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शाखामृगः mNs

Today we will look at the form शाखामृगः  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.67.11.

गायन्तं वारुणीं पीत्वा मदविह्वललोचनम् । विभ्राजमानं वपुषा प्रभिन्नमिव वारणम् ।। १०-६७-१० ।।
दुष्टः शाखामृगः शाखामारूढः कम्पयन्द्रुमान् । चक्रे किलकिलाशब्दमात्मानं सम्प्रदर्शयन् ।। १०-६७-११ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
प्रभिन्नं मत्तम् ।। १० ।।

Gita Press translation – Drunk with Vāruṇī, He was singing (beautifully) with eyes swimming in intoxication and with His glowing body looked like an elephant in rut (10). Climbing up branches of trees the wicked monkey shook the trees and in order to attract notice loudly chattered (11).

शाखाचारी मृग: = शाखामृगः – a monkey (an animal which habitually moves among branches.)
Note: शाखाचारी itself is a उपपद-समास: explained as follows – शाखासु चरति तच्छील: = शाखाचारी – one who habitually moves among the branches. The compound शाखाचारी (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शाखाचारिन्’) is then used in the following derivation –

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) शाखाचारिन् सुँ + मृग सुँ । By 2-1-57 विशेषणं विशेष्येण बहुलम्‌ – A सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting a qualifier (adjective) variously compounds with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् which denotes that which is qualified – provided both the सुबन्त-पदे refer to the same item – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘शाखाचारिन् सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-57 (which prescribes the compounding) the term विशेषणम्‌ ends in the nominative case. Hence the adjective ‘शाखाचारिन् सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘शाखाचारिन् सुँ + मृग सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) शाखाचारिन् + मृग । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) शाखामृग । By the वार्तिकम् – शाकपार्थिवादीनां सिद्धये उत्तरपदलोपस्‍योपसंख्‍यानम् – In order to explain compounds like शाकपार्थिव:, an additional provision is made to allow for the elision of the latter member of a compound (which itself is the prior member of the final compound.) In the present example the latter member ‘चारिन्’ of the compound ‘शाखाचारिन्’ is elided in order to explain the compound ‘शाखामृग’।
Note: A compound composed using this वार्तिकम् is referred to as a शाकपार्थिवादिसमास: or a मध्यमपदलोपिसमास:।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शाखामृग’ is masculine since the latter member ‘मृग’ of the compound is masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(6) शाखामृग + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) शाखामृग + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(8) शाखामृग: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Can you spot a शाकपार्थिवादिसमास: (मध्यमपदलोपिसमास:) in the last five verses of Chapter Thirteen of the गीता?

2. From which verbal root is the form गायन्तम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गायत्’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) derived?

3. In which word in the verses does the सूत्रम् 3-4-72 गत्यर्थाकर्मकश्लिषशीङ्स्थासवसजनरुहजीर्यतिभ्यश्च find application?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ई’ in the form पीत्वा?

5. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 8-2-42 रदाभ्यां निष्ठातो नः पूर्वस्य च दः apply in the form मत्तम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मत्त’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Śrī Hanumān was the most intelligent among all the monkeys.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘बुद्धिमत्तम’ for ‘most intelligent.’

Easy questions:

1. From which verbal root is the form चक्रे derived?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि been used in the verses?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Can you spot a शाकपार्थिवादिसमास: (मध्यमपदलोपिसमास:) in the last five verses of Chapter Thirteen of the गीता?
    Answer: The compound ज्ञानचक्षुषा (नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ’ज्ञानचक्षुस्’, तृतीया-एकवचनम्) in the following verse of the गीता is a शाकपार्थिवादिसमास: (मध्यमपदलोपिसमास:) –
    क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोरेवमन्तरं ज्ञानचक्षुषा ।
    भूतप्रकृतिमोक्षं च ये विदुर्यान्ति ते परम्‌ ॥13-35॥

    ज्ञानलक्षणं चक्षुः = ज्ञानचक्षुः – eye whose characteristic is wisdom = eye of wisdom.
    Note: ज्ञानलक्षणम् itself is a बहुव्रीहि-समास: explained as follows – ज्ञानं लक्षणं यस्य तत् = ज्ञानलक्षणम् – one whose characteristic is wisdom. The compound ‘ज्ञानलक्षण’ is then used to derive the शाकपार्थिवादिसमास: ‘ज्ञानचक्षुस्’।

    The derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ’ज्ञानचक्षुस्’ is similar to the derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ’शाखामृग’ as shown in the post.

