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दैवाधीनः mNs

Today we will look at the form दैवाधीनः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.3.23.

तस्यैवं रममाणस्य संवत्सरगणान्बहून् । गृहमेधेषु योगेषु विरागः समजायत ।। ३-३-२२ ।।
दैवाधीनेषु कामेषु दैवाधीनः स्वयं पुमान् । को विस्रम्भेत योगेन योगेश्वरमनुव्रतः ।। ३-३-२३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
गृहमेधेषु गृहधर्मेषु । योगेषु कामभोगोपायेषु । विराग औदासीन्यं जातमित्यर्थः ।। २२ ।। यदा स्वाधीनेष्वपि भगवतो विरागस्तदा दैवाधीनेषु को विस्रम्भेत विश्वासं प्रीतिं वा कुर्यात् । योगेन चेद्योगेश्वरं श्रीकृष्णमनुव्रतः ।। २३ ।।

Translation – As He thus enjoyed life for many years He felt an aversion for the performance of religious duties binding on a householder and conducive to the pleasures of sense (22). What man, then, who is himself in the power of Providence and who seeks to please Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the Master of Yogas) through the practice of Devotion, would set his heart on the pleasures of sense, which are in the power of Providence? (23)

(1) दैवेऽधि = दैवाधीन: – reliant on (in the power of) Providence.
Note: The सूत्रम् 1-4-97 अधिरीश्वरे assigns the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: to ‘अधि’ here. In connection with ‘अधि’ (which has the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-97 अधिरीश्वरे), ‘दैव’ takes a seventh case affix as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-9 यस्मादधिकं यस्य चेश्वरवचनं तत्र सप्तमी

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) दैव ङि + अधि । By 2-1-40 सप्तमी शौण्डैः – A पदम् ending in a seventh case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to ‘शौण्ड’ etc and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: Since ‘अधि’ is a अव्ययम् the default सुँप् affix ‘सुँ’ following ‘अधि’ takes the लुक् elision as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः
Note: The शौण्डादि-गण: is listed in the गणपाठ: as follows – शौण्ड। धूर्त। कितव। व्याड। प्रवीण। संवीत। अन्तर्। अधि। पटु। पण्डित। कुशल। चपल। निपुण।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘दैव ङि’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-40 (which prescribes the compounding) the term सप्तमी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘दैव ङि’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘दैव ङि + अधि’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) दैव + अधि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) दैवाधि । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

(6) दैवाधि + ख । By 5-4-7 अषडक्षाशितंग्वलंकर्मालंपुरुषाध्युत्तरपदात्ख: – The following प्रातिपदिकानि invariably take the तद्धित: affix ‘ख’ with no change in meaning – i) ‘अषडक्ष’ ii) ‘आशितङ्‍गु’ iii) ‘अलंकर्मन्’ vi) ‘अलंपुरुष’ and v) a compound having ‘अधि’ as its latter member.

(7) दैवाधि + ईन । By 7-1-2 आयनेयीनीयियः फढखछघां प्रत्ययादीनाम् – the letters ‘फ्’, ‘ढ्’, ‘ख्’, ‘छ्’ and ‘घ्’ – when they occur at the beginning of a प्रत्यय: (affix) – are replaced respectively by ‘आयन्’, ‘एय्’, ‘ईन्’, ‘ईय्’ and ‘इय्’।
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 1-3-10 यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम्, the substitutions take place respectively.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘ दैवाधि’ has the designation ‘भ’ here by 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(8) दैवाध् + ईन । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= दैवाधीन ।

Note: In the present example the compound ‘दैवधीन’ (which is an adjective) is qualifying the masculine noun पुमान् and hence takes the masculine gender.

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(9) दैवाधीन + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(10) दैवाधीन + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(11) दैवाधीन: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 5-4-7 अषडक्षाशितंग्वलंकर्मालंपुरुषाध्युत्तरपदात्ख: (used in step 6) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – नित्योऽयं ख:। उत्तरसूत्रे विभाषाग्रहणात्। Please explain.

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-1-2 आयनेयीनीयियः फढखछघां प्रत्ययादीनाम् (used in step 7) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – प्रत्ययेति किम्? धातोरादीनां मा भूत्। फक्कति। ढौकते। खनति। छादयति। घूर्णते। Please explain.

3. Can you spot the augment मुँक् in the verses?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-5 कालाध्वनोरत्यन्तसंयोगे been used in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘आ’ in the form जातम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जात’, नपुंसकलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) used in the commentary? Hint: We have seen this सूत्रम् in a prior comment.

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Even the gods are in the power of Providence.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘जा’ in the form समजायत?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-109 ये च been used in the commentary?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 5-4-7 अषडक्षाशितंग्वलंकर्मालंपुरुषाध्युत्तरपदात्ख: (used in step 6) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – नित्योऽयं ख:। उत्तरसूत्रे विभाषाग्रहणात्। Please explain.
    Answer: The affix ‘ख’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 5-4-7 is invariable – not optional. The hint is from the next सूत्रम् 5-4-8 विभाषाञ्चेरदिक्स्त्रियाम्। The fact that पाणिनिः has introduced विभाषा (optionality) in the सूत्रम् 5-4-8 is an indication that what is previous to 5-4-8 is not optional.

