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राज्याय nDs

Today we will look at the form राज्याय nDs from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 1-1-34.

चित्रकूटं गते रामे पुत्रशोकातुरस्तदा ।। १-१-३२ ।।
राजा दशरथः स्वर्गं जगाम विलपन् सुतम् । गते तु तस्मिन् भरतो वसिष्ठप्रमुखैर्द्विजैः ।। १-१-३३ ।।
नियुज्यमानो राज्याय नैच्छद्राज्यं महाबलः । स जगाम वनं वीरो रामपादप्रसादकः ।। १-१-३४ ।।

Translation – Śrī Rāma having proceeded to Citrakūta (on foot as reported by the charioteer, who had since returned to Ayodhyā,) Emperor Daśaratha forthwith (gave up the ghost and) ascended to heaven bewailing his son, stricken as he was with grief at his separation from the latter. Though being urged to accept the throne by the Brāhmaṇas headed by the sage Vasiṣṭha (the family priest and preceptor of the kings of Ayodhyā,) on the king having departed (to the other world,) Bharata, who was very powerful, did not covet the throne. He proceeded to the forest in order to please the venerable Rāma (and persuade him to return to Ayodhyā and accept his father’s throne) (second half of 32 – 34).

राज्याय is चतुर्थी-एकवचनम् of the नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘राज्य’।

(1) राज्य + ङे । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per 2-3-14 क्रियार्थोपपदस्य च कर्मणि स्थानिनः – A fourth case affix (‘ङे’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used to denote the कर्म (object) of an implied (but not actually expressed) verbal participle ending in the affix ‘तुमुँन्’/’ण्वुल्’ (prescribed by 3-3-10 तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम्‌) which is in conjunction with another action done for the sake of the implied (future) action.
In the present example the implied verbal participle is कर्तुम्। Hence राज्याय stands for राज्यं कर्तुम्।

(2) राज्य + य । By 7-1-13 ङेर्यः – Following a प्रातिपदिकम् ending in the letter ‘अ’, the affix ‘ङे’ (चतुर्थी-एकवचनम्) is replaced by ‘य’।

(3) राज्याय । By 7-3-102 सुपि च – The ending letter ‘अ’ of a प्रातिपदिकम् is elongated if it is followed by a सुँप् affix beginning with a letter of the यञ्-प्रत्याहार:।


1. The वृत्ति: of the सूत्रम् 2-3-14 क्रियार्थोपपदस्य च कर्मणि स्थानिनः in the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी reads – क्रियार्था क्रिया उपपदं यस्य तस्य स्थानिनोऽप्रयुज्यमानस्य तुमुन: कर्मणि चतुर्थी स्यात्। Commenting on this वृत्ति: the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – तुमुन इति। ण्वुलोऽप्युपलक्षणम्। फलेभ्यो यातीत्यस्य फलान्याहारक इति विवरणे बाधकाभावात्। Please explain.

2. The fourth case affix prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-3-14 क्रियार्थोपपदस्य च कर्मणि स्थानिनः is a अपवाद: (exception) to which case affix?

3. In the verses can you spot two words in which the सूत्रम् 3-2-126 लक्षणहेत्वोः क्रियायाः has been used?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the letter ‘म्’ to arrive at the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गत’ (used in the form गते in the verses)?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I went to India to see the inauguration of a new temple in the village where I was born.” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उद्घाटन’ for ‘inauguration.’

6. Translate the same sentence (given in question 5 above) but this time paraphrase it suppressing the infinitive ‘to see’ –
“I went to India for the inauguration of a new temple in the village where I was born.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the वृद्धि: substitution in the form जगाम?

2. Can you spot the augment आट् in the verses?

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June 2014