    2. From which verbal root is the form गायन्तम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गायत्’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) derived?
    Answer: The form गायन्तम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गायत्’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) is derived from the verbal root √गै (गै शब्दे १. १०६५).

    Please refer to the following post for derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गायत्’ – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/12/26/गायन्त्यः-fnp/ – except that instead of using the सूत्रम् 3-2-126 लक्षणहेत्वोः क्रियायाः (in step 3), the सूत्रम् 3-2-124 लटः शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे should be used.

    The विवक्षा here is पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।
    गायत् + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्।
    Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of अम् from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।
    Note: The affix ‘अम्’ has the सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा here as per 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य। This allows 7-1-70 to apply in the next step.
    = गाय नुँम् त् + अम् । By 7-1-70 उगिदचां सर्वनामस्थानेऽधातोः, 1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः। Note: ‘गायत्’ – which ends in the affix ‘शतृँ’ – is a उगित् (since the letter ‘ऋ’ in ‘शतृँ’ is a इत्)। This allows 7-1-70 to apply here.
    = गाय न् त् + अम् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = गायंतम् । By 8-3-24 नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि ।
    = गायतन्तम् । By 8-4-58 अनुस्वारस्य ययि परसवर्णः।

    3. In which word in the verses does the सूत्रम् 3-4-72 गत्यर्थाकर्मकश्लिषशीङ्स्थासवसजनरुहजीर्यतिभ्यश्च find application?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-4-72 गत्यर्थाकर्मकश्लिषशीङ्स्थासवसजनरुहजीर्यतिभ्यश्च finds application in the form आरूढः (प्रातिपदिकम् ’आरूढ’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) – derived from the verbal root √रुह् (रुहँ बीजजन्मनि प्रादुर्भावे च १. ९९५) preceded by the उपसर्गः ‘आङ्’।

    रुह् + क्त । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा। Note: The affix ‘क्त’ has been used कर्तरि (to denote the agent of the action) here as per 3-4-72 गत्यर्थाकर्मकश्लिषशीङ्स्थासवसजनरुहजीर्यतिभ्यश्च – When following one of the verbal roots listed below, the affix ‘क्त’ may be used in the active voice (कर्तरि) as well as in the passive voice (भावकर्मणो:) –
    (i) any verbal root used in the sense of motion (गत्यर्थ:)
    (ii) any verbal root used intransitively (अकर्मक:)
    (iii) the verbal roots √श्लिष् (श्लिषँ आलिङ्गने ४. ८३), √शी (शीङ् स्वप्ने २. २६), √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७), √आस् (आसँ उपवेशने २. ११), √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०), √जन् (जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४), √रुह् (रुहँ बीजजन्मनि प्रादुर्भावे च १. ९९५) and √जॄ (जॄष् वयोहानौ ४. २५)।
    Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ stops the augment ‘इट्’ (for the affix ‘त’) which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः।
    = रुढ् + त । By 8-2-31 हो ढः।
    = रुढ् + ध । By 8-2-40 झषस्तथोर्धोऽधः।
    = रुढ् + ढ । By 8-4-41 ष्टुना ष्टुः।
    = रु + ढ । By 8-3-13 ढो ढे लोपः। Note: The situation of the letter ‘ढ्’ followed by the letter ‘ढ्’ only arises after applying 8-4-41. So even though 8-3-13 is an earlier rule (compared to 8-4-41) in the अष्टाध्यायी, it has to be allowed (in spite of 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्) to see the operation done by 8-4-41, for otherwise, 8-3-13 would become useless.
    = रू + ढ । By 6-3-111 ढ्रलोपे पूर्वस्य दीर्घोऽणः। Note: The situation of the elision of the letter ‘ढ्’ or the letter ‘र्’ (रेफ:) only arises after applying 8-3-13/8-3-14. So even though 6-3-111 is an earlier rule (compared to 8-3-13/8-3-14) in the अष्टाध्यायी, it has to be allowed (in spite of 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्) to see the operation done by 8-3-13/8-3-14, for otherwise, 6-3-111 would become useless.
    ‘रूढ’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

    आङ् + रूढ । ‘रूढ’ is compounded with the उपसर्गः ‘आङ्’ using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः।
    = आरूढ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    ‘आरूढ’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

    4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ई’ in the form पीत्वा?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-4-66 घुमास्थागापाजहातिसां हलि prescribes the substitution ‘ई’ in the form पीत्वा – derived from the verbal root √पा (पा पाने १. १०७४).

