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भीरुः fNs

Today we will look at the form भीरुः fNs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 5.31.17

यथारूपां यथावर्णां यथालक्ष्मवतीं च ताम् ।। ५-३१-१५ ।।
अश्रौषं राघवस्याहं सेयमासादिता मया । विररामैवमुक्त्वासौ वाचं वानरपुङ्गवः ।। ५-३१-१६ ।।
जानकी चापि तच्छ्रुत्वा विस्मयं परमं गता । ततः सा वक्रकेशान्ता सुकेशी केशसंवृतम् । उन्नम्य वदनं भीरुः शिंशपावृक्षमैक्षत |।। ५-३१-१७ ।।
निशम्य सीता वचनं कपेश्च दिशश्च सर्वाः प्रदिशश्च वीक्ष्य । स्वयं प्रहर्षं परमं जगाम सर्वात्मना राममनुस्मरन्ती ।। ५-३१-१८ ।।
सा तिर्यगूर्ध्वं च तथा ह्यधस्तान्निरीक्षमाणा तमचिन्त्यबुद्धिम् । ददर्श पिङ्गाधिपतेरमात्यं वातात्मजं सूर्यमिवोदयस्थम् ।। ५-३१-१९ ।।

Gita Press translation – “She has been found by me here endowed with a comeliness, complexion and bodily marks similar to those of which I had heard from the mouth of Śrī Rāma (a scion of Raghu).” Having delivered the aforesaid speech that bull among monkeys fell silent (latter half of verse 15-16). Sītā (Janaka’s daughter) herself was struck with supreme wonder to hear that speech. Raising her face screened with (dishevelled) hair, that timid lady with charming curly locks thereupon looked up into the Śiṁśapā tree (on which Hanumān was perched) (17) Hearing the monkey’s speech and looking inquiringly into all the (four) quarters as well as into the intermediate points, Sītā experienced supreme rapture thinking (all the time) of Śrī Rāma with all her being (18). Glancing from side to side as well as up and down, she espied the aforesaid Hanumān (son of the wind-god) of inconceivable intelligence, a minister of Sugrīva (the suzerain ruler of monkeys), and resembling the sun risen on the eastern mountain (19).

बिभेति तच्छीला = भीरु: ।

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भीरु’ is derived from the verbal root √भी (ञिभी भये ३. २).

(1) भी + क्रु । By 3-2-174 भियः क्रुक्लुकनौ – To denote an agent who performs an action because of his nature/habit or sense of duty or skill, the affix ‘क्रु’ as well as ‘क्लुकन्’ may be used following the verbal root √भी (ञिभी भये ३. २). See question 1.

(2) भी + रु । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च stops 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः। Note: The affix ‘रु’ is prohibited from taking the augment ‘इट्’ by 7-2-8 नेड् वशि कृति – A कृत् affix (ref. 3-1-93) beginning with a letter of the ‘वश्’ प्रत्याहार: is prohibited from taking the augment ‘इट्’।

= भीरु ।

‘भीरु’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds get the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is स्त्रीलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(3) भीरु + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(4) भीरु + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(5) भीरुः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. What would be the final form in this example if the affix ‘क्लुकन्’ were to be used (instead of ‘क्रु’)? What would it be is the affix ‘क्रुकन्’ were to be used (by the वार्तिकम् – क्रुकन्नपि वाच्य:)?

2. Can you recall two other सूत्रे (besides 3-2-174 भियः क्रुक्लुकनौ) which apply only to the verbal root √भी (ञिभी भये ३. २)?

3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the वृद्धि: substitution in अश्रौषम्?

4. Can you spot the augment ‘नुँम्’ in the verses?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-52 निष्ठायां सेटि been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Even though I am not timid (by nature), I still feel afraid in this empty house at night.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शून्य’ for ’empty.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-111 घेर्ङिति been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot the augment ‘आट्’ in a तिङन्तं पदम् in the verses?


