्च पृथिवी च = दिवस्पृथिव्यौ or द्यावापृथिव्यौ – Heaven and earth.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
दिव् सुँ + पृथिवी सुँ 2-2-29. Note: ‘दिव्’ has one syllable while ‘पृथिवी’ has three. Hence as per 2-2-34, ‘दिव् सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound.
Note: ‘दिव् सुँ + पृथिवी सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= दिव् + पृथिवी 2-4-71
= दिवस्पृथिवी or द्यावापृथिवी 6-3-30, 1-1-55. Note: आदेशेऽकारोच्चारणं सकारस्य रुत्वं मा भूदित्येतदर्थम्‌ – the use of the letter ‘अ’ at the end of ‘दिवस’ (in the सूत्रम् 6-3-30 दिवश्च पृथिव्याम्) tells us that the ending letter ‘स्’ of the substitution ‘दिवस्’ does not take the substitution ‘रुँ’ which would have been done by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दिवस्पृथिवी’/‘द्यावापृथिवी ’ is feminine since the final member ‘पृथिवी’ of the compound is feminine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members. It declines like नदी-शब्द:।

6-3-47 द्व्यष्टनः संख्यायामबहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः ।

वृत्तिः आत् स्यात् । When followed by the final member of a compound, (the final letter of) the term ‘द्वि’ as well as ‘अष्टन्’ takes the substitution ‘आ’ provided the compound is not a बहुव्रीहि: compound and the final member of the compound denotes a number other than ‘अशीति’।
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending letter (of ‘द्वि’/’अष्टन्’) is replaced by ‘आ’।

उदाहरणम् – द्वौ च दश च = द्वादश – (Two + ten =) Twelve

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
द्वि औ + दशन् जस् 2-2-29. Note: Since ‘द्वि औ’ denotes a smaller number (compared to ‘दशन् जस्’) it is placed in the prior position as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) सङ्ख्याया अल्पीयस्याः पूर्वनिपातो वक्तव्यः।
Note: ‘द्वि औ + दशन् जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= द्वि + दशन् 2-4-71
= द्वादशन् 6-3-47, 1-1-52

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘द्वादशन्’ is an adjective since the final member ‘दशन्’ of the compound is an adjective. It declines in all three genders, but has the same form in all the genders. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is plural in number because it denotes the plural number twelve.

द्वादशन् + जस् 4-1-2
= द्वादशन् 1-1-24, 7-1-22. Note: ‘द्वादशन्’ has the पद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 1-4-14 with the help of 1-1-62. This allows 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.
= द्वादश 8-2-7

We can similarly derive the following compounds –

द्वौ च विंशतिश्च = द्वाविंशति: – (Two + twenty =) Twenty-two
अष्टौ च दश च = अष्टादश – (Eight + ten =) Eighteen
अष्टौ च विंशतिश्च = अष्टाविंशति: – (Eight + twenty =) Twenty-eight
etc.

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 6-3-49 विभाषा चत्वारिंशत्प्रभृतौ सर्वेषाम् – The substitution ‘आ’ (in place of ‘द्वि’/’अष्टन्’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 6-3-47 is only optional in those compounds whose final members denote numbers forty or greater. Hence the substitution is only optional in the following examples – द्वौ च चत्वारिंशच्च = द्विचत्वारिंशत्/द्वाचत्वारिंशत्, अष्टौ च चत्वारिंशच्च = अष्टचत्वारिंशत्/अष्टाचत्वारिंशत्, द्वौ च पञ्चाशच्च = द्विपञ्चाशत्/द्वापञ्चाशत्, अष्टौ च पञ्चाशच्च = अष्टपञ्चाशत्/अष्टापञ्चाशत् etc.

Note: वार्तिकम् – प्राक् शतादिति वक्तव्यम् – The substitution ‘आ’ (in place of ‘द्वि’/’अष्टन्’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 6-3-47 is restricted to those compounds whose final members denote numbers less than a hundred. Hence the substitution does not apply in the following examples – द्वौ च शतं च = द्विशतम्, अष्टौ च शतं च = अष्टशतम्, द्वौ च सहस्रं च = द्विसहस्रम्, अष्टौ च सहस्रं च = अष्टसहस्रम् etc.

