कुरून् mAp

Today we will look at the form कुरून्  mAp from श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता 1.25

सञ्जय उवाच ।
एवमुक्तो हृषीकेशो गुडाकेशेन भारत । सेनयोरुभयोर्मध्ये स्थापयित्वा रथोत्तमम्‌ ∥ १-२४ ∥
भीष्मद्रोणप्रमुखतः सर्वेषां च महीक्षिताम्‌ । उवाच पार्थ पश्यैतान्समवेतान्कुरूनिति ∥ १-२५ ∥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
ततः किं प्रवृत्तमित्यपेक्षायां संजय उवाच – एवमिति । गुडाका निद्रा तस्या ईशेन जितनिद्रेणार्जुनेनैवमुक्तः सन् हे भारत धृतराष्ट्र, सेनयोर्मध्ये रथानामुत्तमं रथं हृषीकेशः स्थापितवान् ∥ २४ ∥ भीष्मद्रोणेति । महीक्षितां पितामहद्रोणराज्ञां च प्रमुखतः संमुखे रथं स्थापयित्वा हे पार्थ, एतान्कुरून्पश्येत्युवाच ∥ २५ ∥

Gita Press translation – Sañjaya said: O king, thus addressed by Arjuna, Śrī Kṛṣṇa placed the magnificent chariot between the two armies in front of Bhīṣma, Droṇa and all the kings and said, “Arjuna, behold these Kauravas assembled here.” (24-25).

कुरवो जनपदः, कुरुर्नाम क्षत्रियः। कुरोरपत्यानि (पुमांसः) = कुरवः – (male) descendants of a kṣatriya king Kuru, which is also the name of his territory.
In the verses the विवक्षा is द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्। Hence the form is कुरून्।

(1) कुरु ङस् + ण्य । By 4-1-172 कुरुनादिभ्यो ण्यः – To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant) the तद्धित: affix ‘ण्य’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् which ends in a sixth case affix and has as its base ‘कुरु’ or a word beginning with the letter ‘न्’ provided the base denotes the name of a kṣatriya king, as well as the name of his country/territory.
Note: Here, the affix ‘ण्य’ over-rules the affix ‘अण्’ that would have been prescribed by 4-1-170 द्व्यञ्मगधकलिङ्गसूरमसादण्।
As per the सूत्रम् 4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed and which ends in a sixth case affix the तद्धिता: affixes already prescribed (by the prior rules 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् etc), as well as those that are going to be prescribed (by the following rules 4-1-95 अत इञ् etc), may be optionally applied to denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant.)

(2) कुरु ङस् + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: ‘कुरु ङस् + य’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) कुरु + य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।
Note: The affix ‘ण्य’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step.

(4) कौरु + य । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘कौरु’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-146 ओर्गुणः to apply in the next step.

(5) कौरो + य । By 6-4-146 ओर्गुणः – When followed by a तद्धितः affix, the ending letter ‘उ’/’ऊ’ of a अङ्गम् which has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा (ref. 1-4-18 यचि भम्) takes the गुण: substitution (‘ओ’)।

(6) कौरव् + य । By 6-1-79 वान्तो यि प्रत्यये – When followed by an affix which begins with the letter ‘य्’, the letters ‘ओ’ and ‘औ’ are replaced by ‘अव्’ and ‘आव्’ respectively.

= कौरव्य । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कौरव्य’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

The विवक्षा is बहुवचनम्।
(7) कौरव्य + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌
Note: The affix ‘ण्य’ gets the designation ‘तद्राज’ as per the सूत्रम् 4-1-174 ते तद्राजाः – The affixes ‘अञ्’ etc (prescribed by 4-1-168 जनपदशब्दात्‌ क्षत्रियादञ् etc) get the designation ‘तद्राज’। This allows 2-4-62 to apply in the next step.

Note: These affixes are designated ‘तद्राज’ since (in addition to being used to denote descendants) they are also used to denote the kings of their respective countries/territories.
Note: The word ते in 4-1-174 refers to the affixes prescribed in the prior rules from 4-1-168 to 4-1-173.

(8) कुरु + शस् । By 2-4-62 तद्राजस्य बहुषु तेनैवास्त्रियाम्‌ – In the plural, a ‘तद्राज’ affix takes the लुक् (elision), provided –
i. the gender of the word is not feminine, and
ii. the plurality relates to the meaning of the ‘तद्राज’ affix.

As per the न्यायः ‘निमित्तापाये नैमित्तिकस्याप्यपाय:’ (when a cause is gone, its effect is also gone). Therefore the operations performed in steps 4, 5 and 6 above are reversed, since the affix ‘ण्य’ no longer exists.

(9) कुरु + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘शस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(10) कुरूस् । By 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः – When an अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(11) कुरून् । By 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि – In the masculine gender, when the letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘शस्’ follows a vowel which has been elongated by 6-1-102 then it is replaced by the letter ‘न्’।


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