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इन्द्रविष्णुसमौ mAd

Today we will look at the form इन्द्रविष्णुसमौ  mAd from महाभारतम् 5.59.11.

श्यामौ बृहन्तौ तरुणौ शालस्कन्धाविवोद्गतौ । एकासनगतौ दृष्ट्वा भयं मां महदाविशत् ।। ५-५९-१० ।।
इन्द्रविष्णुसमावेतौ मन्दात्मा नावबुध्यते । संश्रयाद् द्रोणभीष्माभ्यां कर्णस्य च विकत्थनात् ।। ५-५९-११ ।।
निदेशस्थाविमौ यस्य मानसस्तस्य सेत्स्यते । संकल्पो धर्मराजस्य निश्चयो मे तदाभवत् ।। ५-५९-१२ ।।
सत्कृतश्चान्नपानाभ्यामासीनो लब्धसत्क्रियः । अञ्जलिं मूर्ध्नि संधाय तौ संदेशमचोदयम् ।। ।। ५-५९-१३ ।।

Translation – Having seen the two young men (Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna) of black complexion and large stature rising like the trunks of Śala trees, seated on the same seat, a great fear seized me (10). Owing to his reliance on Droṇa and Bhīṣma and owing to the boasting of Karṇa, the one (Duryodhana) of dim intellect does not understand that these two are like Indra and Viṣṇu (11). At that time I was convinced that the mental resolve of Yudhiṣṭhira (the king of virtue) –  who has these two under his command – is bound to bear fruit  (12). Entertained with food and drink and being seated with honor, I placed my clasped hands on my head and conveyed to them your message (13).

(1) इन्द्रश्च विष्णुश्च = इन्द्रविष्णू – Indra and Viṣṇu

(2) इन्द्र सुँ + विष्णु सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) इन्द्र सुँ + विष्णु सुँ । As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि, ‘विष्णु सुँ’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound because ‘विष्णु’ has the designation ‘घि’ (as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि) while ‘इन्द्र’ does not. But as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌, ‘इन्द्र सुँ’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound because ‘इन्द्र’ begins with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’ while ‘विष्णु’ does not.
The सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌ being a later rule in the अष्टाध्यायी has greater force than the earlier rule 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि। Hence when in a द्वन्द्व: compound there is one term which has the designation ‘घि’ and another which beings with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’, the term which beings with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’ is placed in the prior position. Therefore ‘इन्द्र सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in this compound.

Note: ‘इन्द्र सुँ + विष्णु सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) इन्द्र + विष्णु । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= इन्द्रविष्णु ।

Now we form the तत्पुरुषः compound इन्द्रविष्णुसमौ।

(5) इन्द्रविष्णुभ्यां समौ or इन्द्रविष्ण्वो:  समौ = इन्द्रविष्णुसमौ – like Indra and Viṣṇu

(6) इन्द्रविष्णु भ्याम् + सम सुँ । By 2-1-31 पूर्वसदृशसमोनार्थकलहनिपुणमिश्रश्लक्ष्णैः – A पदम् ending in a third case affix optionally compounds with (a syntactically related पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) any one of the following and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष: –
i) ‘पूर्व’ (prior)
ii) ‘सदृश’ (like/similar)
iii) ‘सम’ (equal to)
iv) ‘ऊनार्थ’ – ‘ऊन’ (less) or any of its synonyms
v) ‘कलह’ (quarrel)
vi) ‘निपुण’ (skillful)
vii) ‘मिश्र’ (mixed)
viii) ‘श्लक्ष्ण’ (gentle/polished.)
Note: By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘इन्द्रविष्णु भ्याम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-31 (which prescribes the compounding) the term तृतीया (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from 2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन) ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘इन्द्रविष्णु भ्याम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

or

(6) इन्द्रविष्णु ओस् + सम सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: By the सूत्रम् 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – ‘इन्द्रविष्णु ओस्’ (which ends in a sixth case affix) gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 षष्ठी (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘इन्द्रविष्णु ओस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘इन्द्रविष्णु भ्याम् + सम सुँ’ / ‘इन्द्रविष्णु ओस् + सम सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(7) इन्द्रविष्णु + सम । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= इन्द्रविष्णुसम ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘इन्द्रविष्णुसम’ is masculine since the final member ‘सम’ of the compound is used here in the masculine. (The entire compound is qualifying श्रीकृष्णार्जुनौ।)

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-द्विवचनम् ।

(8) इन्द्रविष्णुसम + औट् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(9) इन्द्रविष्णुसम + औ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(10) इन्द्रविष्णुसमौ । By 6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि । Note: 6-1-104 नादिचि stops 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः।

Questions:

1. In which other compound (besides ‘इन्द्रविष्णु’) in the verses has the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌ (used in step 3) been applied?

2. Can you spot a द्वितीया-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?

3. In which compound in the verses has the affix ‘टच्’ been used?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ई’ in the form आसीन:?

5. In which word in the verses has the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) been used?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In prowess, Sugrīva and (Śrī) Hanumān were equal to Indra and Vāyu.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix ‘श’ in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘श्यन्’ in the form अवबुध्यते?


1 Comment

  1. 1. In which other compound (besides ‘इन्द्रविष्णु’) in the verses has the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌ (used in step 3) been applied?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌ has been applied in the form अन्नपानाभ्याम् (नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ’अन्नपान’, तृतीया-द्विवचनम्) also.

    The derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ’अन्नपान’ is similar to the derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘इन्द्रविष्णु’ as shown in the post.
    As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ’अन्नपान’ is neuter since the latter member ‘पान’ of the compound is neuter. The compound declines like वन-शब्द:।

    2. Can you spot a द्वितीया-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?
    Answer: The compound एकासनगतौ (प्रातिपदिकम् ’एकासनगत’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-द्विवचनम्) is a द्वितीया-तत्पुरुष: compound.

