Today we will look at the form धर्मार्थौ mNd from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 6.64.8.
यांस्तु धर्मार्थकामांस्त्वं ब्रवीषि पृथगाश्रयान् । अनुबोद्धुं स्वभावेन न हि लक्षणमस्ति तान् ।। ६-६४-६ ।।
कर्म चैव हि सर्वेषां कारणानां प्रयोजनम् । श्रेयः पापीयसां चात्र फलं भवति कर्मणाम् ।। ६-६४-७ ।।
निःश्रेयसफलावेव धर्मार्थावितरावपि । अधर्मानर्थयोः प्राप्तिः फलं च प्रात्यवायिकम् ।। ६-६४-८ ।।
ऐहलौकिकपारक्यं कर्म पुम्भिर्निषेव्यते । कर्माण्यपि तु कल्प्यानि लभते काममास्थितः ।। ६-६४-९ ।।
Gita Press translation – The capacity to know virtue, worldly gain and sensuous pleasure in their true character does not exist in you in that you speak of them as incompatible (lit., existing in different individuals) (6). “Again, action is the root of all the (three) means to happiness (viz., virtue, worldly gain and sensuous pleasure); moreover the fruit of actions, (both) noble and exceedingly sinful, in this world accrues to the same agent (7). Virtue (in the shape of muttering of prayers, meditation etc., which have no dependence on wealth) and the performance of sacrifices and practice of charity etc. (for the accomplishment of which wealth is indispensable), though conducive to final beatitude alone ( if pursued in a disinterested spirit), also lead (if pursued with some interested motive) to goals other than final beatitude (such as heavenly bliss and worldly prosperity). From the omission of an obligatory virtue follow unrighteousness and evil, and (along with them) the bitter fruit of the offense of omission (8). The fruit of (past) actions (good or bad) is reaped by living beings in this as well as in the other world. He (however) who remains sedulously devoted to actions with a view to attaining sensuous pleasure (perceptibly) enjoys blessings even in this life (and not hereafter as in the case of virtue and material gain) (9).
(1) धर्मश्चार्थश्च = धर्मार्थौ or अर्थधर्मौ – virtue and wealth
(2) धर्म सुँ + अर्थ सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।
(3) As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्, ‘अर्थ सुँ’ should necessarily be placed in the prior position in the compound because ‘अर्थ’ begins with a vowel and ends with the letter ‘अ’।
(4) धर्म सुँ + अर्थ सुँ or अर्थ सुँ + धर्म सुँ । By 2-2-31 राजदन्तादिषु परम् – In the list of compounds ‘राजदन्त’ etc the term which ought to be placed in the prior position in the compound is actually placed in the latter position. Since the compound धर्मार्थौ as well as अर्थधर्मौ is listed in the राजदन्तादि-गण: it can be concluded that ‘धर्म सुँ’ may be placed in the final or prior position in the compound. Note: ‘धर्म सुँ + अर्थ सुँ’ as well as ‘अर्थ सुँ + धर्म सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम् by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
(5) धर्म + अर्थ or अर्थ + धर्म । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।
(6) धर्मार्थ or अर्थधर्म । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः।
As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धर्मार्थ’ or ‘अर्थधर्म’ is masculine since the final member ‘अर्थ’ (of the compound ‘धर्मार्थ’) as well as ‘धर्म’ (of the compound ‘अर्थधर्म’) is masculine. (‘धर्म’ is rarely used in the neuter.) This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members. It declines like राम-शब्द:।
The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-द्विवचनम् ।
(7) धर्मार्थ + औ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्
(8) धर्मार्थौ । By 6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि । Note: 6-1-104 नादिचि stops 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः।
1. What type of compound is निःश्रेयसफलौ used in the verses?
2. Can you spot the augment नुँट् in a compound used in the verses?
3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रयोजन’ (used in the form प्रयोजनम् (प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?
4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-3-94 स्त्रियां क्तिन् been used in the verses?
5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘इ’ in the form आस्थितः?
6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Between virtue and wealth, virtue is more important.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गरीयस्’ (which ends in the affix ‘इयसुँन्’) for ‘more important.’
1. Can you spot the augment ‘ईट्’ in the verses?
2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ए’ in the form लभते?