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विस्तारम् mAs

Today we will look at the form विस्तारम् mAs from श्रीमद्भागवद्गीता 13.31.

समं पश्यन्हि सर्वत्र समवस्थितमीश्वरम्‌ । न हिनस्त्यात्मनात्मानं ततो याति परां गतिम्‌ ।। १३-२९ ।।
प्रकृत्यैव च कर्माणि क्रियमाणानि सर्वशः । यः पश्यति तथात्मानमकर्तारं स पश्यति ।। १३-३० ।।
यदा भूतपृथग्भावमेकस्थमनुपश्यति । तत एव च विस्तारं ब्रह्म सम्पद्यते तदा ।। १३-३१ ।।

Gita Press translation – For, by seeing the Supreme Lord equally present in all, he does not kill the Self by himself, and thereby attains the supreme state (29). He who sees that all actions are performed in every way by nature (Prakṛti) and the Self as the non-doer, he alone verily sees (30). The moment man perceives the diversified existence of beings as rooted in the one supreme Spirit, and the spreading forth of all beings from the same, that very moment he attains Brahma (who is Truth, Consciousness and Bliss solidified) (31).

प्रथनं विस्तार:।

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विस्तार’ is derived from the verbal root √स्तॄ (स्तॄञ् आच्छादने ९. १७) along with the उपसर्ग: ‘वि’।

(1) वि स्तॄ + घञ् । By 3-3-33 प्रथने वावशब्दे – To derive a word meaning प्रथनम् (expanse/extent) not related to speech, the affix घञ् may be used following the verbal root √स्तॄ (स्तॄञ् आच्छादने ९. १७) when in conjunction with उपसर्ग: ‘वि’।

(2) वि स्तॄ + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) वि स्तर् + अ । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः – An अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows. As per 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (“अ”, “इ”, “उ”) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a “रँ” (“र्”, “ल्”) letter.

(4) वि स्तार् + अ । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः – A penultimate (उपधा) अकार: of a अङ्गम् gets वृद्धिः as the substitute when followed by a प्रत्ययः which is a ञित् or a णित्।

= विस्तार ।

‘विस्तार’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: घञबन्त: (लिङ्गानुशासनम् २.२) – A प्रातिपदिकम् ending in the affix ‘घञ्’ or ‘अप्’ is used in the masculine gender.

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्

(5) विस्तार + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending मकारः of ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(6) विस्तारम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-3-33 प्रथने वावशब्दे (used in step 1) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – प्रथने किम्? तृणविस्तर:। Please explain.

2. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अशब्दे किम्? ग्रन्थविस्तर:। Please explain.

3. Can you spot the substitution ‘शतृँ’ in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘वरच्’ in ‘ईश्वर’?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-82 आने मुक् been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The expanse of the sky is endless.” Paraphrase to “The end of the expanse of the sky does not exist.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the नकारलोप: (elision of the letter ‘न्’) in the form हिनस्ति?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः been used in the verses?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-3-33 प्रथने वावशब्दे (used in step 1) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – प्रथने किम्? तृणविस्तर:। Please explain.
    Answer: By the सूत्रम् 3-3-33 प्रथने वावशब्दे – To derive a word meaning प्रथनम् (expanse/extent) not related to speech, the affix घञ् may be used following the verbal root √स्तॄ (स्तॄञ् आच्छादने ९. १७) when in conjunction with उपसर्ग: ‘वि’।

    In the form तृणविस्तर: (which means ‘a covering of grass’) the verbal root √स्तॄ (स्तॄञ् आच्छादने ९. १७) is not used in the meaning of expanse/extent, but is used to indicate an envelope or covering. Therefore, even though all other conditions are satisfied, the सूत्रम् 3-3-33 does not apply. The verbal root √स्तॄ instead takes the affix ‘अप्’ prescribed by the सू्त्रम् 3-3-57 ॠदोरप्‌ and not the affix ‘घञ्’ prescribed by 3-3-33.

    The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विस्तर’ is derived from the verbal root √स्तॄ (स्तॄञ् आच्छादने ९. १७) along with the उपसर्ग: ‘वि’ as follows –

    वि स्तॄ + अप् । By 3-3-57 ॠदोरप्‌।
    = वि स्तॄ + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = वि स्तर् + अ । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः।
    = विस्तर । ‘विस्तर’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

    2. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अशब्दे किम्? ग्रन्थविस्तर:। Please explain.
    Answer: In the ग्रन्थविस्तर: there is the meaning of expanse/extent, but is used in the context of speech. Hence the सूत्रम् 3-3-33 does not apply. Therefore the verbal root √स्तॄ (स्तॄञ् आच्छादने ९. १७) takes the affix ‘अप्’ prescribed by the सू्त्रम् 3-3-57 ॠदोरप्‌ and not the affix ‘घञ्’ prescribed by 3-3-33.

    3. Can you spot the substitution ‘शतृँ’ in the verses?
    Answer: The substitution ‘शतृँ’ is used in the form पश्यन् derived from the verbal root √दृश् (दृशिँर् प्रेक्षणे १. ११४३).

    Please see answer to question 1 in the following comment – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/12/26/गायन्त्यः-fnp/#comment-10552

    4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘वरच्’ in ‘ईश्वर’?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-2-175 स्थेशभासपिसकसो वरच् prescribes the affix ‘वरच्’ in ‘ईश्वर’।

    Please see answer to question 2 in the following comment for derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ईश्वर’ – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2013/01/24/स्थावरैः-nip/#comment-18164

    5. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-82 आने मुक् been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 7-2-82 आने मुक् has been used in the form क्रियमाणानि (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘क्रियमाण’, नपुंसकलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्)।

    Please see answer to question 5 in the following comment – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2013/03/13/स्तवः-mns/#comment-18929

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “The expanse of the sky is endless.” Paraphrase to “The end of the expanse of the sky does not exist.”
    Answer: आकाशस्य/व्योम्नः विस्तारस्य अन्तः न अस्ति = आकाशस्य/व्योम्नो विस्तारस्यान्तो नास्ति।

    Easy questions:

    1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the नकारलोप: (elision of the letter ‘न्’) in the form हिनस्ति?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-4-23 श्नान्नलोपः is used for the नकारलोप: in the form हिनस्ति derived from the verbal root √हिन्स् (रुधादि-गणः, हिसिँ हिंसायाम्, धातु-पाठः # ७. १९).
    Please see answer to question 1 in the following comment for the derivation of the form हिनस्ति –
    http://avg-sanskrit.org/2011/10/24/हिंस्यात्-3as-विधिलिँङ्/#comment-1493

    2. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः has been used in the form याति derived from √या (या प्रापणे, अदादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः २. ४४).
    Please see answer to easy question 2 in the following comment – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/08/16/महीयते-3as-लँट्/#comment-4258

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