    The लौकिक-विग्रहः is –
    एकासनं गतः = एकासनगतः – gone to (seated on) one/same seat.

    The derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘एकासनगत’ is similar to the derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कालातीत’ as shown in the following post – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2015/01/22/कालातीतम्-mas
    Except that step 5 is not relevant here – the सूत्रम् 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः has no application.

    Note: The form एकासनम् is a कर्मधारयः compound. It is derived as follows –
    एकं च तदासनम् = एकासनम् – one/same seat.

    The derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ’एकासन’ is similar to the derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ’एकराज्’ as shown in the following post – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2015/05/11/एकराट्-mns
    Except that after step 4, we apply 6-1-101 to get –
    एक + आसन = एकासन । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः।

    3. In which compound in the verses has the affix ‘टच्’ been used?
    Answer: The affix ‘टच्’ has been used in the compound धर्मराजस्य (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ’धर्मराज’, षष्ठी-एकवचनम्)।

    लौकिक-विग्रह: –
    धर्मस्य राजा = धर्मराज: – the king of virtue = Yudhiṣṭhira

    अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
    धर्म ङस् + राजन् सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी।
    The derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ’धर्मराज’ is similar to the derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ’देवराज’ as shown in the following post – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2015/03/19/देवराजाय-mds

    Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धर्मराज’ is masculine since the latter member ‘राजन्’ of the compound is masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:। षष्ठी-एकवचनम् is धर्मराजस्य।

    4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ई’ in the form आसीन:?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 7-2-83 ईदासः prescribes the substitution ‘ई’ in the form आसीनः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आसीन’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) – derived from the verbal root √आस् (आसँ उपवेशने २. ११).
    Note: The derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आसीन’ is as shown in the following post – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/12/28/आसीनम्-mas/

    5. In which word in the verses has the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) been used?
    Answer: The substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) has been used in the form संधाय – derived from the verbal root √धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके ३. ११) preceded by the उपसर्गः ‘सम्’।

    The derivation is as follows –
    धा + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले। Note: Here the common agent of the actions संधाय (having placed) and अचोदयम् (conveyed) is अहम् (सञ्जयः)। The earlier of the two actions is the action of ‘having placed’ which is denoted by √धा and hence √धा takes the affix ‘क्त्वा’।
    Note: अव्ययकृतो भावे (from महाभाष्यम्) – कृत् affixes (such as ‘क्‍त्‍वा’) having the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा are used to denote भाव: (action) – and not the agent (ref. 3-4-67 कर्तरि कृत्‌) of the action.

    सम् + धा + क्त्वा । By 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः।
    By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘सम्’ (which has the designation गति: here) gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 (which prescribes the compounding) the term कुगतिप्रादयः ends in the nominative case.
    Hence the term ‘सम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌।
    = सम् + धा + ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ – When the affix ‘क्त्वा’ occurs at the end of a compound, it is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ provided the prior member of the compound is a अव्‍ययम् other than ‘नञ्’ (ref. 2-2-6 नञ्‌)। As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य, the entire affix ‘क्त्वा’ (and not just its last letter) is replaced by the substitution ‘ल्यप्’।
    Note: As per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ, the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) inherits the property of being a कित् (having the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) affix with the designation of कृत् (by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and आर्धधातुकम् (by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।)
    = सम् + धा + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    Note: 6-4-69 न ल्यपि prevents 6-4-66 घुमास्थागापाजहातिसां हलि from applying here.
    = संधाय । By 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः।
    = संधाय/सन्धाय । By 8-4-59 वा पदान्तस्य।

    ‘संधाय/सन्धाय’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः।
    संधाय/सन्धाय + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्।
    = संधाय/सन्धाय । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः।

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “In prowess, Vālī and Sugrīva were equal to Indra and Sūrya (Sun-god).”
    Answer: वालिसुग्रीवौ इन्द्रसूर्यसमौ वीर्ये बभूवतुः = वालिसुग्रीवाविन्द्रसूर्यसमौ वीर्ये बभूवतुः।

    Easy questions:
    1. Can you spot the affix ‘श’ in the verses?
    Answer: The affix ’श’ occurs in the form आविशत् – derived from the verbal root √विश् (विशँ प्रवेशने ६. १६०).

    Please see the answer to question 1 in the following comment for the derivation of अविशत् – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/10/26/अरुन्तुदम्-mas/#comment-5735

    ‘आङ्’ is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे, 1-4-80 ते प्राग्धातोः।)
    आङ् + अविशत् = आ + अविशत् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = आविशत् । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः।

    2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘श्यन्’ in the form अवबुध्यते?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-1-69 दिवादिभ्यः श्यन् prescribes the affix ‘श्यन्’ in the form अवबुध्यते – derived from the verbal root √बुध् (बुधँ अवगमने ४. ६८).

    The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।
    बुध् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्।
    = बुध् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = बुध् + त । By 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्, 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम्।
    = बुध् + ते । By 3-4-79 टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे।
    = बुध् + श्यन् + ते । By 3-1-69 दिवादिभ्यः श्यन् – The affix ‘श्यन्’ is placed after the verbal roots belonging to the दिवादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुकम् affix that is used signifying the agent. This सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌।
    Note: Since the सार्वधातुकम् affix ‘श्यन्’ is अपित् (does not have the letter ‘प्’ as a इत्) by 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित् it behaves ङिद्वत् – as if it has the letter ‘ङ्’ as a इत्। This allows 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च to prevent 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च from applying.
    = बुध् + य + ते । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = बुध्यते ।

    ‘अव’ is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे, 1-4-80 ते प्राग्धातोः।)
    अव + बुध्यते = अवबुध्यते।

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