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आपातरमणीयानाम् mGp

Today we will look at the form आपातरमणीयानाम् mGp from हितोपदेशः 11.79.

संयोगो हि वियोगस्य संसूचयति संभवम् । अनतिक्रमणीयस्य जन्म मृत्योरिवागमम् ।। ११-७९ ।।
आपातरमणीयानां संयोगानां प्रियैः सह । अपथ्यानामिवान्नानां परिणामोऽतिदारुणः ।। ११-८० ।।

Translation – Connection certainly indicates the possibility of separation, as birth indicates the coming of death which is unavoidable (79). The result of seemingly delightful (pleasant at first glance) associations with beloved persons, is exceedingly dreadful, like that of unwholesome foods (80).

लौकिक-विग्रहः
(1) आपाते रमणीय: = आपातरमणीय: – delightful/pleasant at first glance.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) आपात ङि + रमणीय सुँ 2-1-40 (a) सप्तमी । Note: ‘सप्तमी’ इति योगविभागात्समास:। Since ‘रमणीय’ is not listed in the शौण्डादि-गण: we cannot use 2-1-40 सप्तमी शौण्डैः to form this compound. (The rules from 2-1-41 to 2-1-48 do not apply either.) So we split the rule 2-1-40 सप्तमी शौण्डैः in to two parts – 2-1-40 (a) सप्तमी and 2-1-40 (b) शौण्डैः। The meaning of part (a) becomes – A पदम् ending in a seventh case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:। We can use this part (a) to justify the formation of the compound ‘आपातरमणीय’।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘आपात ङि’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-40 (a) (which prescribes the compounding) the term सप्तमी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘आपात ङि’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘आपात ङि + रमणीय सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) आपात + रमणीय । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= आपातरमणीय ।

Note: In the present example the compound ‘आपातरमणीय’ (which is an adjective) is qualifying the masculine noun ‘संयोग’ and hence takes the masculine gender.

The विवक्षा is षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्।

(5) आपातरमणीय + आम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘आम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(6) आपातरमणीय + नुँट् आम् । By 7-1-54 ह्रस्वनद्यापो नुट् – The affix ‘आम्’ takes the augment ‘नुँट्’ when it follows a प्रातिपदिकम् which either ends in a short vowel or has the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा or ends in the feminine affix ‘आप्’।
As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ the augment ‘नुँट्’ joins at the beginning of the affix ‘आम्’।

(7) आपातरमणीय + नाम् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) आपातरमणीयानाम् । By 6-4-3 नामि – The ending vowel of an अङ्गम् gets elongated if followed by the term ‘नाम्’।

Questions:

1. In verses 6-10 of Chapter One of the गीता can you spot a compound which may be justified by the statement – ‘सप्तमी’ इति योगविभागात्समास:?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘क’ in the verse?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आगम’ (used in the form आगमम् (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) in the verse)?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the कृत् affix ‘अनीयर्’ used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘रमणीय’ (which is part of the compound ‘आपातरमणीय’)?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने been used in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The result of the seemingly delightful associations with the sense objects, is exceedingly dreadful.” Form a compound for ‘seemingly delightful’ (= ‘delightful at first glance.’) Use words from the verse for ‘result’ and ‘exceedingly dreadful.’ Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘संयोग’ for ‘association’ and the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विषय’ for ‘sense object.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘णिच्’ in the form संसूचयति?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-110 ङसिङसोश्च been used in the verse?


