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सर्वनारीणाम् fGp

Today we will look at the form सर्वनारीणाम् fGp from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 2.118.11.

सावित्री पतिशुश्रूषां कृत्वा स्वर्गे महीयते । तथावृत्तिश्च याता त्वं पतिशुश्रूषया दिवम् ।। २-११८-१० ।।
वरिष्ठा सर्वनारीणामेषा च दिवि देवता । रोहिणी न विना चन्द्रं मुहूर्तमपि दृश्यते ।। २-११८-११ ।।
एवंविधाश्च प्रवराः स्त्रियो भर्तृदृढव्रताः । देवलोके महीयन्ते पुण्येन स्वेन कर्मणा ।। २-११८-१२ ।।

Gita Press translation – Having rendered service to her husband (all her life), Sāvitrī (the celebrated wife of Prince Satyavān) is (now) greatly respected in heaven; nay, conducting yourself in the same way, you (too) have virtually ascended to heaven through service to your husband (10). (By virtue of her devotion to her spouse) this Rohiṇī (the most favorite consort of the moon-god, presiding over a constellation of the same name), the most excellent of all women and (now) dwelling in heaven as a deity, is not seen (in the heavens) without the moon even for a while (11). Nay, steadfast in their vow of fidelity to their husband, (more) such exalted women are highly respected in the realm of gods by virtue of their meritorious action (12).

(1) सर्वाश्च ता नार्यः = सर्वनार्यः – all women.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) सर्वा जस् + नारी जस् । By 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन – A सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् which either i) denotes an action which naturally precedes in time or ii) is (composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) ‘एक’/‘सर्व’/’जरत्’/’पुराण’/’नव’/’केवल’ optionally compounds with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् – provided both the सुबन्त-पदे refer to the same item – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘सर्वा जस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-49 (which prescribes the compounding) the term पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘सर्वा जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘सर्वा जस् + नारी जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) सर्वा + नारी । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) सर्व + नारी । By 6-3-42 पुंवत्‌ कर्मधारयजातीयदेशीयेषु – A feminine adjective which does not end in the feminine affix ‘ऊङ्’ (ref. 4-1-66 ऊङुतः etc) and is formed from a masculine base denoting the same meaning becomes masculine-like when it is either the prior member of a कर्मधारय: compound or is followed by the affix ‘जातीय’ (ref. 5-3-69 प्रकारवचने जातीयर्) or ‘देशीय’ (ref. 5-3-67 ईषदसमाप्तौ कल्पब्देश्यदेशीयरः)।

= सर्वनारी ।

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सर्वनारी’ is feminine since the latter member ‘नारी’ of the compound is feminine.

The विवक्षा is षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्।

(6) सर्वनारी + आम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of ‘आम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
Note: ‘सर्वनारी’ gets the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-3 यू स्त्र्याख्यौ नदी – A term ending in long ‘ई’ or long ‘ऊ’ gets the सञ्ज्ञा ‘नदी’ if it is used exclusively in the feminine gender. This allows 7-1-54 to apply in the next step.

(7) सर्वनारी + नुँट् आम् । By 7-1-54 ह्रस्वनद्यापो नुँट् – The affix ‘आम्’ takes the augment ‘नुँट्’ when it follows a प्रातिपदिकम् which either ends in a short vowel or has the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा or ends in the feminine affix ‘आप्’। As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ this augment attaches to the beginning of the affix ‘आम्’।

(8) सर्वनारी + नाम् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(9) सर्वनारीणाम् । By 8-4-2 अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेऽपि – The letter ‘न्’ is replaced by ‘ण्’ when either ‘र्’ or ‘ष्’ precedes, even if intervened by a letter of the अट्-प्रत्याहार: or by a letter of the क-वर्ग: or प-वर्गः or the term ‘आङ्’ or ‘नुँम्’ (अनुस्वारः) either singly or in any combination.

Questions:

1. In which word(s) in the verses has the सूत्रम् 3-1-27 कण्ड्वादिभ्यो यक् been used?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘सन्’ in the verses?

3. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a second case affix in the word मुहूर्तम् used in the verses?

4. Which other case ending (besides a second case ending) could have been used in the form चन्द्रम् used in the verses?

5. In which sense has a third case ending been used in the words पुण्येन स्वेन कर्मणा in the verses?
i. कर्तरि
ii. कर्मणि
iii. हेतौ
iv. None of the above

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“If you want to worship all the deities, then worship a cow because all the deities reside in her body.” Construct a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘all the deities’ = सर्वाश्च ता देवता:। Use the combination of indeclinables ‘यत: + हि = यतो हि’ for ‘because.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘इयँङ्’ seen in the form स्त्रिय: (स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्त्री’, प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-67 सार्वधातुके यक् been used in the verses?


1 Comment

  1. 1. In which word(s) in the verses has the सूत्रम् 3-1-27 कण्ड्वादिभ्यो यक् been used?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-1-27 कण्ड्वादिभ्यो यक् has been used in the form महीयन्ते – derived from the verbal root √मही (महीङ् पूजायाम्, कण्ड्वादि-गणः)।

    मही + यक् । By 3-1-27 कण्ड्वादिभ्यो यक् – The affix यक् is always used after the verbal roots in the कण्ड्वादि-गणः (group of terms headed by ’कण्डूञ्’) with no change in their meaning.
    Note: एते च धातवः प्रातिपदिकानि च । The terms in the कण्ड्वादि-गणः are considered to be verbal roots as well as nominal stems. When they are used as verbal roots 3-1-27 applies.
    Note: The affix यक् is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्)। Hence 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च stops the गुण: substitution (in place of the ending letter ‘ई’ of the अङ्गम् ‘मही’) which would have been done by 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः।
    = मही + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = महीय ।
    ’महीय’ gets the धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः।

    The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्।
    महीय + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्।
    = महीय + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = महीय + झ । By 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्, 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम्।
    = महीय + झे । By 3-4-79 टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे।
    = महीय + शप् + झे । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्।
    = महीय + अ + झे । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् , 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = महीय + अ + अन्ते । By 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः।
    = महीयन्ते । By 6-1-97 अतो गुणे् (applied twice).