Note: ‘अबहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः’ इति किम्? Why does the सूत्रम् 6-3-47 contain the exclusion ‘अबहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः’? Consider the following examples –
i. द्वौ वा त्रयो वा = द्वित्राः। The सूत्रम् 6-3-47 does not apply here since द्वित्राः is a बहुव्रीहि: compound.
ii. द्वौ चाशीतिश्च = द्व्यशीतिः। The सूत्रम् 6-3-47 does not apply here since the final member of the compound is ‘अशीति’।

6-3-48 त्रेस्त्रयः ।

वृत्तिः त्रिशब्दस्य ‘त्रयस्’ इत्यादेश: स्यात् संख्यायामुत्तरपदे न तु बहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः । When followed by the final member of a compound, the (entire) term ‘त्रि’ takes the substitution ‘त्रयस्’ provided the compound is not a बहुव्रीहि: compound and the final member of the compound denotes a number other than ‘अशीति’।
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य, the entire term ‘त्रि’ (and not just the ending letter ‘इ’) is replaced by ‘त्रयस्’।
Note: सूत्रम् 6-3-48 त्रेस्त्रयः is not to be confused with the identically worded सूत्रम् 7-1-53 त्रेस्त्रयः।

उदाहरणम् – त्रयश्च दश च = त्रयोदश – (Three + ten =) Thirteen

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
त्रि जस् + दशन् जस् 2-2-29. Note: Since ‘त्रि जस्’ denotes a smaller number (compared to ‘दशन् जस्’) it is placed in the prior position as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) सङ्ख्याया अल्पीयस्याः पूर्वनिपातो वक्तव्यः।
Note: ‘त्रि जस् + दशन् जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= त्रि + दशन् 2-4-71
= त्रयस् + दशन् 6-3-48, 1-1-55. Note: ‘त्रयस्’ has the पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 with the help of 1-1-62. This allows 8-2-66 to apply in the next step.
= त्रयरुँ + दशन् 8-2-66
= त्रयउ + दशन् 6-1-114
= त्रयोदशन् 6-1-87

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘त्रयोदशन्’ is an adjective since the final member ‘दशन्’ of the compound is an adjective. It declines in all three genders, but has the same form in all the genders. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is plural in number because it denotes the plural number thirteen.

त्रयोदशन् + जस् 4-1-2
= त्रयोदशन् 1-1-24, 7-1-22. Note: ‘त्रयोदशन्’ has the पद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 1-4-14 with the help of 1-1-62. This allows 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.
= त्रयोदश 8-2-7

We can similarly derive the following compounds –

त्रयश्च विंशतिश्च = त्रयोविंशति: – (Three + twenty =) Twenty-three
etc.

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 6-3-49 विभाषा चत्वारिंशत्प्रभृतौ सर्वेषाम् – The substitution ‘त्रयस्’ (in place of ‘त्रि’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 6-3-48 is only optional in those compounds whose final members denote numbers forty or greater. Hence the substitution is only optional in the following examples – त्रयश्च चत्वारिंशच्च = त्रिचत्वारिंशत्/त्रयश्चत्वारिंशत्, त्रयश्च पञ्चाशच्च = त्रिपञ्चाशत्/त्रय:पञ्चाशत् etc.

Note: वार्तिकम् – प्राक् शतादिति वक्तव्यम् – The substitution ‘त्रयस्’ (in place of ‘त्रि’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 6-3-48 is restricted to those compounds whose final members denote numbers less than a hundred. Hence the substitution does not apply in the following examples – त्रयश्च शतं च = त्रिशतम्, त्रयश्च सहस्रं च = त्रिसहस्रम् etc.