1 Comment

  1. 1. What would be the final form in this example if the affix ‘क्लुकन्’ were to be used (instead of ‘क्रु’)? What would it be is the affix ‘क्रुकन्’ were to be used (by the वार्तिकम् – क्रुकन्नपि वाच्य:)?
    Answer: If the affix ‘क्लुकन्’ were to be used the form would be भीलुकः।

    भी + क्लुकन् । By 3-2-174 भियः क्रुक्लुकनौ – To denote an agent who performs an action because of his nature/habit or sense of duty or skill, the affix ‘क्रु’ as well as ‘क्लुकन्’ may be used following the verbal root √भी (ञिभी भये ३. २).
    = भी + लुक । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च stops 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः। Note: The affix ‘लुक’ is prohibited from taking the augment ‘इट्’ by 7-2-8 नेड् वशि कृति।
    = भीलुक । ‘भीलुक’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

    If the affix ‘क्रुकन्’ were to be used (by the वार्तिकम् – क्रुकन्नपि वाच्य:) the form would be भीरुकः।
    भी + क्रुकन् । By the वार्तिकम् – क्रुकन्नपि वाच्य: – (To denote an agent who performs an action because of his nature/habit or sense of duty or skill,) the affix ‘क्रुकन्’ may also be used (in addition to the affixes ‘क्रु’ and ‘क्लुकन्’) following the verbal root √भी (ञिभी भये ३. २).
    = भी + रुक । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च stops 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः। Note: The affix ‘रुक’ is prohibited from taking the augment ‘इट्’ by 7-2-8 नेड् वशि कृति।
    = भीरुक । ‘भीरुक’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

    2. Can you recall two other सूत्रे (besides 3-2-174 भियः क्रुक्लुकनौ) which apply only to the verbal root √भी (ञिभी भये ३. २)?
    Answer: The following two सूत्रे apply only to the verbal root √भी (ञिभी भये ३. २) –
    i) 6-1-56 बिभेतेर्हेतुभये – There is optionally a substitution of the letter ‘आ’ in place of the एच् (‘ए’, ‘ओ’, ‘ऐ’, ‘औ’) letter of the verbal root √भी (ञिभी भये ३. २) if the हेतु: (ref. 1-4-55) is directly the cause of the fear.

    ii) 7-3-40 भियो हेतुभये षुक् – The verbal root √भी (ञिभी भये ३. २) – when it ends in the letter ‘ई’ – takes the augment ‘षुँक्’ when the affix ‘णि’ follows and the हेतु: (ref. 1-4-55) is directly the cause of the fear.

    3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the वृद्धि: substitution in अश्रौषम्?
    Answer: The वृद्धि: substitution in अश्रौषम् is prescribed by the सूत्रम् 7-2-1 सिचि वृद्धिः परस्मैपदेषु – (The ending letter of) a base (अङ्गम्) which ends in a इक् letter takes the वृद्धि: substitute when followed by the affix सिँच् which is in turn followed by a परस्मैपदम् affix.

    Please see answer to question 1 in the following comment for the derivation of the form अश्रौषम् – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/04/23/अश्रौष्म-1ap-लुँङ्/#comment-3665

    4. Can you spot the augment ‘नुँम्’ in the verses?
    Answer: The augment ‘नुँम्’ is used in the form अनुस्मरन्ती (स्त्रीलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्)।

    The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अनुस्मरन्ती’ is derived from the verbal root √स्मृ (स्मृ चिन्तायाम् १. १०८२) as follows –

    स्मृ + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्।
    = स्मृ + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = स्मृ + शतृँ । 3-2-126 लक्षणहेत्वोः क्रियायाः, 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्।
    = स्मृ + अत् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = स्मृ + शप् + अत् । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌।
    = स्मृ + अ + अत् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = स्मर् + अ + अत् । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः।
    = स्मरत् । By 6-1-97 अतो गुणे। Note: Recall the सूत्रम् 6-1-85 अन्तादिवच्च – When a single substitute comes (using 6-1-84) in place of the preceding and the following element, then that single substitute is treated as final (अन्त:) of what precedes as well as initial (आदि:) of what follows. In the present case, what precedes is the ending letter ‘अ’ of ‘स्मर’ and what follows is the beginning letter ‘अ’ of ‘अत्’ and after applying 6-1-97 we get ‘स्मरत्’। Now 6-1-85 allows us to treat ‘स्मरत्’ as (i) स्मर + त् as well as (ii) स्मर् + अत्। Below we will treat it as स्मर + त् allowing us to satisfy the conditions for applying 7-1-81.

