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मन्दम् nAs

Today we will look at the form मन्दम् nAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.8.44.

सूत उवाच
पृथयेत्थं कलपदैः परिणूताखिलोदयः । मन्दं जहास वैकुण्ठो मोहयन्निव मायया ।। १-८-४४ ।।
तां बाढमित्युपामन्त्र्य प्रविश्य गजसाह्वयम् । स्त्रियश्च स्वपुरं यास्यन्प्रेम्णा राज्ञा निवारितः ।। १-८-४५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
कलानि मधुराणि पदानि येषु तैर्वाक्यैः परिणूतः स्तुतोऽखिल उदयो महिमा यस्य सः । णु स्तुतावित्यस्मात् । परिणुतेति वक्तव्ये दीर्घश्छन्दोनुरोधेन । मन्दमीषत् । तस्य हास एव माया । वक्ष्यति हि ‘हासो जनोन्मादकरी च माया’ इति ।। ४४ ।। त्वयि मेऽनन्यविषया मतिरिति यत्प्रार्थितं तद्बाढमित्यङ्गीकृत्य रथस्थानाद्गजसाह्वयमागत्य पश्चात्तां चान्याश्च सुभद्राप्रमुखाः स्त्रिय उपामन्त्र्यानुज्ञाप्य स्वपुरं यास्यन् राज्ञा युधिष्ठिरेण प्रेम्णाऽत्रैव किंचित्कालं निवसेति संप्रार्थ्य निवारितः ।। ४५ ।।

Gita Press translation – Sūta went on: In this way when Pṛthā (Kuntī) extolled in sweet words the consummate glory of Lord Vaikuṇṭha (Śrī Kṛṣṇa,) He gently smiled as if bewitching her by His Māyā (deluding potency) (44). “So be it,” said Śrī Kṛṣṇa and, taking leave of her, entered the city of Hastināpura once again; then, after bidding adieu to the other ladies as well, He was about to leave for Dwārakā when king Yudhiṣṭhira detained Him out of love (45).

मन्दम् is नपुंसकलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम् of the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मन्द’।

‘मन्द’ gets the designation कर्म by the वार्तिकम् (under 2-4-18 अव्ययीभावश्च in the काशिका) क्रियाविशेषणानां कर्मत्वं नपुंसकत्वमेकवचनान्तत्वं चेष्यते – Adverbs are treated as having the designation कर्म (object) and are used in the neuter singular.

(1) मन्द + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्, वार्तिकम् (under 2-4-18 अव्ययीभावश्च in the काशिका) क्रियाविशेषणानां कर्मत्वं नपुंसकत्वमेकवचनान्तत्वं चेष्यते, 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया

(2) मन्द + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा । Note: 7-1-24 अतोऽम् is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.

(3) मन्दम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 2-4-18 अव्ययीभावश्च in the काशिका) क्रियाविशेषणानां कर्मत्वं नपुंसकत्वमेकवचनान्तत्वं चेष्यते been used in verses 10-15 in Chapter Five of the गीता?

2. Why is the form ‘परिणूत’ (used as part of the compound परिणूताखिलोदयः) a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (irregular grammatical usage)?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-3-14 लृटः सद् वा been used in the verses?

4. Can you spot the affix ‘ट’ in the commentary?

5. Is there an alternate form for आगत्य (used in the commentary)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“My mother is a good cook.” Paraphrase to “My mother cooks well (in a good manner.)” Use the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शोभन’ (meaning ‘good’) as an adverb.

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-134 अल्लोपोऽनः been used in the verses?

2. In the commentary, can you spot a word in which the affix ‘हि’ has taken the लुक् elision?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 2-4-18 अव्ययीभावश्च in the काशिका) क्रियाविशेषणानां कर्मत्वं नपुंसकत्वमेकवचनान्तत्वं चेष्यते been used in verses 10-15 in Chapter Five of the गीता?
    Answer: The वार्तिकम् (under 2-4-18 अव्ययीभावश्च in the काशिका) क्रियाविशेषणानां कर्मत्वं नपुंसकत्वमेकवचनान्तत्वं चेष्यते has been used in verses 10-15 in Chapter Five of the गीता in the form सुखम् (नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम्‌ ‘सुख’, द्वितीया-एकवचनम्)। सुखम् is used here as an adverb to आस्ते।
    सर्वकर्माणि मनसा संन्यस्यास्ते सुखं वशी |
    नवद्वारे पुरे देही नैव कुर्वन्न कारयन्‌ || 5-13||

    2. Why is the form ‘परिणूत’ (used as part of the compound परिणूताखिलोदयः) a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (irregular grammatical usage)?
    Answer: The grammatically correct form should be ‘परिणुत’ – derived from the verbal root √नु (णु स्तुतौ २. ३०).
    The commentary says ‘परिणुतेति वक्तव्ये दीर्घश्छन्दोनुरोधेन।’ – In order to satisfy the meter, the letter ‘उ’ of the verbal root √नु has been (irregularly) elongated in the form ‘परिणूत’ used in the verses.