Note: ‘अबहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः’ इत्येव। The exclusion ‘अबहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः’ (which comes down as अनुवृत्ति: from the prior सूत्रम् 6-3-47) applies to the सूत्रम् 6-3-48. As a result –
i. त्रयो वा चत्वारो वा = त्रिचतुरा:। The सूत्रम् 6-3-48 does not apply here since त्रिचतुरा: is a बहुव्रीहि: compound.
ii. त्रयश्चाशीतिश्च = त्र्यशीतिः। The सूत्रम् 6-3-48 does not apply here since the final member of the compound is ‘अशीति’।

5-4-106 द्वन्द्वाच्चुदषहान्तात् समाहारे ।

वृत्तिः चवर्गान्ताद्दषहान्ताच्च द्वन्द्वाट्टच्‌ स्यात्समाहारे । Following a द्वन्द्वः compound which expresses a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) and ends in a letter of the चवर्ग: (‘च्’, ‘छ्’, ‘ज्’, ‘झ्’, ‘ञ्’) or the letter ‘द्’ or ‘ष्’ or ‘ह्’ the तद्धित: affix टच् is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.

उदाहरणम् –

वाक् च त्वक् चानयो: समाहार: = वाक्त्वचम् – a group (in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) of speech and skin

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
वाच् सुँ + त्वच् सुँ 2-2-29. Note: As per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌) अभ्यर्हितं च, ‘वाच् सुँ’ has been placed in the prior position in the compound because speech has been considered to have greater importance than skin. Otherwise, as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌) लघ्वक्षरं पूर्वम्‌ the term ‘त्वच् सुँ’ would have been placed in the prior position.
Note: ‘वाच् सुँ + त्वच् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= वाच् + त्वच् 2-4-71. Now ‘वाच्’ has the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 with the help of 1-1-62. This allows us to apply 8-2-30 in the next step.
= वाक् + त्वच् 8-2-30. Note: Since the terms of this द्वन्द्व: compound denote classes (generic names) of entities which are not living beings, it is always singular in number and hence always expresses a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-6 जातिरप्राणिनाम्‌। This allows 5-4-106 to apply in the next step.
= वाक्त्वच् + टच् 5-4-106
= वाक्त्वच् + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-7, 1-3-9
= वाक्त्वच
As per 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌ this compound is neuter in gender. It declines like वन-शब्द:।

We can similarly derive the following compounds –
त्वक् च स्रक् चानयो: समाहार: = त्वक्स्रजम् – a group (in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) of skin and garland
शमी च दृषच्चानयो: समाहार: = शमीदृषदम् – a group (in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) of a Śamī tree and a rock
वाक् च त्विट् चानयो: समाहार: = वाक्त्विषम् – a group (in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) of speech and luster
छत्रं चोपानच्चानयो: समाहार: = छत्रोपानहम् – a group (in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) of an umbrella and a sandal

Note: समाहारे किम्‌? Why does this सूत्रम् 5-4-106 specify the condition समाहारे? Consider the example – प्रावृट् च शरच्चानयो: समाहार: = प्रावृट्छरदौ – a group (in which the individuality of the terms is evident) of the rainy season and autumn. Since this द्वन्द्वः compound expresses इतरेतरयोग: and not a समाहार: the सूत्रम् 5-4-106 does not apply even though ‘शरद्’ ends in the letter ‘द्’।

न्याय: – द्वन्द्वान्ते श्रूयमाणं पदं प्रत्येकमभिसम्बध्यते ।

In a द्वन्द्व-गर्भ: compound (a compound which contains within it a द्वन्द्व: compound) the पदम् which (immediately) follows the द्वन्द्व: compound connects individually with the members of the द्वन्द्व: compound.

उदाहरणम् –

रागद्वेषवियुक्तैस्तु विषयानिन्द्रियैश्चरन्‌ |
आत्मवश्यैर्विधेयात्मा प्रसादमधिगच्छति || गीता 2-64||

First we form the द्वन्द्व: compound रागद्वेषौ as follows –
रागश्च द्वेषश्च = रागद्वेषौ – attachment and aversion.