    2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-1-2 आयनेयीनीयियः फढखछघां प्रत्ययादीनाम् (used in step 7) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – प्रत्ययेति किम्? धातोरादीनां मा भूत्। फक्कति। ढौकते। खनति। छादयति। घूर्णते। Please explain.
    Answer: Why does the सूत्रम् 7-1-2 आयनेयीनीयियः फढखछघां प्रत्ययादीनाम्‌ specify the condition प्रत्ययादीनाम्‌ (occurring at the beginning of a प्रत्यय: – affix)? It is in order to prevent the substitutions (‘आयन्’, ‘एय्’, ‘ईन्’, ‘ईय्’ and ‘इय्’) from taking place when the letters ‘फ्’, ‘ढ्’, ‘ख्’, ‘छ्’ and ‘घ्’ are at the beginning of a verbal root. Consider the following examples क्कति, ढौकते, नति, छादयति and घूर्णते derived from the verbal roots फक्क् (फक्कँ निचैर्गतौ १.१२३), ढौक् (ढौकृँ गत्यर्थः १.१०३), खन् (खनुँ अवदारणे १.१०२०), छद् (छदँ अपवारणे १०.३७०) and घूर्ण् (घूर्णँ भ्रमणे १.५०६) respectively. Here the letters ‘फ्’, ‘ढ्’, ‘ख्’, ‘छ्’ and ‘घ्’ are at the beginning of verbal roots and therefore do not take the substitutions ‘आयन्’, ‘एय्’, ‘ईन्’, ‘ईय्’ and ‘इय्’ respectively.
    If the condition प्रत्ययादीनाम्‌ were not to be mentioned in the सूत्रम् 7-1-2 the substitutions would have taken place here also which would have been undesirable.

    3. Can you spot the augment मुँक् in the verses?
    Answer: The augment मुँक् occurs in the form रममाणस्य (प्रातिपदिकम् ’रममाण’, पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम्) – derived from the verbal root √रम् (रमुँ क्रीडायाम् | रमँ इति माधवः १. ९८९).

    रम् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्।
    = रम् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = रम् + शानच् । By 3-2-124 लटः शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे। Note: As per 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् the verbal root √रम् is आत्मनेपदी। Therefore √रम् takes the affix ‘शानच्’ which has the designation आत्मनेपदम् as per 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम् and not the affix ‘शतृँ’ (which has the designation परस्मैपदम् as per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्।)
    = रम् + आन । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = रम् + शप् + आन । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्।
    = रम् + अ + आन । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = रम मुँक् + आन । By 7-2-82 आने मुक् – A letter ‘अ’ belonging to a अङ्गम् takes the augment मुँक् when followed by ‘आन’। As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ – the augment मुँक् joins after the letter ‘अ’।
    = रम म् + आन । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = रममाण । By 8-4-2 अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेऽपि।

    ’रममाण’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

    4. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-5 कालाध्वनोरत्यन्तसंयोगे been used in the verses?
    Answer: The use of a second case affix in the form (बहून्) संवत्सरगणान् (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘संवत्सरगण’, द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्) is justified by the सूत्रम् 2-3-5 कालाध्वनोरत्यन्तसंयोगे – A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) denoting (measure of) time or (measure of) path/road when continuous connection (with a quality or action or thing) is meant.
    Here the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘संवत्सरगण’ (meaning ‘multitude of years’) denotes a measure of time which has continuous connection with the action of enjoying denoted by the the verbal root √रम् (रमुँ क्रीडायाम् | रमँ इति माधवः १. ९८९) present in the word रममाणस्य। Hence the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘संवत्सरगण’ – along with its adjective ‘बहु’ – takes a second case affix (‘शस्’) as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-5.

    5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘आ’ in the form जातम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जात’, नपुंसकलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) used in the commentary? Hint: We have seen this सूत्रम् in a prior comment.
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-4-42 जनसनखनां सञ्झलोः prescribes the substitution ‘आ’ in the form जातम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जात’, नपुंसकलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्)।

    Please see answer to advanced question 1 for derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जात’ – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/12/10/पक्वानाम्-ngp/#comment-10171

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “Even the gods are in the power of Providence.”
    देवा: अपि दैवाधीना: सन्ति = देवा अपि दैवाधीना: सन्ति।

    Easy questions:
    1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘जा’ in the form समजायत?
    Answer: The substitution ‘जा’ in the form समजायत is prescribed by the सूत्रम् 7-3-79 ज्ञाजनोर्जा – The verbal roots √ज्ञा (ज्ञा अवबोधने ९. ४३) and √जन् (जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४) are substituted by ‘जा’ when followed by a शित् (having the letter ’श्’ as a इत्) affix.

    Please see answer to question 4 in the following comment for derivation of the form समजायत – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/07/23/विवक्षोः-mgs/#comment-4075

    2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-109 ये च been used in the commentary?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-4-109 ये च has been used in the form कुर्यात् derived from the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०).

    Please see to question 3 in the following comment for derivation of the form कुर्यात् – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/08/20/सङ्गच्छन्ते-3ap-लँट्/#comment-4268

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