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अपार्थम् nAs

Today we will look at the form अपार्थम् nAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 6.1.10.

राजोवाच
दृष्टश्रुताभ्यां यत्पापं जानन्नप्यात्मनोऽहितम् । करोति भूयो विवशः प्रायश्चित्तमथो कथम् ।। ६-१-९ ।।
क्वचिन्निवर्ततेऽभद्रात्क्वचिच्चरति तत्पुनः । प्रायश्चित्तमथोऽपार्थं मन्ये कुञ्जरशौचवत् ।। ६-१-१० ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अत्र चोदयति द्वाभ्याम् । दृष्टं राजदण्डादि । श्रुतं नरकपातादि । ताभ्यामात्मनः पापमहितं जानन्नपि भूयः प्रायश्चित्तानन्तरं करोतिअथो अतः कारणाद्द्वादशाब्दादि कथं प्रायश्चित्तम् । तेन समूलस्य दोषस्यानिवृत्तेः । निवृत्तौ वा पुनश्च पापप्ररोहायोगादिति भावः ।। ९ ।। किंच क्वचित्कदाचिदभद्रात्पापान्निवर्ततेक्वचित्तदेव पुनराचरति । यथा कुञ्जरः स्नातोऽपि रजोभिरात्मानं मलिनी करोति तथा पापस्य पुनर्दुर्निवारत्वेन नरकपातस्यावश्यंभावित्वात्प्रायश्चित्तं व्यर्थमिति मन्ये ।। १० ।।

Gita Press translation – The king said: Since a man, though knowing a sin to be hurtful to his self on the testimony of what is actually seen and heard of by him, repeats it (even after atoning for it) having lost control (over his self), how could there be (any) atonement (for his sins) under the circumstances (so long as the sinful propensity is there)? (9) Now he is absolved from a sin and now he does it again. Such being the case, I account (all) atonement fruitless like the bath of an elephant (which throws dust on its body immediately after it has washed itself) (10).

(1) अपगतमर्थात् (अपगतम् अर्थात्) = अपार्थम् – fruitless (disjoint from purpose.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) अप + अर्थ ङसिँ । By सौनाग-वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-18) निरादयः क्रान्‍ताद्यर्थे पञ्चम्‍या – Terms like ‘निर्’ (from the प्रादि-गण:) when denoting a sense like ‘क्रान्‍त’ (‘departed’/’gone past’) invariably compound with a syntactically related पदम् ending in the ablative case and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘ अप’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सौनाग-वार्तिकम् ‘निरादयः क्रान्‍ताद्यर्थे पञ्चम्‍या’ (which prescribes the compounding) the term निरादयः ends in the nominative case. Hence the term ‘अप’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘अप + अर्थ ङसिँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) अप + अर्थ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) अपार्थ । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः – The gender of a तत्पुरुष: compound as well as a द्वन्द्व: compound is the same as the gender of the latter member of the compound. For a प्रादि-समास: (which belongs to the तत्पुरुष: class of compounds) though, as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः) द्विगुप्राप्तापन्नालम्पूर्वगतिसमासेषु प्रतिषेधो वाच्यः – The सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः does not apply to the following compounds which instead take their gender to match the gender of the विशेष्यम् (the term being qualified by the compound) –
i) a द्विगु-समास: (composed तद्धितार्थे विषये – in the context where the sense of a तद्धित: affix is to be expressed)
ii) a तत्पुरुष-समास: compound which has either ‘प्राप्त’, ‘आपन्न’ or ‘अलम्’ as its prior member
iii) a प्रादि-समास: composed using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः।
Note: गतिसमासपदं गते: समासो येनेति बहुव्रीहिणा ‘कुगतिप्रादयः’ इति सूत्रपरम्। तच्चान्यत्र फलाभावात् प्रादिपरमेव। The mention of ‘गतिसमास’ in the above वार्तिकम् refers to those compounds constructed using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः (which prescribes गति-समासा:)। And since the वार्तिकम् is of no use in the case of those compounds which have ‘कु’ or a ‘गति’ term as the prior member, we have to conclude that the mention of ‘गतिसमास’ in the above वार्तिकम् refers to प्रादि-समास: only.
In the present example, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अपार्थ’ is neuter since the विशेष्यम् (the term being qualified by the compound) is ‘प्रायश्चित्त’ which is neuter.

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(6) अपार्थ + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(7) अपार्थ + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
Note: 7-1-24 is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.

(8) अपार्थम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. In verses 18-22 of Chapter Five of the गीता can you spot a compound constructed using the सौनाग-वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-18) निरादयः क्रान्‍ताद्यर्थे पञ्चम्‍या (used in step 2)?

2. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 1-4-24 ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम्) जुगुप्साविरामप्रमादार्थानामुपसङ्ख्यानम् been used in the verses?

3. Which two compounds used in the verses are नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compounds?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form रजोभिः used in the commentary?

5. Can you spot a प्रादि-समास: in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The life of one who has no devotion is fruitless (disjoint from purpose.)”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘उ’ in the form करोति?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-69 दिवादिभ्यः श्यन् been used in the verses?