Then we form the द्वन्द्व-गर्भ-तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound रागद्वेषवियुक्तानि as follows –
रागद्वेषाभ्यां वियुक्तानि = रागद्वेषवियुक्तानि (इन्द्रियाणि) – (senses) devoid of attachment and (devoid of) aversion.
The विवक्षा in the verse is तृतीया-बहुवचनम् hence we get the form रागद्वेषवियुक्तै: (इन्द्रियै:)।

As per the न्याय: – द्वन्द्वान्ते श्रूयमाणं पदं प्रत्येकमभिसम्बध्यते, in the final compound ‘रागद्वेषवियुक्त’ the पदम् ‘वियुक्त’ which (immediately) follows the द्वन्द्व: compound ‘रागद्वेष’ connects individually with the members (‘राग’ and ‘द्वेष’) of the द्वन्द्व: compound. Hence we get the meaning ‘devoid of attachment and devoid of aversion.’

एकशेषप्रकरणम्‌ ।

1-2-67 पुमान् स्त्रिया ।

वृत्तिः स्त्रिया सहोक्तौ पुमान्‌ शिष्यते, तल्लक्षण एव विशेषश्चेत्‌ । Only the masculine form remains when used with the feminine form provided that the difference between the two forms is only due to gender.
Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of ‘तल्लक्षणश्चेदेव विशेषः’ comes down from the सूत्रम् 1-2-65 वृद्धो यूना तल्लक्षणश्चेदेव विशेषः in to this सूत्रम् 1-2-67.

उदाहरणम् –

हंसी च हंसश्च – A female swan and a male swan = हंसौ – Two swans. Note: य: शिष्यते स लुप्यमानार्थाभिधायी – the one (‘हंस’) that remains also denotes the meaning of the one (‘हंसी’) that gets elided. Hence a dual case ending is now used following ‘हंस’।

Note: तल्लक्षणश्चेदेव विशेष इत्येव – The present सूत्रम् does not apply if the difference between the two forms is not only due to gender. For example – कुक्कुटश्च मयूरी च = कुक्कुटमयूर्यौ- rooster and a peahen. Here the two words differ not only in gender but also refer to different species. Hence the present सूत्रम् cannot apply. There is no एकशेष:।

1-2-69 नपुंसकमनपुंसकेनैकवच्चास्यान्यतरस्याम् ।

वृत्तिः अक्लीबेन सहोक्तौ क्लीबं शिष्यते तच्च वा एकवत्स्यात्तल्लक्षण एव विशेषश्चेत्‌ । Only the neuter form remains and is optionally treated as singular when used with non-neuter forms provided that the difference between the forms is only due to gender.
Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of ‘तल्लक्षणश्चेदेव विशेषः’ comes down from the सूत्रम् 1-2-65 वृद्धो यूना तल्लक्षणश्चेदेव विशेषः in to this सूत्रम् 1-2-69.

उदाहरणम् –

शुक्ल: (पट:) – A (masculine) white (cloth.) शुक्ला (शाटी) – A (feminine) white (sari.) शुक्लं (वस्त्रम्‌) – A (neuter) white (dress.)
तदिदं शुक्लम्‌ – The above can be referred to in the singular as this white (collection) or in the plural as तानीमानि शुक्लानि – these white (items.)

Note: ‘अनपुंसकेन’ इति किम्? शुक्लं च शुक्लं च शुक्लं च शुक्लानि। एकवच्चेति न भवति – Why does this सूत्रम् mention the condition अनपुंसकेन? Consider the example शुक्लं च शुक्लं च शुक्लं च – a (neuter) white (item) and a (neuter) white (item) and a (neuter) white (item) = शुक्लानि – (neuter) white (items.) Since all the forms are neuter, there is no optional singular form here. The optional singular form can only come when a neuter form is used with a non-neuter form.

1-2-70 पिता मात्रा ।

वृत्तिः मात्रा सहोक्तौ पिता वा शिष्यते । When the word पिता (father) is used with the word माता (mother) then (either both the words remain to form a द्वन्द्व: compound or) optionally only the word पिता remains.