    Derivation is as follows –
    परि नु + क्त । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा।
    = परि नु + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: 7-2-11 श्र्युकः क्किति prevents the affix ‘त’ from taking the augment ‘इट्’ which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः।
    = परिणुत । By 8-4-14 उपसर्गादसमासेऽपि णोपदेशस्य।

    3. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-3-14 लृटः सद् वा been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-3-14 लृटः सद् वा has been used in the form यास्यन्√या (या प्रापणे #२. ४४).

    Please see the following post for the derivation – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2013/01/03/यास्यन्-mns/

    4. Can you spot the affix ‘ट’ in the commentary?
    Answer: The affix ‘ट’ is used in the form जनोन्मादकरी (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जनोन्मादकरी’, स्त्रीलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्)।

    जनोन्मादं करोति तच्छीला = जनोन्मादकरी (माया)।

    ‘कर’ is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे, # ८. १०).
    The (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जनोन्मादकर’ is derived as follows:
    जनोन्माद + ङस् + कृ + । By 3-2-20 कृञो हेतुताच्छील्यानुलोम्येषु – When in composition with a पदम् which denotes the object (of the action), the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे, # ८. १०) may take the affix ‘ट’ to express the meaning of a cause or habitual/natural action or amiability (going with the grain.) ‘जनोन्माद ङस्’ gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌। Note: The affix ‘ङस्’ is used here as per 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति।
    = जनोन्माद + ङस् + कृ + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = जनोन्माद ङस् + कर् अ । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः।
    = जनोन्माद ङस् + कर ।

    We form a compound between ‘जनोन्माद ङस्’ (which is the उपपदम्) and ‘कर’ by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्।

    In the compound, ‘जनोन्माद ङस्’ is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌। Note: Here ‘जनोन्माद ङस्’ is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम्।
    ‘जनोन्माद ङस् + कर’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।
    = जनोन्मादकर । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः।

    The feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जनोन्मादकरी’ is derived as follows:
    जनोन्मादकर + ङीप् । By 4-1-15 टिड्ढाणञ्द्वयसज्दघ्नञ्मात्रच्तयप्ठक्ठञ्कञ्क्वरपः।
    = जनोन्मादकर + ई । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। The अङ्गम् ‘जनोन्मादकर’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here by 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.
    = जनोन्मादकर् + ई । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च, 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य।
    = जनोन्मादकरी ।

    5. Is there an alternate form for आगत्य (used in the commentary)?
    Answer: The alternate form is आगम्य। The verbal root used in आगत्य/आगम्य is √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७). Note: Here the common agent of the actions आगत्य (having entered) and यास्यन् (taking leave) is श्रीकृष्णः।

    Derivation of आगम्य is similar to that of the form उपसङ्गम्य shown in the following post – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2013/06/21/उपसङ्गम्य-ind/
    The only difference is that while in the post the उपसर्गौ ‘उप’ and ‘सम्’ are used, in the current example the उपसर्गः ‘आङ्’ is used.

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “My mother is a good cook.” Paraphrase to “My mother cooks well (in a good manner.)” Use the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शोभन’ (meaning ‘good’) as an adverb.
    Answer: मम माता शोभनम् पचति = मम माता शोभनं पचति।

    Easy questions:

    1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-134 अल्लोपोऽनः been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-4-134 अल्लोपोऽनः has been used in the form प्रेम्णा (पुंलिङ्ग/नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रेमन्’, तृतीया-एकवचनम्) and राज्ञा (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘राजन्’, तृतीया-एकवचनम्)

    Please see the following post for the derivation of the form प्रेम्णा –
    http://avg-sanskrit.org/2010/12/22/प्रेम्णा-mis/

    Please see answer to easy question 2 for the derivation of the form राज्ञा
    http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/09/18/भोज्येषु-nlp/#comment-4487

    2. In the commentary, can you spot a word in which the affix ‘हि’ has taken the लुक् elision?
    Answer: The affix ‘हि’ has taken the लुक् elision in the form निवस derived from the verbal root √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०).

    Please refer to the following post for the derivation of the form वस –
    http://avg-sanskrit.org/2011/05/19/वस-2as-लोँट्/

    ‘नि’ is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे, 1-4-80 ते प्राग्धातोः।)
    नि + वस = निवस ।

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