    2. Can you spot the affix ‘सन्’ in the verses?
    Answer: The affix ’सन्’ has been used in the प्रातिपदिकम् ’शुश्रूषा’ in the forms पतिशुश्रूषाम् and पतिशुश्रूषया ।

    Please see answer to question 5 in the following comment for derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ’शुश्रूषा’ – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2014/12/11/अविघ्नम्-nns/#comment-35141

    The compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पतिशुश्रूषा’ is a षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष-समासः।
    The विग्रह-वाक्यम् is पत्युः शुश्रूषा = पतिशुश्रूषा – service to husband.

    पति ङस् + शुश्रूषा सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी।
    By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ’पति ङस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ’पति ङस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌।
    Note: ’पति ङस् + शुश्रूषा सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
    = पति + शुश्रूषा। By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः।
    = पतिशुश्रूषा ।
    Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पतिशुश्रूषा’ is feminine since the latter member ’शुश्रूषा’ of the compound is feminine. It declined like सीता-शब्द:। द्वितीया-एकवचनम् is पतिशुश्रूषाम् and तृतीया-एकवचनम् is पतिशुश्रूषया।

    3. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a second case affix in the word मुहूर्तम् used in the verses?
    Answer: The use of a second case affix in the word मुहूर्तम् is justified by the सूत्रम् 2-3-5 कालाध्वनोरत्यन्तसंयोगे – A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) denoting (measure of) time or (measure of) path/road when continuous connection (with a quality or action or thing) is meant.

    In the present example, ‘मुहूर्त’ (a short while) denotes a measure of time which has continuous connection with the action of seeing denoted by the the verbal root √दृश् (दृशिँर् प्रेक्षणे १. ११४३) present in the word दृश्यते। Hence the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मुहूर्त’ takes a second case affix as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-5.

    4. Which other case ending (besides a second case ending) could have been used in the form चन्द्रम् used in the verses?
    Answer: Besides a second case affix, a third case affix or a fifth case affix could have been used along with the प्रातिपदिकम् ’चन्द्र’ since it is co-occurring with ‘विना’। As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-32 पृथग्विनानानाभिस्तृतीयान्यतरस्याम्‌ – A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) or a fifth case affix (‘ङसिँ’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) or a second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with पृथक्, विना or नाना।

    Note: अन्यतरस्यांग्रहणं समुच्चयार्थम्। पञ्चमीद्वितीये चानुवर्तेते। The mention of the term अन्यतरस्याम् in the सूत्रम् 2-3-32 is for the purpose of accumulation (of the fifth and second case affixes along with the third case affix.) The अनुवृत्ति: of पञ्चमी (from 2-3-28) and द्वितीया (from 2-3-31) comes in to the सूत्रम् 2-3-32.
    Hence – विना चन्द्रेण चन्द्रात् चन्द्रं वा रोहिणी न दृश्यते।

    5. In which sense has a third case ending been used in the words पुण्येन स्वेन कर्मणा in the verses?
    i. कर्तरि
    ii. कर्मणि
    iii. हेतौ
    iv. None of the above
    Answer: A third case affix has been used in the words पुण्येन स्वेन कर्मणा in the sense of हेतौ as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-23 हेतौ – A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes a cause/reason (for a thing or quality or action.)
    The use of the the सूत्रम् 2-3-23 हेतौ is justified here since पुण्येन स्वेन कर्मणा (by virtue of their meritorious action) is the cause/reason for the action महीयन्ते (are highly respected.)

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “If you want to worship all the deities, then worship a cow because all the deities reside in her body.” Construct a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘all the deities’ = सर्वाश्च ता देवता:। Use the combination of indeclinables ‘यत: + हि = यतो हि’ for ‘because.’
    Answer: यदि सर्वदेवताः पूजयितुम् इच्छसि तर्हि गाम् पूजय यतः हि सर्वदेवताः तस्या: शरीरे निवसन्ति = यदि सर्वदेवताः पूजयितुमिच्छसि तर्हि गां पूजय यतो हि सर्वदेवतास्तस्या: शरीरे निवसन्ति।

    Easy questions:
    1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘इयँङ्’ seen in the form स्त्रिय: (स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्त्री’, प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-4-79 स्त्रियाः prescribes the substitution ‘इयँङ्’ in the form स्त्रियः (स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्त्री’, प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्।)

    Please see the answer to easy question 1 in the following comment for the derivation of the form स्त्रियः – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/08/28/भ्रमति-स्म-3as-लँट्/#comment-4318

    2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-67 सार्वधातुके यक् been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-1-67 सार्वधातुके यक् has been used in the form दृश्यते – derived from the verbal root √दृश् (दृशिर् प्रेक्षणे १. ११४३).

    Please refer to the following post for derivation of the form दृश्यते – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2011/08/08/दृश्यते-3ps-लँट्/

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