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पितरौ mNd

Today we will look at the form पितरौ  mNd from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 6.4.12.

तोकानां पितरौ बन्धू दृश: पक्ष्म स्त्रियाः पतिः । पतिः प्रजानां भिक्षूणां गृह्यज्ञानां बुधः सुहृत् ।। ६-४-१२ ।।
अन्तर्देहेषु भूतानामात्माऽऽस्ते हरिरीश्वरः । सर्वं तद्धिष्ण्यमीक्षध्वमेवं वस्तोषितो ह्यसौ ।। ६-४-१३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
प्रजानां प्रजापतिरेव बन्धुरतस्तज्जीविकानाशो न कर्तव्य इति दृष्टान्तपञ्चकेनाह । तोकानां बालानां मातापितरौ । अज्ञानां ज्ञानदो बुध एव सुहृत् ।। १२ ।। ईश्वराधिष्ठानत्वाच्च भूतद्रोहो न युक्त इत्याह – अन्तर्देहेष्विति । वो युष्माभिः ।। १३ ।।

Gita Press translation – The parents are the (true) friends of children; the eye-lashes, of an eye; the husband, of a (married) woman; the sovereign, of a people (and through them of all living beings including trees); the householder, of mendicants; and a wise man is the friend of the ignorant (12). The almighty Śrī Hari indwells the hearts of (all) living beings as their Inner Controller. (Therefore,) regard the entire creation (both animate and inanimate) as His abode; in this way He will be really propitiated by you (13).

(1) माता च पिता च = मातापितरौ or पितरौ – parents (mother and father).
Please refer to the following post for the derivation of the द्वन्द्व: compound ‘मातापितृ’ – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2016/04/21/मातापितरौ-mad/

(2) पितृ । By 1-2-70 पिता मात्रा – When the word पिता (father) is used with the word माता (mother) then (either both the words remain to form a द्वन्द्व: compound or) optionally only the word पिता remains.

Note: य: शिष्यते स लुप्यमानार्थाभिधायी – the one (‘पितृ’) that remains also denotes the meaning of the one (‘मातृ’) that gets elided. Hence a dual case ending is now used following ‘पितृ’।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा।

(3) पितृ + औ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। Note: The affix ‘औ’ has the सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा here as per 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य। This allows 7-3-110 to apply in the next step.

(4) पितर् + औ । By 7-3-110 ऋतो ङिसर्वनामस्थानयोः – The ending letter ‘ऋ’ of a अङ्गम् gets a गुणः replacement, when followed by the affix ‘ङि’ (सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) or an affix with the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्। By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (‘अ’, ‘इ’, ‘उ’) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a ‘रँ’ (‘र्’, ‘ल्’) letter.

= पितरौ ।

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-2-70 पिता मात्रा (used in step 2) the काशिका says – अन्यतरस्यामिति वर्तते नैकवदिति। Please explain.

2. Which compound used in the verses is a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound?

3. Which सूत्रम् gives the ready-made compound form ‘सुहृद्’?

4. Where has the affix ‘क’ been used in the verses? Where has it been used in the commentary?

5. In which word in the commentary has the सूत्रम् 2-3-25 विभाषा गुणेऽस्त्रियाम्‌ been used?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I salute the Supreme Lord and (Goddess) Pārvatī – the parents of the world.” Form a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘Supreme Lord’ = परमश्चासावीश्वर:। Use this compound to form a द्वन्द्व: compound with ‘पार्वती’।

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the affix शप् taken the लुक् elision?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-91 सवाभ्यां वामौ been used in the verses?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-2-70 पिता मात्रा (used in step 2) the काशिका says – अन्यतरस्यामिति वर्तते नैकवदिति। Please explain.
    Answer: Only the अनुवृत्तिः of अन्यतरस्याम् – and not एकवद् – comes down from the prior सूत्रम् 1-2-69 नपुंसकमनपुंसकेनैकवच्चास्यान्यतरस्याम् into the सूत्रम् 1-2-70 पिता मात्रा।

    2. Which compound used in the verses is a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound?
    Answer: The compound अज्ञानाम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अज्ञ’, पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्) is a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound.
    First we derive the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ज्ञ’ – from the verbal root √ज्ञा (ज्ञा अवबोधने ९. ४३).
    Please see answer to question 5 in the following comment for derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ज्ञ’ – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2013/06/19/हित्वा-ind/#comment-33527
    Now we form the नञ्-तत्पुरुष-समासः। The लौकिक-विग्रहः is –
    न ज्ञः = अज्ञः – ignorant (not wise.) It is an adjective qualifying the masculine noun जनः (which is not explicitly stated).
    Here, the negation particle नञ्‌ conveys the sense of विरोध: – opposite of that which is being negated.
    The derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अज्ञ’ is similar to the derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अपर्याप्त’ shown in answer to question 1 in the following comment – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2015/08/10/अब्राह्मणः-mns/#comment-35496

    3. Which सूत्रम् gives the ready-made compound form ‘सुहृद्’?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 5-4-150 सुहृद्‍दुर्हृदौ मित्रामित्रयोः gives the ready-made compound form ‘सुहृद्’। The derivation is as shown in the following post – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2016/01/14/सुहृदः-mnp/

    4. Where has the affix ‘क’ been used in the verses? Where has it been used in the commentary?
    Answer: In the verses the कृत् affix ‘क’ has been used in the forms अज्ञानाम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अज्ञ’, पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्) and बुधः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘बुध’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्)।

