Today we will look at the form देहबद्धम् mAs from रघुवंशम् 5.26.
राघवान्वितमुपस्थितं मुनिं तं निशम्य जनको जनेश्वरः ।
अर्थकामसहितं सपर्यया देहबद्धमिव धर्ममभ्यगात् ॥ 11-35॥
[राघवान्वितम्] राघवाभ्यामन्वितम् युक्तम् उपस्थितम् आगतं तं मुनिं जनको जनेश्वरो निशम्य । अर्थकामाभ्यां सहितं [अर्थकामसहितं] देहबद्धं बद्धदेहम् । मूर्तिमन्तमित्यर्थः । वाहिताग्न्यादिवात् (२-२-३७) साधुः । धर्ममिव । सपर्ययाभ्यगात् प्रत्युद्गतवान् ।।
Translation – When king Janaka heard of the sage’s coming along with the princes of the Raghu family, he went forth to welcome him with worship as if the sage was embodied virtue, attended by wealth and pleasure (35).
(1) बद्धो देहो येन सः = देहबद्ध: (धर्म:) – One (virtue) who has fastened a body. Hence it means one (virtue) who is embodied.
(2) बद्ध सुँ + देह सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)
(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘बद्ध सुँ’ as well as ‘देह सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.
(4) देह सुँ + बद्ध सुँ । By 2-2-37 वाहिताग्न्यादिषु – In the बहुव्रीहि: compounds ‘आहिताग्नि’ etc. a term which ends in a निष्ठा affix (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-2-102 निष्ठा) optionally takes the prior position.
Note: For a term which ends in a निष्ठा affix the पूर्वनिपात: (placement in the prior position) which would have been obligatory in all बहुव्रीहि: compounds as per the prior सूत्रम् 2-2-36 निष्ठा is now made optional (by the present सूत्रम् 2-2-37) in certain बहुव्रीहि: compounds ‘आहिताग्नि’ etc.
Note: The आहिताग्न्यादि-गण: is a आकृति-गण: – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence when we see an accepted usage – such as ‘बद्धदेह’ – in which a term which should have been placed in the prior position (as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ or 2-2-36 निष्ठा) is actually found to be in the latter position in a बहुव्रीहि: compound we can justify the usage by considering the compound to be included in the आहिताग्न्यादि-गण:।
See question 2.
Note: ‘देह सुँ + बद्ध सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम् by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
(5) देह + बद्ध । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।
= देहबद्ध ।
The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example ‘धर्म’ is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘देहबद्ध’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।
Note: ‘धर्म’ may also be used in the neuter gender, but such usage is rare.
The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।
(6) देहबद्ध + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्।
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
(7) देहबद्धम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.
1. In verses 18-23 of Chapter One of the गीता can you spot a बहुव्रीहि: compound in which the पूर्वनिपात: (placement in the prior position) may be justified using the सूत्रम् 2-2-37 वाहिताग्न्यादिषु?
2. What is the alternate form for the compound ‘देहबद्ध’?
3. Why type of compound is ‘राघवान्वित’ used in the verses?
4. In which word in the verses has the सूत्रम् 3-3-102 अ प्रत्ययात् been used?
5. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जनक’?
6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Today, even in India, it is difficult to find a man who has consecrated/installed the sacrificial fires.” Use the affix ‘खल्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-3-126 ईषद्दुःसुषु कृच्छ्राकृच्छ्रार्थेषु खल्) to form a उपपद-तत्पुरुष: compound for ‘difficult to find’ = ‘found with difficulty’ = दु:खेन लभ्यते। Form a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘a man who has consecrated/installed the sacrificial fires’ = आहिता अग्नयो येन स: (नर:)।
1. From which verbal root is the form अभ्यगात् derived?
2. Which term used in the verses has the designation ‘घि’?