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वायुना mIs

Today we will look at the form वायुना mIs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.8.44.

यथा मेढीस्तम्भ आक्रमणपशवः संयोजितास्त्रिभिस्त्रिभिः सवनैर्यथास्थानं मण्डलानि चरन्त्येवं भगणा ग्रहादय एतस्मिन्नन्तर्बहिर्योगेन कालचक्र आयोजिता ध्रुवमेवावलम्ब्य वायुनोदीर्यमाणा आकल्पान्तं परिचङ्क्रमन्ति नभसि यथा मेघाः श्येनादयो वायुवशाः कर्मसारथयः परिवर्तन्ते एवं ज्योतिर्गणाः प्रकृतिपुरुषसंयोगानुगृहीताः कर्मनिर्मितगतयो भुवि न पतन्ति ॥ ५-२३-३ ॥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
मेढीस्तम्भे बद्धा धान्याक्रमणपशवो बलीवर्दाः । कर्म सारथिः सहायो येषाम् ॥ ३ ॥

Gita Press translation – Just as (pairs of) oxen, trampling corn (in order to thresh it) while (remaining) tied to a post in the middle of a threshing-floor, walk round in their respective spheres, in three circles (gradually receding from that post,) so the host of luminaries including the planets – fastened as they are to the aforesaid wheel (revolving movement) of Time either in the inner circle (remote from the earth) or in the outer one (nearer the earth) and propelled by the wind (called Pravaha and referred to passage 8 of the Discourse XXI) – revolve round the pole-star as the pivot till the end of a Kalpa (the life-time of the three worlds) in three courses (northward, southward and along the equator.) (And just) as clouds and birds such as the hawk move about in the sky, suspended in the air and helped by their destiny (which keeps them floating in the air and prevents them from falling down,) so the hosts of luminaries (which are no other than particular Jīvas appearing in those form) – brought into existence by the union of matter and Spirit (occasioned by the destiny responsible for their assuming such forms) and reaping the fruit yielded by their (past) actions – (move about in the air and) do not fall to the ground (3).

This verse has appeared previously in the following post – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/07/31/परिचङ्क्रमन्ति-3ap-लँट्/

वायुना is तृतीया-एकवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वायु’।
Here ‘वायु’ has the कर्तृ-सञ्ज्ञा by the 1-4-54 स्वतन्त्रः कर्ता। The participle उदीर्यमाणा: has expressed the object भगणा: and not ‘वायु’। Hence ‘वायु’ takes the third case affix (‘टा’) by the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया – A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) is used to denote कर्ता (the doer of the action) as well as करणम् (the instrument of the action) provided the doer/instrument has not been expressed otherwise.

(1) वायु + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्, 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया। ‘वायु’ gets the घि-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि।

(2) वायु + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) वायुना । By 7-3-120 आङो नाऽस्त्रियाम् – Following a अङ्गम् having घि-सञ्ज्ञा, the affix ‘आङ्’ is replaced by ‘ना’, but not in the feminine gender. ‘आङ्’ is an ancient name for the (instrumental singular) affix ‘टा’।

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया been used for the last time in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – अनभिहिते किम्? हरि: करोति। Please explain.

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ been used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the letter ‘न्’ in बद्धा: (used in the commentary)?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Rāvaṇa was killed by Śrī Rāma.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“We are all being propelled by destiny.” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दैव’ for ‘destiny.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-77 अचि श्नुधातुभ्रुवां य्वोरियङुवङौ been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘अन्त्’ in परिवर्तन्ते?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया been used for the last time in the गीता?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया has been used for the last time in the गीता in the form मया (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अस्मद्’, तृतीया-एकवचनम्)।
    अर्जुन उवाच |
    नष्टो मोहः स्मृतिर्लब्धा त्वत्प्रसादान्मयाच्युत |
    स्थितोऽस्मि गतसन्देहः करिष्ये वचनं तव || 18-73||

    2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – अनभिहिते किम्? हरि: करोति। Please explain.
    Answer: Why does the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया contain the condition अनभिहिते (provided the doer/instrument has not been expressed otherwise)? Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of अनभिहिते comes down from the सूत्रम् 2-3-1 अनभिहिते in to the सूत्रम् 2-3-18.
    In order to understand the significance of this condition consider the example हरि: करोति। Here the doer ‘हरि’ is already expressed by the verb करोति (कर्तरि-प्रयोगः, लँट् प्रथमपुरुषः, एकवचनम्।) Since करोति is a third-person singular form it tells us that the doer is a third-person singular. This is how the doer ‘हरि’ is expressed by the verb करोति and hence the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 does not apply here. ‘हरि’ does not take a third case affix. It instead takes the default first case affix as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-46 प्रातिपदिकार्थलिङ्गपरिमाणवचनमात्रे प्रथमा।
    If the condition अनभिहिते were not to be stated, the doer ‘हरि’ would have taken a third case affix in this example, which would have been undesirable.