    Please see the answer to question 2 above for the derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अज्ञ’।

    The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘बुध’ is derived from the verbal root √बुध् (बुधँ अवगमने १. ९९४, बुधँ अवगमने ४. ६८).
    बोधति बुध्यत इति वा बुधः।
    Please see the following post for the derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘बुध’ – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/10/01/बुधः-mns

    In the commentary, the कृत् affix ‘क’ has been used in the form ज्ञानदः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ज्ञानद’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्)।
    ज्ञानं ददातीति ज्ञानदः।
    ’द’ is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √दा (डुदाञ् दाने ३. १०).
    The (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् ’ज्ञानद’ is derived as follows:
    ज्ञान + ङस् + दा + क । By 3-2-3 आतोऽनुपसर्गे कः – When in composition with a पदम् which denotes the object (of the action) a verbal root which ends in the letter ‘आ’ may take the affix ’क’ as long as there is no उपसर्गः (ref: 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे) associated with the verbal root. Note: The affix ‘क’ (prescribed by this सूत्रम्) is an exception to the affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by 3-2-1 कर्मण्यण्।
    Note: In the सूत्रम् 3-2-3 आतोऽनुपसर्गे कः, the term कर्मणि (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: in to the सूत्रम् 3-2-3 आतोऽनुपसर्गे कः from the सूत्रम् 3-2-1 कर्मण्यण्) ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence ‘ज्ञान + ङस्’ (which is the object (कर्म-पदम्) of ददाति) gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌।
    Note: The affix ‘ङस्’ is used here as per 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति| (This is what is called as कृद्योगे षष्ठी)।
    = ज्ञान + ङस् + दा + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = ज्ञान + ङस् + द् + अ । By 6-4-64 आतो लोप इटि च|
    = ज्ञान + ङस् + द । We form a compound between ‘ज्ञान + ङस्’ (which is the उपपदम्) and ‘द’ by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्। In the compound, ‘ज्ञान + ङस्’ is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌। Note: Here ‘ज्ञान + ङस्’ is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम्, because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् (which prescribes the compounding) the term उपपदम् ends in the nominative case.
    ‘ज्ञान + ङस् + द’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।
    = ज्ञानद । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः।

    5. In which word in the commentary has the सूत्रम् 2-3-25 विभाषा गुणेऽस्त्रियाम्‌ been used?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 2-3-25 विभाषा गुणेऽस्त्रियाम्‌ has been used in the form ईश्वराधिष्ठानत्वात् (नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ईश्वराधिष्ठानत्व’, पञ्चमी-एकवचनम्)।

    ईश्वराधिष्ठानत्व + ङसिँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-25 विभाषा गुणेऽस्त्रियाम्‌ – A fifth case affix (‘ङसिँ’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is optionally used following a non-feminine प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes a quality being a cause/reason.
    Note: When the optional fifth case affix is not used, a third case affix is used as per 2-3-23 हेतौ। In the present example ‘ईश्वराधिष्ठानत्व’ is the non-feminine प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes a quality being the reason for ‘भूतद्रोहो न युक्तः’ (‘intent to injure living beings is not appropriate’).
    = ईश्वराधिष्ठानत्व + आत् । By 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः। Note: Since the substitute ‘आत्’ has more than one letter, as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य, the entire affix (and not just its last letter) is replaced by ‘आत्’।
    Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘त्’ of ‘आत्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
    = ईश्वराधिष्ठानत्वात् । By 6-1-101अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः।

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “I salute the Supreme Lord and (Goddess) Pārvatī – the parents of the world.” Form a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘Supreme Lord’ = परमश्चासावीश्वर:। Use this compound to form a द्वन्द्व: compound with ‘पार्वती’।
    Answer: जगतः पितरौ पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ वन्दे।
    अथवा –
    जगतः मातापितरौ पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ वन्दे = जगतो मातापितरौ पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ वन्दे।

    Easy questions:
    1. In which word in the verses has the affix शप् taken the लुक् elision?
    Answer: The affix शप् has taken the लुक् elision in the form आस्ते – derived from the verbal root √आस् (आसँ उपवेशने २.११).

    Please see the answer to question 3 in the following comment for derivation of the form आस्ते – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/07/16/मीमांसते-3as-लँट्/#comment-4023

    2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-91 सवाभ्यां वामौ been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-4-91 सवाभ्यां वामौ has been used in the form ईक्षध्वम् – derived from the verbal root √ईक्ष् (ईक्षँ दर्शने १. ६९४).

    The विवक्षा is लोँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, मध्यम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्।
    ईक्ष् + लोँट् । By 3-3-162 लोट् च।
    = ईक्ष् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = ईक्ष् + ध्वम् । By 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्, 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम्।
    = ईक्ष् + ध्वे । By 3-4-79 टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे।
    = ईक्ष् + ध्वम् । By 3-4-91 सवाभ्यां वामौ – the letter ‘ए’ of लोँट् which follows the letter ‘स्’ or ‘व्’ is replaced by ‘व’ and ‘अम्’ respectively. Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of ‘ध्वम्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
    = ईक्ष् + शप् + ध्वम् । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌।
    = ईक्ष् + अ + ध्वम् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = ईक्षध्वम् ।

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