1 Comment

  1. 1. In verses 18-22 of Chapter Five of the गीता can you spot a compound constructed using the सौनाग-वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-18) निरादयः क्रान्‍ताद्यर्थे पञ्चम्‍या (used in step 2)?
    Answer: The compound निर्दोषम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ’निर्दोष’, नपुंसकलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) in the following verse is constructed using the सौनाग-वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-18) निरादयः क्रान्‍ताद्यर्थे पञ्चम्‍या।

    The लौकिक-विग्रहः is –
    निर्गतं दोषेभ्यः = निर्दोषम् – flawless (departed from flaws)

    इहैव तैर्जितः सर्गो येषां साम्ये स्थितं मनः ।
    निर्दोषं हि समं ब्रह्म तस्माद् ब्रह्मणि ते स्थिताः ॥ ५-१९॥

    The derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘निर्दोष’ is similar to the derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अपार्थ’ shown in the post. Except that step 5 does not apply.

    2. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 1-4-24 ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम्) जुगुप्साविरामप्रमादार्थानामुपसङ्ख्यानम् been used in the verses?
    Answer: The वार्तिकम् (under 1-4-24 ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम्) जुगुप्साविरामप्रमादार्थानामुपसङ्ख्यानम् has been used in the form अभद्रात् (नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अभद्र’, पञ्चमी-एकवचनम्)।

    As per the वार्तिकम् (under 1-4-24 ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम्) जुगुप्साविरामप्रमादार्थानामुपसङ्ख्यानम् – When a verbal root having the meaning of जुगुप्सा (censure/dislike/disgust) or विराम: (cessation/turning away) or प्रमाद: (negligence/inattentiveness) is used, the कारकम् (participant in the action) – that is the विषय: (topic) of the जुगुप्सा/विराम:/प्रमाद: – is designated as अपादानम्।

    In the present example (अभद्रान्निवर्तते) the verbal root √वृत् (वृतुँ वर्तने १. ८६२) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘नि’ has the meaning of विराम: (cessation/turning away) and the विषय: (topic) of the विराम: is ‘अभद्र’ (sin). Hence it gets the designation अपादानम् (by the above वार्तिकम्) and the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अभद्र’ takes a fifth case affix (by the सूत्रम् 2-3-28 अपादाने पञ्चमी)।

    3. Which two compounds used in the verses are नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compounds?
    Answer: The compounds अभद्रात् (नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अभद्र’, पञ्चमी-एकवचनम्) and अहितम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अहित’, नपुंसकलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) are नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compounds.

    The लौकिक-विग्रहः is –
    न भद्रम् = अभद्रम् – not auspicious – a sin.
    न हितम् = अहितम् – not beneficial – hurtful.

    In the examples the negation particle नञ्‌ conveys the sense of विरोध: – opposite of that which is being negated.
    The derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अभद्र’ and ‘अहित’ is similar to the derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अपर्याप्त’ shown in answer to question 1 in the following comment – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2015/08/10/अब्राह्मणः-mns/#comment-35496

    4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form रजोभिः used in the commentary?
    Answer: The use of a third case affix in the form रजोभिः (नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ’रजस्’, तृतीया-बहुवचनम्) is justified by the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया – A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) is used to denote कर्ता (the doer of the action) as well as करणम् (the instrument of the action) provided the doer/instrument has not been expressed otherwise.

    Note: In the present example ’रजस्’ (dust) is the instrument of the action (आत्मानं मलिनी) करोति (makes oneself dirty).

    5. Can you spot a प्रादि-समास: in the commentary?
    Answer: The compound व्यर्थम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘व्यर्थ’, नपुंसकलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) is a प्रादि-समास:।

    Please see the following post for derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘व्यर्थ’ – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2015/10/15/व्यर्थया-fis
    In the present example, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘व्यर्थ’ is used in the neuter since the विशेष्यम् (the term being qualified by the compound) is ‘प्रायश्चित्त’ which is neuter.

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “The life of one who has no devotion is fruitless (disjoint from purpose.)”
    Answer: यस्य भक्तिः न अस्ति तस्य जीवनम् अपार्थम् (भवति) = यस्य भक्तिर्नास्ति तस्य जीवनमपार्थम्।

    Easy questions:
    1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘उ’ in the form करोति?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-1-79 तनादिकृञ्भ्य उः prescribes the affix ‘उ’ in the form करोति – derived from the verbal root √कृ(डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०).

    Please see answer to question 5 in the following comment for derivation of the form करोति – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/04/24/अस्राक्षीत्-3as-लुँङ्/#comment-3666

    2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-69 दिवादिभ्यः श्यन् been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-1-69 दिवादिभ्यः श्यन् has been used in the form मन्ये – derived from the verbal root √मन् (मनँ ज्ञाने ४. ७३).

    Please see answer to question 1 in the following comment for derivation of the form मन्ये – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/01/25/मेनिरे-3ap-लिँट्/

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