    अनु + स्मरत् । ‘स्मरत्’ is compounded with the उपसर्गः ‘अनु’ using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः।
    = अनुस्मरत् । ‘अनुस्मरत्’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

    Now we derive the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अनुस्मरन्ती’ –
    अनुस्मरत् + ङीप् । By 4-1-6 उगितश्च। Note: ‘अनुस्मरत्’ ends in the affix ‘शतृँ’ which is a उगित् because it has the letter ‘ऋ’ (which belongs to the प्रत्याहार: ‘उक्’) as a इत्। This allows us to apply 4-1-6.
    = अनुस्मरत् + ई । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = अनुस्मर नुँम् त् + ई । By 7-1-81 शप्श्यनोर्नित्यम् – When a term (‘त्’) which is part of a शतृँ-प्रत्यय: follows a अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) belonging to the शप्/श्यन्-प्रत्यय:, then a अङ्गम् ending in such a term always takes the नुँम् augment when the शी-प्रत्यय: or the feminine ङी-प्रत्यय: follows. As per 1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः, the नुँम् augment joins after the last vowel (letter ‘अ’) of ‘अनुस्मरत्’।
    = अनुस्मरन्ती । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = अनुस्मरंती । By 8-3-24 नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि ।
    = अनुस्मरन्ती । By 8-4-58 अनुस्वारस्य ययि परसवर्णः।

    5. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-52 निष्ठायां सेटि been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-4-52 निष्ठायां सेटि has been used in the form आसादिता (स्त्रीलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्)।

    ‘आसादिता’ is derived from a causative form of the verbal root सद् (षदॢँ विशरणगत्यवसादनेषु १. ९९०) along with the उपसर्गः ‘आङ्’।

    The ending letter ‘ऌ’ of the verbal root ‘षदॢँ’ gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। The beginning letter ‘ष्’ is replaced by the letter ‘स्’ as per 6-1-64 धात्वादेः षः सः।

    सद् + णिच् । By 3-1-26 हेतुमति।
    = सद् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = साद् + इ । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः।
    = सादि । ‘सादि’ gets the धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः।

    आङ् सादि + क्त । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा, 3-4-70 तयोरेव कृत्यक्तखलर्थाः।
    = आ सादि + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = आ सादि + इट् त । By 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः, 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ।
    = आ सादि + इ त । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = आ साद् + इत । By 6-4-52 निष्ठायां सेटि – The affix ‘णि’ is elided when followed by a निष्ठा affix (ref. 1-1-26) which has taken the augment ‘इट्’।
    = आसादित ।

    ‘आसादित’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

    The स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आसादिता’ is derived as follows:
    आसादित + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌।
    = आसादित + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = आसादिता । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः।

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “Even though I am not timid (by nature), I still feel afraid in this empty house at night.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शून्य’ for ’empty.’
    Answer: यद्यपि न अहं भीरुः तथापि अस्मिन् शून्ये गृहे रात्रौ बिभेमि = यद्यपि नाहं भीरुस्तथाप्यस्मिञ् शून्ये गृहे रात्रौ बिभेमि ।

    Easy questions:

    1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-111 घेर्ङिति been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 7-3-111 घेर्ङिति has been used in the form कपेः (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कपि’, षष्ठी-एकवचनम्)।

    कपि + ङस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। ‘कपि’ has the घि-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘ङस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
    = कपि + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = कपे + अस् । By 7-3-111 घेर्ङिति, when a ङित् सुँप् affix follows, then a अङ्गम् having the घि-सञ्ज्ञा takes the गुण: substitution. Note: As per 1-1-52, the गुण: substitution takes place for the ending letter (in this case the letter ‘इ’) of the अङ्गम्।
    = कपेस् । By 6-1-110 ङसिङसोश्च।
    = कपेः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः।

    2. Can you spot the augment ‘आट्’ in a तिङन्तं पदम् in the verses?
    Answer: The augment ‘आट्’ in a तिङन्तं पदम् is seen in the form ऐक्षत।

    Please see the following post for derivation of the form ऐक्षत – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2011/07/06/ऐक्षत-3as-लँङ्/

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