1 Comment

  1. 1. In verses 6-10 of Chapter One of the गीता can you spot a compound which may be justified by the statement – ‘सप्तमी’ इति योगविभागात्समास:?
    Answer: The compound युद्धविशारदाः (प्रातिपदिकम् ’युद्धविशारद’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) in verse 1.9 of the गीता may be justified by the statement – ‘सप्तमी’ इति योगविभागात्समास:।

    अन्ये च बहवः शूरा मदर्थे त्यक्तजीविताः ।
    नानाशस्त्रप्रहरणाः सर्वे युद्धविशारदाः ॥ १-९॥

    लौकिक-विग्रहः –
    युद्धे विशारदः = युद्धविशारदः – ‘skilled in warfare.’
    Since ‘विशारद’ is not listed in the शौण्डादि-गण: we cannot use 2-1-40 सप्तमी शौण्डैः to form this compound. (The rules from 2-1-41 to 2-1-48 do not apply either.) So we split the rule 2-1-40 सप्तमी शौण्डैः into two parts – 2-1-40 (a) सप्तमी and 2-1-40 (b) शौण्डैः। The meaning of part (a) becomes – A पदम् ending in a seventh case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:। We can use this part (a) to justify the formation of the compound युद्धविशारदः।

    2. Can you spot the affix ‘क’ in the verse?
    Answer: The affix ‘क’ is used in the form प्रियै: (प्रातिपदिकम् ’प्रिय’, पुंलिङ्गे तृतीया-बहुवचनम्)।

    Please refer to the following post for derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ’प्रिय’ – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/10/02/प्रियः-mns

    3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आगम’ (used in the form आगमम् (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) in the verse)?
    Answer: The कृत् affix ‘अप्’ is used to form the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आगम’ – derived from the verbal root √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७) preceded by the उपसर्गः ‘आङ्’|

    आगमनम् = आगम:।

    गम् + अप् । By 3-3-58 ग्रहवृदृनिश्चिगमश्च – Following any one of the verbal roots listed below, the affix अप् is be used to denote either (i) the sense of the verbal root as having attained to a completed state or (ii) any कारक: except the agent of the action, provided the word so derived is a proper name –
    (i) √ग्रह् (ग्रहँ उपादाने ९.७१)
    (ii) √वृ (वृञ् वरणे ५. ८, वृङ् सम्भक्तौ ९. ४५)
    (iii) √दृ (दृङ् आदरे ६. १४७)
    (iv) √चि (चिञ् चयने ५. ५) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘निस्’
    (v) √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७)
    Note: घञचोरपवाद:। (from सिद्धान्तकौमुदी) The affix ‘अप्’ prescribed by this सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to the affix ‘घञ्’ (in the case of √ग्रह्, √वृ, √दृ and √गम्) prescribed by 3-3-18 भावे and 3-3-19 अकर्तरि च कारके संज्ञायाम् and to the affix ‘अच्’ (in the case of √चि preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘निस्’) prescribed by 3-3-56 एरच्।
    = गम् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = गम ।

    ‘गम’ is compounded with the उपसर्गः ‘आङ्’ using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः।
    आङ् + गम = आगम । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    ’आगम’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।
    Note: घञबन्त: (लिङ्गानुशासनम् २.२) – A प्रातिपदिकम् ending in the affix ‘घञ्’ or ‘अप्’ is used in the masculine gender.

    4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the कृत् affix ‘अनीयर्’ used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘रमणीय’ (which is part of the compound ‘आपातरमणीय’)?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-1-96 तव्यत्तव्यानीयरः prescribes the affix ‘अनीयर्’ in the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘रमणीय’ – derived from the verbal root √रम् (रमुँ क्रीडायाम् | रमँ इति माधवः १. ९८९).
    Note: This verbal root is intransitive (does not take an object) but it has been used here in a transitive sense.