    पा + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले।
    Note: The common agent of the actions पीत्वा (having drunk) and गायन्तम् (singing) is He (referring to रामम् mentioned in the previous verse.) The earlier of the two actions is the action of ‘to drink’ which is denoted by √पा and hence √पा takes the affix ‘क्त्वा’।
    Note: अव्ययकृतो भावे (from महाभाष्यम्) – कृत् affixes (such as ‘क्‍त्‍वा’) having the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा are used to denote भाव: (action) – and not the agent (ref. 3-4-67 कर्तरि कृत्‌) of the action.
    पा + त्वा । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ stops the augment ‘इट्’ (for the affix ‘त्वा’) which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः।
    Note: The affix ‘त्वा’ has the designation आर्धधातुकम् as per 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः। This allows 6-4-66 to apply in the next step.
    = पी + त्वा । By 6-4-66 घुमास्थागापाजहातिसां हलि – The letter ‘आ’ of the verbal roots having the घु-सञ्ज्ञा and the verbal roots √मा [मेङ् प्रणिदाने १. १११६, मा माने २. ५७, माङ् माने शब्दे च ३. ७, माङ् माने ४. ३७], √स्था [ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७], √गा [गै शब्दे १. १०६५, गाङ् गतौ १. ११०१, गा स्तुतौ ३. २६ as well as the गा-आदेश: done in place of इण् गतौ २. ४० and इक् स्मरणे (नित्यमधिपूर्वः) २. ४१, as well as the गाङ्-आदेश: in the place of इङ् अध्ययने (नित्यमधिपूर्वः) २. ४२], √पा [पा पाने १. १०७४], √हा [ओँहाक् त्यागे ३. ९] and √सो [षो अन्तकर्मणि ४. ४२] gets letter ‘ई’ as a replacement, when followed by a हलादि: (beginning with a consonant) आर्धधातुकम् affix which is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) or a ङित् (has the letter ‘ङ्’ as a इत्)।
    ‘पीत्वा’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः।

    पीत्वा + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्।
    = पीत्वा । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः।

    5. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 8-2-42 रदाभ्यां निष्ठातो नः पूर्वस्य च दः apply in the form मत्तम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मत्त’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the commentary?
    Answer: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मत्त’ is derived from the verbal root √मद् (मदीँ हर्षे ४. १०५) by adding the निष्ठा affix ‘क्त’।
    The सूत्रम् 8-2-42 रदाभ्यां निष्ठातो नः पूर्वस्य च दः does not apply in the form ‘मत्त’ because of the निषेध-सूत्रम् 8-2-57 न ध्याख्यापॄमूर्च्छिमदाम् – When following the verbal root √ध्यै (ध्यै चिन्तायाम् १. १०५६) or √ख्या (ख्या प्रकथने २. ५५) or √पॄ (पॄ पालनपूरणयोः ३. ४) or √मूर्च्छ् (मूर्च्छाँ मोहनसमुच्छ्राययोः १. २४०) or √मद् (मदीँ हर्षे ४. १०५), the letter ‘त्’ of a निष्ठा affix (ref. 1-1-26) is not replaced by the letter ‘न्’।
    Please refer to answer to question 2 in the following comment for derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मत्त’ – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2013/04/09/श्रीमदात्-m-ab-s/#comment-19611

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “Śrī Hanumān was the most intelligent among all the monkeys.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘बुद्धिमत्तम’ for ‘most intelligent.’
    Answer: सर्वशाखामृगेषु श्रीहनुमान् बुद्धिमत्तमः बभूव = सर्वशाखामृगेषु श्रीहनुमान् बुद्धिमत्तमो बभूव।

    Easy questions:
    1. From which verbal root is the form चक्रे derived?
    Answer: The form चक्रे is derived from the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०).

    Please see the following post for derivation of the form चक्रे – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/01/10/चक्रे-3as-लिँट्

    2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि has been used in the form द्रुमान् (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘द्रुम’, द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्)।

    द्रुम + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा……..।
    = द्रुम + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘शस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
    = द्रुमास् । By 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः।
    = द्रुमान् । By 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि – In the masculine gender, when the letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘शस्’ follows a vowel which has been elongated by 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः, it is replaced by the letter ‘न्’

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