    3. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ has been used in the form अवलम्ब्य – derived from the verbal root √लम्ब् (लबिँ अवस्रंसने च १. ४३९).

    The ending letter ‘इ’ of ‘लबिँ’ gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्। Therefore this verbal root is a इदित्।

    लबिँ = लब् । By 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = ल नुँम् ब् । By 7-1-58 इदितो नुम् धातोः, 1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः।
    = ल न् ब् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = लं ब् । By 8-3-24 नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि।
    = लम्ब् । By 8-4-58 अनुस्वारस्य ययि परसवर्णः।

    लम्ब् + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले।
    Note: Here the common agent of the actions अवलम्ब्य (pivoting) and परिचङ्क्रमन्ति (revolve) is भगणाः (the host of luminaries.) The earlier of the two actions is the action of pivoting which is denoted by ‘अव + लम्ब्’ and hence takes the affix ‘क्त्वा’/’ल्यप्’।
    = अव लम्ब् + क्त्वा । ‘लम्ब् + क्त्वा’ is compounded with ‘अव’ using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः।
    = अव लम्ब् + ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ – When the affix ‘क्त्वा’ occurs at the end of a compound, it is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ provided the prior member of the compound is a अव्‍ययम् other than ‘नञ्’ (ref. 2-2-6). The entire term ‘क्त्वा’ is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य।
    Note: As per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ, the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) inherits the property of being a कित् (having the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) affix with the designation of कृत् (by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and आर्धधातुकम् (by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।)
    = अव लम्ब् + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    Note: Since the affix ‘य’ begins with the letter ‘य्’ (which does not belong to the प्रत्याहार: ‘वल्’) it cannot take the augment ‘इट्’ prescribed the सूत्रम् 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः।
    = अवलम्ब्य ।
    ‘अवलम्ब्य’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः।

    4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the letter ‘न्’ in बद्धा: (used in the commentary)?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-4-24 अनिदितां हल उपधायाः क्ङिति is used for the elision of the letter ‘न्’ in बद्धा: (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘बद्ध’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) – derived from the verbal root √बन्ध् (बन्धँ बन्धने # ९. ४४).

    Please see answer to question 4 in the following comment for derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘बद्ध’ – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/11/22/ज्ञातः-mns/#comment-7150

    5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “Rāvaṇa was killed by Śrī Rāma.”
    Answer: श्रीरामेण रावणः हतः = श्रीरामेण रावणो हतः।

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “We are all being propelled by destiny.” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दैव’ for ‘destiny.’
    Answer: वयम् सर्वे दैवेन उदीर्यमाणाः स्म: = वयं सर्वे दैवेनोदीर्यमाणाः स्म:।

    Easy questions:

    1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-77 अचि श्नुधातुभ्रुवां य्वोरियङुवङौ been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-4-77 अचि श्नुधातुभ्रुवां य्वोरियङुवङौ has been used in the form भुवि (स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भू’, सप्तमी-एकवचनम्)।

    Please see answer to easy question 2 in the following comment for the derivation of the form भुवि – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2013/02/05/खनित्रैः-nip/#comment-18319

    2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘अन्त्’ in परिवर्तन्ते?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः prescribes the substitution ‘अन्त्’ in परिवर्तन्ते – derived from the verbal root √वृत् (वृतुँ वर्तने १. ८६२).

    The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि-प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्।
    वृत् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्।
    = वृत् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = वृत् + झ । By 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्, 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम्।
    = वृत् + झे । By 3-4-79 टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे, 1-1-64 अचोऽन्त्यादि टि।
    Note: As per the सूत्रम् 1-1-64 अचोऽन्त्यादि टि the ‘टि’ portion of the affix ‘झ’ is ‘अ’। This portion gets replaced by the letter ‘ए’।
    = वृत् + शप् + झे । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्।
    = वृत् + अ + झे । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = वर्त् + अ + झे । By 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य, 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः।
    = वर्त् + अ + अन्ते । By 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः – ‘अन्त्’ comes in as a replacement for the letter ‘झ्’ of an affix.
    = वर्तन्ते । By 6-1-97 अतो गुणे।

    ‘परि’ is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे, 1-4-80 ते प्राग्धातोः।)
    परि + वर्तन्ते = परिवर्तन्ते ।

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