    रम् + अनीयर् । By 3-1-96 तव्यत्तव्यानीयरः – The affixes ‘तव्यत्’, ‘तव्य’ and ‘अनीयर्’ may be used after a verbal root. Note: Since the सूत्रम् 3-1-96 तव्यत्तव्यानीयरः occurs in the अधिकारः of ‘3-1-95 कृत्याः’ the affix ‘अनीयर्’ gets the designation ‘कृत्य’। And as per the सूत्रम् 3-4-70 तयोरेव कृत्यक्तखलर्थाः the affix ‘अनीयर्’ is used here कर्मणि (to denote the object).
    = रम् + अनीय । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: ‘अनीय’ has the designation कृत् as per 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्।
    = रमणीय। By 8-4-2 अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेऽपि।
    ‘रमणीय’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

    5. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने been used in the verse?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने has been used in the verses to assign a third case affix to the प्रातिपदिकम् ’प्रिय’ to give the form प्रियै: since it is co-occurring with सह।

    As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने – A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with सह or a synonym of सह, provided the प्रातिपदिकम् does not denote the primary (agent.)

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “The result of the seemingly delightful associations with the sense objects, is exceedingly dreadful.” Form a compound for ‘seemingly delightful’ (= ‘delightful at first glance.’) Use words from the verse for ‘result’ and ‘exceedingly dreadful.’ Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘संयोग’ for ‘association’ and the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विषय’ for ‘sense object.’
    Answer: आपातरमणीयानाम् विषयैः सह संयोगानाम् परिणाम: अतिदारुणः भवति = आपातरमणीयानांं विषयैः सह संयोगानां परिणामोऽतिदारुणो भवति।

    Easy questions:
    1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘णिच्’ in the form संसूचयति?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-1-25 सत्यापपाशरूपवीणातूलश्लोकसेनालोमत्वचवर्मवर्णचूर्णचुरादिभ्यो णिच् prescribes the affix ‘णिच्’ in the form संसूचयति – derived from the verbal root √सूच (सूच पैशुन्ये १०. ४१२).

    सूच + णिच् । By 3-1-25 सत्यापपाशरूपवीणातूलश्लोकसेनालोमत्वचवर्मवर्णचूर्णचुरादिभ्यो णिच् – The affix णिच् is used after these words – ‘सत्य’ ‘truth’ (which then takes the form of ‘सत्याप्’ as exhibited in the सूत्रम्), ‘पाश’ ‘fetter’, ‘रूप’ ‘form’, ‘वीणा’ ‘lute’, ‘तूल’ ‘cotton’, ‘श्लोक’ ‘celebration’, ‘सेना’ ‘army’, ‘लोमन्’ ‘hair of the body’, ‘त्वच’ ‘skin’, ‘वर्मन्’ ‘mail’, ‘वर्ण’ ‘color’, ‘चूर्ण’ ‘powder’ and the verbal roots belonging to the चुरादि-गणः।
    = सूच + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = सूच् + इ । By 6-4-48 अतो लोपः।
    = सूचि । ‘सूचि’ gets the धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः।

    The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।
    सूचि + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्।
    = सूचि + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = सूचि + तिप् । By 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्, 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्।
    = सूचि + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = सूचि + शप् + ति । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌।
    = सूचि + अ + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = सूचे + अ + ति । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः।
    = सूचयति । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः।

    ‘सम्’ is the उपसर्ग: (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे, 1-4-80 ते प्राग्धातोः।)
    सम् + सूचयति = संसूचयति । By 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः|

    2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-110 ङसिङसोश्च been used in the verse?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-1-110 ङसिङसोश्च has been used in the form मृत्योः (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ’मृत्यु’, षष्ठी-एकवचनम्)।

    मृत्यु + ङस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
    Note: ’मृत्यु’ has the घि-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि। This allows 7-3-111 to apply below.
    = मृत्यु + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘ङस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
    = मृत्यो + अस् । By 7-3-111 घेर्ङिति। Note: As per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, the गुण: substitution takes place for only the ending letter (in this case the letter ’उ’) of the अङ्गम्।
    = मृत्योस् । By 6-1-110 ङसिङसोश्च – In place of a preceding एङ् (‘ए’, ‘ओ’) letter and the following short ‘अ’ of the affix ‘ङसिँ’ or ‘ङस्’, there is a single substitute of the former (एङ् letter.)
    = मृत्योः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः।

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