माता च पिता च = मातापितरौ or पितरौ – mother and father.
Note: The derivation of the form मातापितरौ has already be shown under the सूत्रम् 6-3-25 आनङ् ऋतो द्वन्द्वे।

पितृ + औ 4-1-2
= पितर् + औ 7-3-110, 1-1-51
= पितरौ

6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् ।

वृत्तिः पृषोदरप्रकाराणि शिष्टैर्यथोच्चारितानि तथैव साधूनि स्यु: । The forms such as ‘पृषोदर’ etc (which contain irregular operations – like an elision or an augment or a transformation of a letter – not prescribed by any rule) are to be taken as valid forms as they are used by the scholars.

उदाहरणम् –

पृषच्च तदुदरम् = पृषोदरम्‌ – spotted belly.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
पृषत् सुँ + उदर सुँ 2-1-57. As per 1-2-43 the adjective ‘पृषत् सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-57 (which prescribes the compounding) the term विशेषणम्‌ ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term ‘पृषत् सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘पृषत् सुँ + उदर सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step
= पृषत् + उदर 2-4-71
= पृष + उदर 6-3-109 is used to justify the ad hoc elision of the final letter ‘त्’ of ‘पृषत्’ in order to arrive at the final compound form ‘पृषोदर’ which is accepted by the scholars
= पृषोदर 6-1-87

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पृषोदर’ is neuter since the final member ‘उदर’ of the compound is neuter. It declines like वन-शब्द:।

उदाहरणम् –

वारिणो वाहक: = बलाहक: – a cloud (carrier of water.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
वारि ङस् + वाहक सुँ 2-2-8. As per 1-2-43 the term ‘वारि ङस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term ‘वारि ङस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘वारि ङस् + वाहक सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46. This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
= वारि + वाहक 2-4-71
= बलाहक 6-3-109 is used to justify the ad hoc substitution of ‘ब’ in place of the entire पूर्वपदम् ‘वारि’ and of the letter ‘ल्’ in place of the initial letter ‘व्’ of the उत्तरपदम् ‘वाहक’ in order to arrive at the final compound form ‘बलाहक’ which is accepted by the scholars

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘बलाहक’ is masculine since the latter member ‘वाहक’ (which after the application of 6-3-109 becomes ‘लाहक’) of the compound is used here in the masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

Note: The पृषोदरादि-गण: is listed in the गण-पाठ: as follows – ‘पृषोदर’, ‘पृषोत्थान’, ‘बलाहक’, ‘जीमूत’, ‘श्मशान’, ‘उलूखल’, ‘पिशाच’, ‘बृसी’, ‘मयूर’। But it is a आकृति-गण: – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. So words (not necessarily compounds) which are accepted by the scholars but which contain irregular grammatical operations may be justified taking recourse to the सूत्रम् 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम्।

उदाहरणम् –

सिंह: (a lion) may be derived as हिनस्ति (one who hurts/injures) from the verbal root √हिन्स् (हिसिँ हिंसायाम् ७. १९) as follows –

हिन्स् + अच् 3-1-134
= हिन्स् + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
= सिन्ह 6-3-109 is used to justify the ad hoc interchange of the letters ‘ह्’ and ‘स्’ in order to arrive at the final form ‘सिंह’ which is accepted by the scholars
= सिंह 8-3-24

उदाहरणम् –

हंस: (a swan) may be derived as हन्ति (गच्छति – one who goes/moves) from the verbal root √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः २. २) as follows –

हन् + अच् 3-1-134
= हन् + अ 1-3-3, 1-3-9
= हन् सँक् + अ 6-3-109 is used to justify the ad hoc addition of the augment ‘सँक्’ at the end (ref. 1-1-46) of the base ‘हन्’ in order to arrive at the final form ‘हंस’ which is accepted by the scholars
= हन्स 1-3-2, 1-3-3, 1-3-9
= हंस 8-3-24

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